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ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 5 ASSIGNMENT

CHAPTER 5.

What are the IQ levels for mild, moderate, severe and profound?

Name four causes of intellectual disabilities (can be diseases or the environment).

Name four pervasive developmental disorders.

What are some differences between autism asperger’s syndrome?

What are three types of learning disorders and briefly define each.

Define communication disorder and give four examples.

Name five symptoms of inattentiveness and five symptoms of hyperactivity.

What are some differences between conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder?

Define the following terms: Pica, Rumination, encopresis, and enuresis.

Define reactive attachment disorder (infancy and childhood).

Abnormal
Psychology
Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders 5e
Richard P. Halgin
Susan Krauss Whitbourne
University of Massachusetts at Amherst
slides by Travis Langley
Henderson State University
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Neurodevelopmental Disorders
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DEVELOPMENT-RELATED
DISORDERS first appear at
birth or during youth.
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Bell Curve for Intelligence
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Intellectual Disability is characterized by
significantly below average intellectual functioning,
indicated by an IQ of 70 or below.
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LEVELS OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY
MILD
â–ª IQ = 50/55 to 70
MODERATE
â–ª IQ = 35/40 to 50/55
SEVERE
â–ª IQ = 20/25 to 35/40
PROFOUND
â–ª IQ below 20/25
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Intellectual Disability
•
•
•
•
Mild: These individuals can learn academic skills up to 6th grade level
and can be guided toward social conformity.
Moderate: They can profit from training in social and occupational skills;
unlikely to progress beyond 2nd grade level; some independence in
familiar places possible.
Severe: They could learn to talk or communicate; can be trained in
basic self-help skills; profit from systematic habit training. However, their
potential is severely limited.
Profound: Some motor development may be present. They may
respond to a very limited range of training in self-help.
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A intellectual disability may result from an inherited
condition or from an event or illness at any point from
conception through adolescence.
Inherited Causes:
• With phenylketonuria (PKU), the body is unable to utilize phenylalanine, which
then builds up in the body’s tissues and blood, leading to severe neural damage.
• Tay-Sachs disease is a metabolic disorder causing accumulation of lipid in nerve
cells resulting in neural degeneration and early death usually before age 5.
• Fragile X syndrome – Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder
characterized by mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. The average IQ in males is
under 55, while about two thirds of females are intellectually disabled. Physical
features may include a long and narrow face, large ears, flexible fingers, and large
testicles.
• Down syndrome is caused by an extra 21st chromosome. People with Down
syndrome have characteristic facial structure, one or more physical disabilities, and
mild to moderate mental retardation. Motor, cognitive, and social skills develop
slowly.
• Most with Down syndrome die in their fifties, usually with poor health at this age
and brain changes resembling Alzheimer’s.
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Phenylketonuria (PKU)
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Tay-Sachs Disease
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Fragile X Syndrome
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Down Syndrome
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Intellectual Disabilities may result from an inherited
condition or from an event or illness at any point from
conception through adolescence.
Environmental Causes
â–ª Prenatal disease
â–ª Difficult delivery
â–ª Premature birth
â–ª Prenatal substance abuse
â–ª Failure to thrive
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Environmental Causes
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rubella = German measles: Exposure to mother during first trimester is
particularly dangerous.
Difficult delivery: Infections, anoxia (loss of oxygen), and brain injury during
birth may cause mental retardation.
After birth and all through childhood, mental retardation can result from diseases,
head injuries, exposure to toxic substances like lead or carbon monoxide.
Fetal alcohol syndrome is considered by some to be the leading cause of
mental retardation.
Prenatal cocaine exposure causes smaller overall size and head circumference,
and may cause neurological and behavioral deficits. However, the accumulated
evidence indicates these effects may be more limited than was originally thought.
Inadequate prenatal care or grossly inattentive parenting can contribute to failure
to thrive, a condition in which the child fails to grow physically and cognitively at a
normal rate.
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Rubella
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FAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
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Prenatal Cocaine Exposure
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Although there is no cure for
intellectual disabilities, early
intervention can enrich intellectual and
physical development.
â—¼ Mainstreaming
â—¼ Behavioral interventions
involving family
â—¼ Prevention of physically
related disorders
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Early Interventions
