+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

PSYCHOLOGY 213 ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 3 ASSIGNMENT

CHAPTER 3.

Define Psychological Assessment.

Define Intake and its components (there are 7).

What are the parts of the MSE (Mental Status Exam) (there are 10)?

Define psychomotor agitation, psychomotor retardation, and catatonia.

Define obsession and delusion.

What is the difference between affect and mood?

Define hallucination and give some examples.

Define tangentiality, confabulation, echolalia, perseveration, and pressure of speech.

What is the test we use today for intelligence?

Define MMPI, Rorschach, TAT, MRI, and EEG.

Abnormal
Psychology
Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders 5e
Richard P. Halgin
Susan Krauss Whitbourne
University of Massachusetts at Amherst
slides by Travis Langley
Henderson State University
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Assessment
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
What Is Psychological
Assessment?
Assessment:
A procedure in which a clinician evaluates
a person in terms of the psychological,
physical, and social factors that influence
the individual’s functioning.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Interview (Intake)
The unstructured interview involves
a series of open-ended questions.
Information sought through interviews:
â—¼ Reasons for being in treatment
â—¼ Symptoms
â—¼ Health status
â—¼ Family background
â—¼ Life history
â—¼ Suicidal/Homicidal Ideations
â—¼ Drug Use
(Sometimes I also ask about what their strengths are ☺
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Mental Status Examination
To assess:
Appearance and Behavior
Orientation
Content of Thought
Thinking Style and Language
Affect and Mood
Perceptual Experiences
Sense of Self
Motivation
Cognitive Functioning
Insight and Judgment
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Mental Status Examination
Appearance and Behavior
Examples of Abnormal Motor Behavior:
 Hyperactivity
 Psychomotor Agitation
 Psychomotor Retardation
 Catatonia
 Compulsion
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Hyperactivity
â—¼ Hyperactivity involves abnormally
energized physical
activity with quick
movements and
fast talking.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Psychomotor Agitation
â—¼ psychomotor agitation, a state of being
restless and stirred up.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Psychomotor Retardation
â—¼ Psychomotor retardation involves
abnormally slow movements and
lethargy.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Catatonia
â—¼
Catatonia refers to extreme motor disturbances in a psychotic
disorder in which the person may appear comatose or, in other
cases, extremely flexible and responsive to being “molded” into
position by others.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Compulsions
â—¼ A compulsion is a repetitive and seemingly
purposeful behavior performed in response to a
ritualistic or stereotyped set of rules.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Mental Status Examination
Content of Thought
Content of Thought:
Ideas that fill a person’s head.
Examples of Abnormalities:
 Obsessions
 Delusions
 Overvalued Ideas
 Magical Thinking
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Obessions
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Delusions
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Overvalued Ideas
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Magical Thinking
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Mental Status Examination
Affect and Mood
Affect:
An individual’s outward expression of emotion.
 Inappropriate
 Blunted or Flat
 Exaggerated, Heightened, Overdramatic
 Decreased Mobility
 Excessive Mobility
 Restricted Range
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Mental Status Examination
Affect and Mood
•
•
•
•
In assessing affect, the clinician takes note of any inappropriate affect,
the extent to which emotional expressiveness fails to correspond to the
content of what is being discussed.
Intensity of affect refers to strength of emotional expression.
Abnormally low affective intensity may be blunted (minimal affect) or flat
(completely absent). Abnormally high might be described as
exaggerated, heightened, or overdramatic.
Mobility of affect is the ease and speed with which people change the
type or intensity of emotional expression.
Range of affect is the extent and variety of emotional expression.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Mental Status Examination
Affect and Mood
Mood:
An individual’s personal experience of emotion.
Euthymic = Neither happy nor sad
Dysphoric = Unpleasant feelings
Euphoric = Cheerful, elated, possibly
even ecstatic
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Mental Status Examination
Perceptual Experiences
Hallucination:
False perceptions not corresponding to the
objective stimuli present in the environment.
ï‚… Auditory
 Command
ï‚… Visual
ï‚… Olfactory
ï‚… Somatic
ï‚… Gustatory
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Mental Status Examination
Orientation
Orientation is a person’s awareness of:
 Time
 Place
 Identity
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Mental Status Examination
Thinking Style & Language
Symptoms involving vocabulary use and style:
illogical thinking
incoherence
loosening of associations
neologisms
circumstantiality
blocking
tangentiality
clanging
confabulation
flight of ideas
echolalia
