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Readings

The Age of Migration, pp. 198–224. book is too big, so i attached the book on the google drive:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1wUREHqTHnGqwzuxe6…

Video on African Diaspora:

https://www.ted.com/talks/lindiwe_mazibuko_why_the…

Patterns and Trends in African Migration:

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-03…

UNCTAD Report on Africa and migration: see in attached file

PLEASE COMPLETE TWO PARTS SEPARATELY IN TWO FILES

part 1: Reflective Journal (apa format)

assignment: Please write a Reflective Journal on the country you are researching for the Refugee Policy Simulation. (writing a reflective journal not to exceed 3 pages)

instructions:see attached file (how to write a reflective journal)

part 2: discussion (apa format)

Discuss the video on African migration and diaspora as well as the articles on recent migration trends on the African continent.

U N I T E D N AT I O N S C O N F E R E N C E O N T R A D E A N D D E V E L O P M E N T
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA REPORT 2018
Migration for Structural Transformation
CHAPTER 2
Patterns and trends of migration
CHAPTER 2
Patterns and trends of
migration
This chapter examines migration patterns and trends in
Africa over the last 27 years, highlighting their evolution and
configurations within and across regions on the continent.
The first section examines migration patterns and trends
in Africa in 1990–2017 at the interregional and continental
levels. The second section provides an overview of
regulatory frameworks that have shaped mobility on the
continent. The last three sections examine migration
patterns in terms of duration of stay, irregular migration and
the gender component of migration.
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN AFRICA IN 2017
53% of Africa’s international migrants resided on the continent
25
15
million
million
2000
International migration grew on average at
2.8% per year
2017
Northern Africa
4 out of 5
international migrants residing in
Eastern, Middle and Western Africa
were from the same African region
Western Africa
49%
of international migrants residing in
Northern Africa were from the same region
Middle Africa
Eastern Africa
47%
Southern Africa
of international migrants
were women
Average age of an
international migrant:
31 years old
Top destinations
for international migrants
South Africa
Côte d’Ivoire
Migration hubs:
Abidjan, Johannesburg, Nairobi
Migration for Structural Transformation
2.1 Patterns of migration: Stylized facts
International migration in Africa expressed as a share of total population has been declining
since 1990. It declined to levels below 2 per cent in 2017, which is lower than the global
average of 3.4 per cent (figure 4). In 2000–2017, the number of international migrants in
Africa increased from 15 million to 25 million, or by 67 per cent, at an average of 2.8 per
cent per year. As a result, the percentage of all international migrants residing in Africa
increased from 9 per cent in 2000 to 10 per cent of the global total in 2017 (table 3).
Figure 4
30
3.0
25
2.5
20
2.0
15
1.5
10
1.0
5
0.5
0
Percentage
Millions
Africa: International migrant stock as share of total population
0.0
1990
2000
International migrant stock
2010
2017
As share of total population
Source: UNCTAD calculations, based on United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs, 2017a.
In relation to the population of Africa, the incidence of emigration, or the stock of its
emigrants in the continent’s total population, is among the lowest in the world, owing to
Africa’s high population growth rate. Africa also has the lowest median age of migrants
in the world, at 31 years, and a faster rate of growth in its migrant stock than the global
average (table 3), only Asia has a faster rate of growth.
In 2000 and 2017, the number of women migrants in Africa increased, yet as a share
of total international migrants in Africa, remained stable at 47 per cent (United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2017a). More women appear to be moving