•
•
•
•
•
Mainstreaming: People with cognitive and physical disabilities are
integrated with nondisabled individuals to participate in ordinary
classrooms, where they receive assistance geared to their particular
needs.
Behavioral interventions are the most useful in producing motor,
language, social, and cognitive gains. Family can participate by
rewarding appropriate behaviors and responding negatively to
inappropriate behaviors.
With early detection of PKU, steps are taken to correct by special diet.
Other genetic causes of MR cannot be prevented.
Environmentally caused forms of MR can be prevented by teaching
mothers not to drink alcohol, smoke cigarettes, use other drugs, and to
get proper prenatal care.
Parents are also being alerted to the importance of protecting children
from head injuries – for example, by using bicycle helmets and car seats.
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Pervasive Developmental
Disorders
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PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL
DISORDERS are characterized by severe
impairment in several areas (e.g., social,
communication) or by extremely odd
behavior, interests, and activities.
◼ Rett’s disorder
â—¼ Childhood disintegrative disorder
◼ Asperger’s disorder
â—¼ Autism
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Pervasive Developmental Disorders
•
•
•
In Rett’s disorder, which occurs only in females, at some point between ages 5
months and 4 years, changes indicative of neurological and cognitive impairments
occur in the child who was previously developing normally. Growth of the head
slows, accompanied by loss of hand skills, loss of social engagement, poor
coordination, psychomotor retardation, and severely impaired language.
With childhood disintegrative disorder, the child develops normally until some
time between ages 2 and 10, then starts to loose language and motor skills as
well as other adaptive functions including bowel and bladder control.
Asperger’s disorder has marked differences from autism, though some
professionals regard it as a variant of so-called high-functioning autism. Children
with this maintain adequate cognitive and language development but become
severely impaired in social interaction. They also develop restricted, repetitive,
and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Many individuals
with this have a remarkable interest in and knowledge of a very specific topic that
is so all-consuming it interferes with other development.
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Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
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Asperger’s
Disorder
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AUTISTIC DISORDER
Apparent before age 3, usually in infancy.
Clinicians assign the diagnosis based on
symptoms that fall in three groups:
1. Impaired social interaction.
2. Impaired communication.
3. Oddities of behavior, interests, and/or
activities.
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Autistic Disorder
•
•
•
•
•
Before age 3, individuals with autistic disorder show oddities in several spheres
that other people easily detect.
Impaired social interaction: Lack of awareness of others; resistance to
cuddling; failure to make eye contact; inability to share thoughts, feelings.
Impaired communication: Many are unable to speak or will show serious delays
in language acquisition. Those who speak are unlikely to initiate a conversation or
to remain in one. Their language and style of speech may sound strange, with
unusual tone, pitch, rate, and rhythm; maybe monotone.
Their speech is often characterized by echolalia, repetition of words or phrases
they hear.
Behavioral oddities may include preoccupation with fixed interests, particular
interest in the parts of objects, rituals, rigid daily routines, bizarre movements,
repetitive mannerisms, shaking, spinning, rocking, head-banging, or other selfdamaging behavior. Regressive behaviors like tantrums are common.
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AUTISTIC SAVANT SYNDROME
In an unusual variant of autism, the
individual possesses an extraordinary
skill, such as:
â—¼ Ability to perform extremely complicated
numerical operations.
â—¼ Exceptional musical talents.
â—¼ Ability to solve extremely challenging
puzzles.
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THEORIES OF AUTISM
Evidence supports the theory of
BIOLOGICAL causation:
â—¼ Patterns of family inheritance.
â—¼ Concordance among identical twins.
â—¼ Chromosomal abnormalities.
â—¼ Structural brain abnormalities.
â—¼ Functional brain abnormalities.
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THEORIES OF AUTISM
•
•
•
•
Family concordance is high. One study show concordance rate in monozygotic
twins to be 92%.
Chromosomal: Family and genetic studies suggest abnormalities on
chromosomes 7, 15, and 16.
Brain structure: Men with autistic disorder have greater brain volume, yet
greater ventricle volume and smaller corpus callosum. Abnormalities have been
found in brain regions responsible for motor control.
Brain function: Patterns of blood flow in brain suggest maturational delay. Unlike
nonautistic individuals, autistic individuals’ brain activity is similar when looking at
faces and objects.
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Although prognosis for autistic disorder
can appear bleak, MEDICATION and
BEHAVIORAL treatments can change
the behavior of these children.
BEHAVIORAL:
â—¼ Train child to communicate needs
more effectively.
â—¼ Improve parental response.
â—¼ Teach caregivers not to reward
negative behaviors.
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Although prognosis for autistic disorder
can appear bleak, MEDICATION and
BEHAVIORAL treatments can change
the behavior of these children.