pressure of speech
perseveration
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Incoherence: speech that is incomprehensible.
Loosening of associations: flow of thoughts that is vague, unfocused, and
illogical.
Illogical thinking: thinking characterized by contradictions and erroneous
conclusions.
Blocking: the experience in which a person seemingly “loses” a thought in the
midst of speaking, leading to seconds or minutes of silence.
Circumstantiality: speech that is indirect and delayed in reaching a point
because of irrelevant and tedious details.
Tangentiality: going completely off track and never returning to the point.
Clanging: sound, rather than word meaning, determines content of individual’s
speech.
Confabulation: fabricating facts or events to fill in voids in one’s memory; not
conscious lies but attempts to respond with approximations of the truth.
Echolalia: persistent repetition of someone else’s words or phrases, as if
mocking or sarcastic.
Flight of Ideas: fact-paced speech marked by acceleration, abrupt changes of
topic, and plays on words.
Pressure of Speech: speech rapid and driven, as if individual is compelled to
utter stream of nonstop monologue.
Perseveration: repetition of the same idea, word, or sound.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Mental Status Examination
Motivation
Motivational impairment can make even ordinary life
tasks seem insurmountable.
Sense of Self
Disturbances of the individual’s sense of “who I am”
include:
• Depersonalization: altered experience of the self,
such as feeling that one’s body is not connected to
one’s mind.
• Identity Confusion: lack of a clear sense of who one
is.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Mental Status Examination
Cognitive Functioning:
Level of intelligence evidenced by details
such as memory and abstract ability.
Problems might include memory
impairment associated with Alzheimer’s.
Insight and Judgment:
Understanding and decision making.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Psychological Testing
What Makes a Good Psychological Test?
â—¼ Validity
â—¼ Reliability
â—¼ Standardization
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Psychological Testing
•
Psychological testing covers a broad range of techniques in
which scorable information about psychological functioning is
collected.
•
Validity: The extent to which a test, diagnosis, or rating
accurately and distinctly characterizes a person’s psychological
status.
•
Reliability: The consistency of measurements or diagnoses.
•
Standardization: Establishing consistent standards for how a
test is administered.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Modern Tests of Mental Abilities
â—¼ Wechsler Adult
Intelligence Scale
(WAIS) consists of
11 subtests and
cues us in to
strengths by
using…..
Assessing Intelligence
â—¼ Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
â–ª most widely used intelligence test
â–ª subtests
• verbal
• performance (nonverbal)
â—¼ Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
(WISC)
â–ª similar to WAIS, but for school children
WAIS
Assessing Intelligence- Sample Items
from the WAIS
VERBAL
PERFORMANCE
General Information
Similarities
Arithmetic Reasoning
Vocabulary
Comprehension
Digit Span
Picture Completion
Picture Arrangement
Block Design
Object Assembly
Digit-Symbol Substitution
WAIS-IV Subtests
â—¼ 11 subtests, with 3 supplementary scales
â—¼ Full scale IQ
â—¼ Verbal IQ
â—¼ Performance IQ
â—¼ Index Scores
â–ª Verbal Comprehension
â–ª Perceptual Organizational
â–ª Working Memory
â–ª Processing Speed
WAIS Verbal Subtests
Verbal Subtests
â—¼ Vocabulary (VC)
â–ª Define words
â–ª Best measure of G
â—¼ Similarities (VC)
â–ª Tell how two things are alike
â–ª Abstract verbal reasoning
â—¼ Information (VC)
â–ª Questions of general knowledge
â–ª Crystalized intelligence
Verbal Subtests
â—¼ Arithmetic (WM)
â–ª Solve arithmetic problems in your head
â–ª Working memory, mathematical reasoning
â—¼ Digit Span (WM)
â–ª Repeat a list of numbers forwards and
backwards
â–ª Working memory
WAIS Performance Subtests
Performance Subtests
â—¼ Block Design (PO)
â–ª Make designs using colored cubes
â–ª Spatial and nonverbal reasoning
â—¼ Matrix Reasoning (PO)
â–ª Given an incomplete pattern, choose from a
number of options how to be complete a
picture
â–ª Pattern recognition, non-verbal reasoning
Performance Subtests
â—¼ Digit Symbol Coding (PS)
â–ª Paired associates
â–ª Each number has a mark put the mark that
goes with the number
â–ª Processing speed, learning ability or speed
of acquisition
The Normal Curve (For WAIS)
Number
of
scores
Sixty-eight percent
of people score
within 15 points
above or below 100
Ninety-five percent
of all people fall
within 30 points
of 100
55
70
85
100
115
130
Wechsler intelligence score
145
The Normal Curve (For WAIS)
Intelligence Testing
Deviation IQ:
An index of intelligence derived by
comparing the individual’s score on an
intelligence test with the mean score for
that individual’s reference group.
I.Q.
➢ Developed by Wechsler.
➢ Eventually adopted as
widespread standard.
➢ Incorporated into the
Stanford-Binet.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
The distribution of IQ scores across
the population fits a normal curve.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Personality and Diagnostic Testing
Self-Report Clinical Inventories
contain standardized questions with
fixed response categories that the
test-taker completes, “selfreporting” the extent to which the
responses characterize him or her.