41
Economic Development in Africa Report 2018
Table 3
International migrant stock
INTERNATIONAL
MIGRANT STOCK AT
MIDYEAR
DESTINATION
2000
2017
WOMEN
INTERNATIONAL
SHARE OF TOTAL
MIGRANTS
MIGRANT STOCK
INTERNATIONAL AS SHARE OF
AS SHARE OF
MIGRANTS
INTERNATIONAL
TOTAL POPULATION
(PERCENTAGE) MIGRANT STOCK
(PERCENTAGE)
(PERCENTAGE)
ANNUAL RATE
OF CHANGE OF
MIGRANT
STOCK
MEDIAN
AGE OF
INTERNATIONAL
MIGRANTS
(YEARS)
2000
2017
2000
2017
2000
2017
2000–
2005
2015–
2017
2000
2017
World
172 604 257 257 715 425
2.8
3.4
100
100
49
48
2.0
2.0
38
39
Africa
14 800 306
24 650 223
1.8
2.0
9
10
47
47
0.9
2.5
28
31
Eastern Africa
4 844 795
7 591 799
1.9
1.8
3
3
49
50
-0.4
4.6
29
30
Middle Africa
1 756 687
3 539 697
1.8
2.2
1
1
49
48
1.9
1.5
27
29
Northern Africa
1 885 650
2 410 056
1.1
1.0
1
1
44
42
-1.7
1.2
28
32
Southern Africa
1 222 314
4 338 205
2.3
6.7
1
2
41
45
3.3
2.7
35
34
Western Africa
5 090 860
6 770 466
2.2
1.8
3
3
47
47
2.0
1.2
25
30
Sub-Saharan
Africa
13 716 539
22 975 988
2.0
2.2
8
9
47
48
0.8
2.8
27
31
Source: UNCTAD calculations, based on United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs, 2017a.
due, in part, to population ageing and greater job opportunities in the North and in
Eastern Asia and the Middle East in the health sector and the care and domestic service
sector. There is also rising demand for care and domestic services in Africa, which
is increasingly influencing patterns of women’s migration both within and outside the
continent (see section 2.5).
2.1.1
Patterns from, within and to Africa
The evolution of migration from, within and to Africa is shown in figure 5. Migration under
all three categories increased in 1990–2017.
In 2017, each stock exceeded the value in 2000, highlighting the growth in African
migration in absolute terms. Three distinct trends may be observed.
First, in 1990, African migration was predominantly intracontinental, although the
distribution has changed over time. The stock of international migrants originating from
Africa and living in Africa was the main stock in 2000, at 12.5 million, highlighting that
migration was foremost an intra-African phenomenon. This stock grew consistently, and
reached 19.4 million in 2017.
Second, the stock of international migrants originating from Africa and living outside the
continent was 6.9 million in 1990 and increased to 16.9 million in 2017. With the exception
42
Migration for Structural Transformation
Figure 5
Stocks of international migrants from, within and to Africa
20 000 000
15 000 000
10 000 000
2.1.1 Patterns from, within and to Africa
Migration from, within and to Africa increased during the period 2000 to 2017.
5 000 000
Figure 5 shows the evolution of stocks of international migrants in Africa, and
the stocks of international migrants originating from Africa but living outside
the continent. Migration of all three categories increased during the 1990 to
2017 period.
0
While
each stock in 2017 exceeded the stock in 2000, highlighting the growth
1990
2000
2010
2017
in African migration in absolute terms, two distinct trends are observed.
First, in 1990, African
migration was Intra-African
predominantly intra-continental
although
Extra-continental,
from Africa
Extra-continental,
to Africa
the distribution has changed over time. The stock of international migrants
originatingcalculations,
from Africa based
and living
in AfricaNations
was theDepartment
main stockof
in Economic
2000, at 12.5
Source: UNCTAD
on United
and Social
million; highlighting that migration was foremost an intra-African phenomenon.
Affairs, 2017a.
This stock grew consistently and reached 19.4 million in 2017.
Intra-African
migration:
up from 12.5 million in 2000
to
19.4 million in 2017
Second, the stock of international migrants originating from Africa but living
of the year
2010,
1990,
have inbeen
international
migrants
outside
the since
continent
wasthere
6.9 million
1990more
and increased
rapidly
to 16.9 of African
origin that
livedin within
the continent
than
Africa,ofbut
thesince
margin
narrowing.
million
2017 (Figure
5). Hence,
withoutside
the exception
2010,