BEHAVIORAL:
â—¼ Help develop new learning and
problem-solving skills.
â—¼ Teach self-control through
self-monitoring.
â—¼ Aversive conditioning.
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Although prognosis for autistic disorder can appear
bleak, MEDICATION and BEHAVIORAL treatments
can change the behavior of these children.
•
•
•
Self-control procedures include self-monitoring of
language, relaxation training, and covert conditioning.
For behavioral programs to be effective, they must be
carried out intensely (40-hour-per-week treatment) and
for years, beginning early in the child’s life.
Behavioral techniques may be paired with use of
SSRIs.
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Autism
Versus
Asperger’s
Syndrome
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Learning,
Communication, and
Motor Skills Disorders
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Learning
Disorder
Delay or deficit in academic skill
evidenced by difference in ability
and achievement on standardized
tests, substantially below what
would be expected for others of
comparable age, education, and
level of intelligence.
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Reading Disorder
(Dyslexia)
Mathematics Disorder
(Dyscalculia)
Disorder of Written Expression
(Dysgraphia)
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DYSLEXIA
(Reading Disorder)
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Dyscalculia (Mathematics Disorder)
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Dysgraphia (Written Expression
Disorder)
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Communication Disorders
â—¼ Impairment in expression or
understanding of language.
â—¼ 1. Expressive language Disorder
â—¼ 2. Phonological Disorder
â—¼ 3. Stuttering
â—¼ 4. Mixed Receptive-Expressive Disorder
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Communication Disorders
•
•
•
•
Expressive language disorder: A communication disorder
characterized by having a limited and faulty vocabulary, speaking in
short sentences with simplified grammatical structures, omitting critical
words or phrases, or putting words together in peculiar order.
Mixed receptive-expressive language disorder: A communication
disorder involving difficulty understanding and expressing certain kinds of
words or phrases, such as directions, or, in more severe forms, basic
vocabulary or entire sentences.
Phonological disorder: A communication disorder in which the
individual misarticulates, substitutes, or omits speech sounds.
Stuttering involves disturbance in fluency and patterning of speech
characterized by sound repetitions and prolongations, broken words,
blocking out sounds, word substitutions to avoid problem words, and
excess tension.
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DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION
DISORDER
A condition characterized by marked
impairment in the development of
motor coordination.
• Trouble crawling, walking, sitting.
• Age-related tasks are below average.
• May affect ability to tie shoes, play
ball, complete puzzles, write legibly.
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THEORIES AND TREATMENT OF LEARNING,
COMMUNICATION, AND MOTOR SKILLS DISORDERS
PROPOSED CAUSES:
â—¼ Brain damage during fetal development or
birth
â—¼ Neurological condition caused by physical
trauma or medical disorder
TREATMENT ISSUES:
â—¼ Primary treatment site is at school
â—¼ Interdisciplinary treatments
â—¼ Activation of multiple sensory modalities
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THEORIES AND TREATMENT OF LEARNING,
COMMUNICATION, AND MOTOR SKILLS
DISORDERS
â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
The most widely accepted explanation for these disorders
involves neurological abnormalities.
One possible cause is that brain areas involved in vision,
speech, and language comprehension cannot integrate
information.
Interdisciplinary team consisting of classroom teacher, special
education teacher, school psychologist, speech language
therapist, and possibly neurologist working together to design a
treatment plan.
Typically, children with these disorders require more structure,
fewer distractions, and presentation of new material that uses
more than one sensory modality at a time – for example, oral
presentation combined with hands-on manipulation of objects.
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Attention Deficit and Disruptive
Behavior Disorders
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ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY
DISORDER
A behavior disorder of child involving
problems with inattentiveness and
hyperactivity-impulsivity.
Inattentiveness
• carelessness
• forgetfulness in daily activities
• commonly lose belongings
• easily distracted
• cannot follow through on instructions
• difficulty organizing tasks
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ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY
DISORDER
The hyperactive-impulsive component is
further divided into subtypes of
hyperactivity and impulsivity.
Hyperactivity
• fidgeting
• restlessness
• running about inappropriately
• difficulty in playing quietly
• talking excessively
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ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY
DISORDER
The hyperactive-impulsive component is
further divided into subtypes of
hyperactivity and impulsivity.
Impulsivity
• blurting out answers
• inability to wait their turn
• interrupting or intruding on others
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ADHD THEORIES
â—¼ Abnormal brain development and
cognitive functioning arising from
genetic causes, birth complications,
acquired brain damage, exposure to
toxic substances, infectious diseases.
â—¼ Biological abnormalities affect ability to