MMPI and MMPI-2
 NEO Personality Inventory
 MCMI-III
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Personality and Diagnostic Testing
•
•
•
•
•
Personality and diagnostic tests yield useful data about a person’s
thoughts, behaviors, and emotions.
There are two main forms of personality tests: self-report clinical
inventories (e.g., MMPI-2) and projective techniques (e.g.,
Rorschach).
The most popular self-report inventory is the Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality Inventory (MMPI), revised in 1989 (MMPI-2).
The NEO Personality Inventory (Revised) (Costa & McCrae, 1992)
measures personality along five personality dimensions, or sets of traits,
the original N, E, and O, plus two added later: Neuroticism, Extraversion,
Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness.
The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory was specifically intended to
assist clinicians in diagnosing DSM-IV personality disorders.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
MMPI-2: Clinical & Validity Scales
â—¼ hypochondriasis
â—¼ schizophrenia
â—¼ depression
â—¼ hypomania
â—¼ hysteria
â—¼ social introversion
â—¼ psychopathic deviate
â—¼ lie scale
â—¼ masculinity-
â—¼ correction
femininity
â—¼ paranoia
â—¼ psychasthenia
â—¼ infrequency
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Personality and Diagnostic
Testing
Projective Tests
Rorschach
TAT
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Personality and Diagnostic Testing
•
•
•
Projective test: A technique in which the test-taker is presented
with an ambiguous item or task and is asked to respond by
providing his or her own meaning or perception.
The most famous projective test is the Rorschach Inkblot Test.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) works on the same
premise: When presented with ambiguous stimuli, test-takers
reveal hidden aspects of their personalities. Instead of inkblots,
the TAT stimuli are black-and-white drawings and photographs
that portray people in ambiguous contexts.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Behavioral Assessment
Behavioral Assessment:
A form of measurement based on
objective recording of the
individual’s behavior.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Behavioral Assessment
Behavioral Self-Reports
â—¼ Behavioral Interviewing
â—¼ Self-Monitoring
â–ª Target Behavior
â—¼ Behavioral Checklists and
Inventories
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Behavioral Assessment
Behavioral Observation
â—¼ In Vivo Observation
â—¼
Limitations include reactivity.
Reactivity:
Change in a person’s behavior in
response to knowledge that he or she is
being observed.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Behavioral Assessment
•
•
•
•
Behavioral self-reports: Method of behavioral assessment in which the
individual provides information about the frequency of particular
behaviors.
Behavioral interviewing: A specialized form of interviewing in which the
clinician asks for information on the behavior under consideration as well
as what preceded and followed that behavior.
Self-monitoring: Technique in which the client keeps a record of the
frequency of specified behaviors such as number of cigarettes smoked.
Behavioral checklists and inventories: Behavioral assessment
devices in which the client checks off or rates whether or not certain
events or experiences have transpired.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Behavioral Assessment
In Vivo Observation
= Observation “in life.”
Analog observation
= A form of behavioral assessment that
takes place in a setting or context
specifically designed for observing the
target behavior.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Environmental Assessment
Environmental Assessment:
A form of measurement examining
the environment in which in the
individual lives.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Environmental Assessment
•
In environmental assessment, ratings
are provided about key dimensions, such
as social, living, or family environment,
that influence behavior.
• Environmental assessment scales:
Measures of key environmental
dimensions hypothesized to influence
behavior.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Physiological Assessment
Many psychological disorders occur in
the presence of physiological
disturbances.
Disturbances may be:
• localized in brain, perhaps as structural
abnormality or
• physical disorders (e.g., diabetes, AIDS)
that may alter psychological functioning.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Physiological Assessment
Psychophysiological Techniques
â—¼ ECG, BP, EMG
Physiological Techniques
Brain Imaging:
â—¼ EEG, CT, MRI, PET
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Physiological Assessment
â—¼ Studying the living brain
â—¼ Brain scans
â–ª Techniques that can look through the thick skull
and picture the brain with astonishing clarity yet
cause no damage to the extremely delicate brain
cells
â–ª Researchers are mapping a variety of cognitive
functions
• attention, language, memory, motor skills
• sites of emotional feelings and appetite
• MRI and fMRI
Physiological Assessment
• MRI and fMRI
â—¼ MRI
• magnetic resonance imagery
• involves passing non-harmful radio frequencies through the
brain
• Produces incredibly detailed pictures of the brain structure
â—¼ fMRI
• functional magnetic resonance imaging
• measures the activity of specific neurons that are functioning
during cognitive tasks, such as thinking, listening
MRI
Physiological Assessment
Physiological Assessment
â—¼ PET scan
â–ª Positron emission tomography
â–ª Involves injecting a slightly radioactive solution into
the blood and then measuring the amount of
radiation absorbed by brain cells called neurons
PET Scan
Physiological Assessment
â—¼ EEG
â–ª Electroencephalograph
â–ª Involves placing many electrodes on scalp
â–ª Measure changes in electrical voltage along
different areas of scalp
â–ª Provides information about brain wave activity
EEG
Psychophysiological
Assessment
•Many clinicians and researchers assess changes
in the body associated with psychological or
emotional experiences, especially in:
cardiovascular system, muscles, skin, and brain.
Many people sweat when nervous, which causes
changes in the skin, electrodermal response or
galvanic skin response (GSR).
• GSR is a sensitive indicator of emotional
responses such as fear and anxiety.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Neuropsychological
Assessment
Neuropsychological
assessment:
A process of
gathering information
about a client’s brain
functioning on the
basis of performance
on psychological
tests.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
For more information on material covered
in this chapter, visit our Web site:
http:/www.mhhe.com/halgin6e
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

  
error: Content is protected !!