1990isthere
have beenmigration
more international
migrantstoofAfrica
Africanexperienced
origin that live
within the
Extra-continental
and migration
stronger
growth than
continent than outside Africa, but the margin is narrowing. Extra-continental
intracontinental
migration in 1990–2017. The propensity to migrate outside the continent
migration and migration to Africa experienced stronger growth than intra-conis significantly
higher
in Northern
Africa than
in propensity
sub-Saharan
Africa (table
Of the total
tinental migration
during 1990-2017.
The
to migrate
outside4).the
16.9 million
stock isofsignificantly
extra-continental
2017,than
the in
majority
lived inAfrica
Asia, Europe
continent
higher emigrants
in NortherninAfrica
Sub-Saharan
(seeAmerica.
Table 3). Within
Of the 16.9
of the
total
stock of
extra-continental
African
and North
Asia,million
almost
all of
Africa’s
international
migrants
live in the
emigrants in 2017, the majority lived in Europe, Asia and Northern America.
Middle East,
illustrating the importance of the region as a hub for the continent’s migrants.
Within Asia, almost all of Africa’s international migrants lived in Western Asia/
the Gulf, illustrating the importance of the region as a hub for the continent’s
migrants.
Third, Table 3 shows that the stock of international migrants as a share of the
population rose from 1.8 per cent in 2000 to 2.0 per cent in 2017 (or from 18
to 20 migrants per 1,000 population). The countries with the highest stock of
43
Economic Development in Africa Report 2018
Third, the stock of international migrants as a share of population rose from 1.8 per
cent in 2000 to 2.0 per cent in 2017, or from 18 to 20 migrants per 1,000 people (see
table 3). In 2017, the countries with the highest stock of international migrants as a
share of total population were Equatorial Guinea (18 per cent), Gabon and Seychelles
(14 per cent each) and Djibouti (12 per cent).
2.1.2
Emigration trends characterized by growth and regional diversity
The stock of emigrants that stayed within Africa and those that moved outside the
continent in 2017 are shown in table 4. Most international migration takes place within
the continent. Around 53 per cent of emigrants reside within Africa and 47 per cent
emigrate to extra-continental destinations.
Table 4
Intra-African and extra-continental emigrant stocks by region of origin, 2017
ORIGIN
TOTAL STOCK OF
TOTAL STOCK
EMIGRANTS LIVING
OF EMIGRANTS
WITHIN AFRICA
STOCK OF EMIGRANTS LIVING
WITHIN AFRICA AS SHARE OF
TOTAL STOCK OF EMIGRANTS
(PERCENTAGE)
TOTAL STOCK
OF EMIGRANTS
LIVING OUTSIDE
AFRICA
STOCK OF EMIGRANTS
LIVING OUTSIDE AFRICA
AS SHARE OF TOTAL
STOCK OF EMIGRANTS
(PERCENTAGE)
Total Africa
36 266 428
19 359 848
53.4
16 906 580
46.6
Eastern Africa
10 533 239
7 475 553
71.0
3 057 686
29.0
Middle Africa
4 099 426
3 229 786
78.8
869 640
21.2
Northern Africa
11 175 732
1 477 069
13.2
9 698 663
86.8
Southern Africa
1 586 875
821 006
51.7
765 869
48.3
Western Africa
8 871 156
6 356 434
71.7
2 514 722
28.3
Source: UNCTAD calculations, based on United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs, 2017a.
The main sending countries in Africa were Egypt (3.4 million) and Morocco (2.9 million),
as shown in figure 6. Emigrants from Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Nigeria was primarily
to extra-continental destinations. Emigrants from Somalia (1.9 million), Burkina Faso
(1.4 million) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Mali were primarily to other
countries on the continent.
In Northern Africa, geographical proximity to Europe and the Middle East, as well as the
subregion’s colonial ties and established networks, have influenced extra-continental
migration and high levels of youth unemployment have been a key driver of recent
movements from the subregion to Europe (table 5). In terms of intra-African emigration,
political instability in Somalia and the Sudan, as well as conflict in the Democratic
Republic of the Congo, have been important drivers of emigration from these countries.
Economic migration remains a key driver of mobility from Burkina Faso to Côte d’Ivoire.