inhibit and control behavior as well as
memory, self-directed speech, and
regulation of mood.
â—¼ Social Influence: Dysfunctional family
environment and school failure.
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ADHD TREATMENT
â—¼ MEDICATIONS: See next slide.
â—¼ COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERAPY
â–ª Teach self-control, self-motivation, and selfmonitoring using reinforcement
â–ª Coordinate efforts with family and teachers
â–ª Behavioral interventions must begin early
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CONDUCT DISORDER
The childhood precursor of antisocial
personality disorder in adulthood.
Involves repeated violations of the rights of
others and society’s norms and laws.
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CONDUCT DISORDER
Delinquent behaviors include:
• lying
• stealing
• truancy
• running away from home,
• physical cruelty to people & animals
• setting fires
• using drugs and alcohol
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Conduct Disorder
â—¼ Aggression to people and animals
â—¼ Destruction to property
â—¼ Deceitfulness or theft
â—¼ Serious violation of rules
â—¼ Persisted for at least 12 months
OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER
A disruptive behavior disorder
characterized by undue hostility,
stubbornness, strong temper,
belligerence, spitefulness, and
self-righteousness.
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Oppositional Defiant Disorder
â—¼ A pattern of negativistic. hostile, and defiant behavior
lasting at least 6 months, during which four (or more)
of the following are present:
â–ª often loses temper
â–ª often argues with adults
â–ª often actively defies or refuses to comply with
adults’ requests or rules
â–ª often deliberately annoys people
â–ª often blames others for his or her mistakes or
misbehavior
â–ª is often touchy or easily annoyed by others
â–ª is often angry and resentful
â–ª is often spiteful or vindictive
Conduct Disorder
versus
Oppositional
Disorder
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A combination of approaches appears
to be the most useful strategy in
working with youths with disruptive
behavior disorders:
â—¼ Behavioral
â—¼ Cognitive
â—¼ Social learning
â—¼ The goal of treatment is to help the child learn
appropriate behaviors, such as cooperation and selfcontrol, and to unlearn problem behaviors, such as
aggression, stealing, and lying.
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Separation Anxiety Disorder
Children may have intense and
inappropriate anxiety concerning
separation from home or caregivers:
â—¼ upset and often physically ill when facing
a normal separation such as parent
leaving home for work
◼ may refuse to sleep overnight at friend’s
house
â—¼Copyright
panicky,
miserable, homesick,
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Other Disorders
Originating in
Childhood
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CHILDHOOD EATING DISORDERS
â—¼ Pica
â—¼ Feeding Disorder of
Infancy or Early
Childhood
â—¼ Rumination Disorder
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PICA
â—¼ Children with pica, a condition
commonly associated with intellectual
disability, eat inedible substances such
as paint, string, hair, animal droppings,
and paper.
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PICA
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Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early
Childhood
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Rumination Disorder
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TIC DISORDERS
•
A tic is a rapid, recurring involuntary movement or vocalization.
•
Motor tics involved bodily movements or vocalizations.
examples:
â—¼ eye blinking
â—¼ facial twitches
â—¼ shoulder shrugging
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TIC DISORDERS
Vocal tics include coughing, grunting, snorting, uttering
obscenities (called coprolalia), and tongue clicking.
examples:
â—¼ grunting
â—¼ coprolalia
â—¼ tongue clicking
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TIC DISORDERS
TOURETTE’S DISORDER
A combination of chronic movement and vocal
tics more commonly reported in males.
â—¼ Usually a lifelong condition
â—¼ Onset usually in childhood or adolescence
â—¼ In only a small percentage of cases do people
with Tourette’s utter obscenities.
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ELIMINATION DISORDERS
ENCOPRESIS
ENURESIS
• repeated
incontinence of
bowel
movements
• at least age 4
• repeated
incontinence of
bladder
• at least twice
weekly for 3
months
• age 5 or older
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REACTIVE ATTACHMENT DISORDER
OF INFANCY
OR CHILDHOOD
•
•
â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or childhood: A disorder
involving a severe disturbance in the ability to relate to others in
which the individual is unresponsive to people, is apathetic, and
prefers to be alone rather than to interact with friends or family.
This disturbed style results from pathological caregiving, or so many
changes in primary caregivers that the child fails to develop stable
attachments.
severe disturbance in ability to relate to others
do not initiate social interactions
do not respond when appropriate
may be extremely inhibited & avoidant
show inappropriate familiarity with strangers
•
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People with STEREOTYPIC
MOVEMENT DISORDER engage in
repetitive, seemingly driven
behaviors such as:
• waving
• body rocking
• head-banging
• self-biting
• picking at their bodies
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SELECTIVE MUTISM
The individual consciously
refuses to talk, usually when
there is an expectation for
interaction.
• for at least one month
• interferes with normal functioning
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