44
Migration for Structural Transformation
Figure 6
Countries with largest numbers of emigrants, 2017
(Millions)
Egypt
Morocco
Somalia
Sudan
Algeria
South Sudan
Dem. Rep.
of the Congo
Burkina Faso
Nigeria
Mali
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
Stock of emigrants living outside Africa
Stock of emigrants living within Africa
Total stock of emigrants
Source: UNCTAD calculations, based on United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2017a.
Table 5
Regional unemployment rate, total and among youth
(Percentage)
Eastern Africa
Middle Africa
Northern Africa
Southern Africa
Western Africa
Eastern Africa
Middle Africa
Northern Africa
Southern Africa
Western Africa
2009
2010
2011
2012
TOTAL (15+)
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
8.3
9.9
10.5
24.3
8.3
8.6
9.9
10.4
23.6
7.7
9.0
9.7
10.7
23.8
7.7
8.5
9.3
11.1
24.4
7.7
8.3
9.2
11.1
24.6
7.7
8.3
9.2
11.3
24.6
7.6
8.3
9.3
11.3
24.5
7.6
8.3
9.3
11.3
24.5
7.7
8.2
9.4
11.4
24.4
7.8
8.2
9.4
11.4
24.4
7.8
2009
2010
2011
2012
YOUTH (15–24)
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
13.7
17.7
26.9
43.7
12.8
14.5
16.5
26.4
43.5
11.9
14.4
16.4
29.2
44.2
11.8
13.6
15.3
31.3
45.2
11.8
13.9
16.5
31.1
45.0
11.8
13.8
16.8
31.1
45.1
12.0
13.8
17.0
31.3
45.1
12.1
13.7
17.1
31.4
45.2
12.1
13.4
15.3
30.8
46.5
11.8
13.8
16.1
31.7
46.0
11.7
Source: UNCTAD calculations, based on International Labour Organization (ILO) ILOstat database
modelled estimates, November 2016.
Notes: The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed persons as a share of the labour
force. Data for 2009–2016 are estimates and data for 2017–2018 are projections.
45
Economic Development in Africa Report 2018
2.1.3
Rising immigration levels
In Africa, 78.5 per cent of all international immigrants were born in Africa (table
6). In other words, four of every five international migrants in Africa come from
the continent. In contrast, with regard to subregions, around half the international
migrants residing in Northern and Southern Africa were born on another continent.
Africa recorded an increase in the stock of immigrants, including immigrants from
outside and within the continent, from 12.4 million in 2000 to 19.3 million in 2017.
Only 12 out of 54 countries in Africa experienced a decline in the stock of immigrants
between 2000 and 2017.
Table 6
Immigrant stocks by region of origin, 2017
DESTINATION
STOCK OF IMMIGRANTS
TOTAL STOCK
TOTAL
FROM WITHIN THE REGION
OF IMMIGRANTS
STOCK OF
AS SHARE OF TOTAL STOCK
FROM WITHIN THE
IMMIGRANTS
OF IMMIGRANTS
REGION
(PERCENTAGE)
STOCK OF
IMMIGRANTS
FROM OUTSIDE
THE REGION
STOCK OF IMMIGRANTS
FROM OUTSIDE THE REGION
AS SHARE OF TOTAL STOCK
OF IMMIGRANTS
(PERCENTAGE)
Total Africa
24 650 223
19 359 848
78.5
5 290 375
21.5
Eastern Africa
7 591 799
6 731 752
88.7
860 047
11.3
Middle Africa
3 539 697
2 976 597
84.1
563 100
15.9
Northern Africa
2 410 056
1 194 386
49.6
1 215 670
50.4
Southern Africa
4 338 205
2 419 803
55.8
1 918 402
44.2
Western Africa
6 770 466
6 037 310
89.2
733 156
10.8
Source: UNCTAD calculations, based on United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs, 2017a.
The absolute number of international migrant stocks reveals the main destinations of
migrants in Africa (figure 7). In 2017, the main receiving countries were South Africa
(4.0 million), Côte d’Ivoire (2.2 million) and Uganda, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Kenya
(each exceeding 1.0 million, in descending order). The main receiving countries of
intra-African international migrants were South Africa (2.2 million) and Côte d’Ivoire
(2.1 million), highlighting their importance as migration hubs. Uganda, Ethiopia, Nigeria
and Kenya (each exceeding 1 million, in descending order) were also major receiving
countries of intra-African international migrants.
South Africa and Libya have the highest stock of immigrants in Africa. However, if
we return to immigration within the continent, in South Africa, demand for labour
in the mining and construction sectors remains an important driver of migration.
Demand for domestic work and informal trade have also emerged as significant
drivers of migration. Agriculture remains an important driver of migration to Côte
46
Migration for Structural Transformation
Figure 7
Countries with largest numbers of immigrants, 2017
(Millions)
South Africa
Côte d’Ivoire
Uganda
Nigeria
Ethiopia
Kenya
Dem. Rep.
of the Congo
South Sudan
Libya
Sudan
0.0
0.5
1.0
Stock of immigrants from outside Africa
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Stock of immigrants from within Africa
3.5
4.0
4.5
Total stock of immigrants
Source: UNCTAD calculations, based on United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs, 2017a.
d’Ivoire. More diversified economies such as Kenya attract labour from other
regions. Since the 1980s, Libya has been a major destination for migrants from
outside Africa, notably from Indonesia and Iraq, with demand in its oil industry
fuelling economic migration. Since 2010, Libya has become a major transit country
for migrants heading to Europe, due in large part to its strategic location on the
Mediterranean Sea and as a destination for migrants from sub-Saharan Africa.
Immigration has played different roles in countries. The countries in Africa that
recorded the highest (exceeding 10 per cent) and lowest (0.5 per cent or lower)
shares of international migrant stocks in total population in 1990 and 2017 are
shown in table 7. Djibouti and Côte d’Ivoire recorded the highest shares of migrants
in total population in 1990. In 2017, Equatorial Guinea recorded the highest share of
migrants in total population, due largely to its offshore oil industry, which is driving
migration to the country. The countries with the lowest shares of immigrants in both
1990 and 2017 were Egypt, Eritrea, Lesotho, Madagascar, Morocco and Tunisia.
Political instability in Eritrea and Somalia likely contributes to the prevalent low levels
of immigration.
47
Economic Development in Africa Report 2018
Table 7
Countries with lowest and highest immigration intensity: International migrant stock as
share of total population
(Percentage)
1990
< 0.5 2017 > 10
< 0.5 > 10
Madagascar
0.2
Djibouti
20.7
Madagascar
0.1
Equatorial Guinea
17.5
Morocco
0.2
Côte d’Ivoire
14.8
Morocco
0.3
Gabon
13.8
Angola
0.3
Gabon
13.4
Lesotho
0.3
Seychelles
13.6
Egypt
0.3
Gambia
12.9
Somalia
0.3
Libya
12.4
Mauritius
0.3
Malawi
11.9
Eritrea
0.3
Djibouti
12.1
Eritrea
0.4
Libya
10.3
Egypt
0.5
Tunisia
0.5
Tunisia
0.5
Nigeria
0.5
Lesotho
0.5
Source: UNCTAD calculations, based on United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs, 2017a.
2.1.4
Key migration corridors
The above data and analysis highlights the main migration corridors within and
from Africa. The top intra-African corridors in 2017 were Burkina Faso–Côte d’Ivoire
(1.3 million), South Sudan–Uganda (0.9 million), Mozambique–South Africa (0.7 million),
the Sudan–South Sudan (0.5 million) and Côte d’Ivoire–Burkina Faso (0.5 million), as
shown in figures 8 and 9.
The Côte d’Ivoire–Burkina Faso corridor serves as an important link for commercial
agriculture and informal trade (International Centre for Migration Policy Development
and IOM, 2015). Other corridors in which the stock of international migrants exceeds
200,000 include the Sudan–South Sudan (563,000), Somalia–Kenya (485,000) and
Somalia–Ethiopia (467,000), with political instability and conflict in Eastern Africa driving
forced migration in the region (International Centre for Migration Policy Development and
IOM, 2015). The Mali–Côte d’Ivoire corridor (359,000; see figure 8) links migrants from
Western Africa to resource-rich coastal countries, with demand in mineral extraction
and commercial agriculture in Côte d’Ivoire fuelling migration. The Mozambique–South
Africa (675,480) and Lesotho–South Africa (312,000) corridors are important for linking
migrants to farms and mines and, for Lesotho, to domestic work in Johannesburg, South
Africa (Crush et al, 2017). Other important corridors include Benin–Nigeria (362,000),
the Sudan–Chad (344,000) and Burundi–United Republic of Tanzania (208,000). The
48
Migration for Structural Transformation
Figure 8
Stocks in top 15 intra-African migration corridors, 2017
(Thousands)
Burkina Faso to Côte d’Ivoire
South Sudan to Uganda
Mozambique to South Africa
Sudan to South Sudan
Côte d’Ivoire to Burkina Faso
Des ti na ti on regi on
Somalia to Kenya
Wes tern Afri ca
Somalia to Ethiopia
Ea s tern Afri ca
South Sudan to Ethiopia
Southern Afri ca
Benin to Nigeria
Northern Afri ca
Mali to Côte d’Ivoire
Mi ddl e Afri ca
Zimbabwe to South Africa
Sudan to Chad
Uganda to Kenya
Lesotho to South Africa
South Sudan to Sudan
0
200
400
600
800
1 000
1 200
1 400
Source: UNCTAD calculations, based on United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs, 2017a.
outflow from Somalia is particularly evident, as is the fact that South Africa is a receiving
country.
With regard to extra-continental migration, the importance of migration from Africa to
Europe, the Middle East and North America is shown in table 8. Colonial, linguistic and
cultural ties greatly influence these movements, along with geographical proximity and,
increasingly, high levels of youth unemployment, particularly in Northern and Southern
Africa, amounting to 31 per cent and 45 per cent in 2017, respectively (see table 5).
49
Economic
in Africa
ReportReport
2018 2018
EconomicDevelopment
Development
in Africa
Figure
Figure99 Main intra-African migration corridors, stocks in 2017
Main intra-African migration corridors, stocks in 2017
Tunisia
Tunisia
Morocco
Morocco
Algeria
Algeria
Libya
Libya
Egypt
Egypt
Mauritania
Niger
Cabo Verde Mauritania
Mali
Niger
Cabo Verde
Mali
Sudan
Eritrea
Senegal
Burkina
Sudan
Eritrea
Gambia
Senegal
Faso
Burkina
Chad
Djibouti
Guinea-Bissau
Faso
Gambia
Guinea
Chad
Benin
Djibouti
Guinea-Bissau Guinea
Ethiopia
Benin Nigeria
Sierra Leone
Ghana
Central African
Republic South Sudan Ethiopia
Sierra LeoneLiberia Côte Togo Nigeria
Central African South Sudan
Ghana
Cameroon
Liberia d’Ivoire
Somalia
Republic
Côte
Togo
d’Ivoire Equatorial Guinea
Uganda
Cameroon
Somalia
Kenya
Sao
Tome Guinea Congo
Equatorial
Gabon
Uganda
Democratic Republic Rwanda
and
Kenya
Congo
of the
Burundi
Seychelles
Sao
Tome
Principe
Gabon
Congo
RwandaRepublic
and Principe
Democratic
United
Republic
Seychelles
Burundi
of
of the Congo
Tanzania
Angola
Angola
Zimbabwe
Zambia
> 1 million
Namibia
000–1
> 500
1 million
Zambia
Comoros
United Republic
of Tanzania
Comoros
Malawi
million
500
000–1
million
200
000–500
000
Namibia
Mozambique
BotswanaZimbabwe
Botswana
South Africa
200 000–500 000
Low-income country
Low-income country
Malawi
South Africa
Madagascar
Mozambique
Swaziland
Mauritius
Madagascar
Mauritius
Lesotho
Swaziland
Lesotho
Lower
middle-income country
Lower middle-income country
Upper middle-income
country
Upper
middle-income
country
High-income country
High-income country
Source:
UNCTADcalculations,
calculations,
based
on United
Nations
Department
of Economic
and Affairs,
Social
Source: UNCTAD
based
on United
Nations
Department
of Economic
and Social
Affairs,
2017a. 2017a.
50
50
Migration for Structural Transformation
Table 8
Main extra-continental migration corridors, 2017
ORIGIN
DESTINATION
NUMBER OF MIGRANTS
Northern Africa
France
2 824 532
Northern Africa
Saudi Arabia
1 307 431
Northern Africa
United Arab Emirates
999 135
Northern Africa
Spain
771 382
Western Africa
United States
718 372
Northern Africa
Italy
715 371
Eastern Africa
United States
641 744
Eastern Africa
United Kingdom
610 959
Southern Africa
United Kingdom
217 524
Source: UNCTAD calculations, based on United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs, 2017a.
2.1.5
Migration between regions
Interregional migration, or the movement of people between geographic subregions, is a
key feature of migration patterns on the continent. In 2017, Eastern and Western Africa
were the regions from which most African migrants originated (see table 3). Middle Africa
recorded a strong increase with regard to international migrant stock, as the absolute
number doubled, with political instability and conflict driving movements in the region.
Eastern and Western Africa are the main destinations, and Southern and Middle Africa
have recorded strong increases as destinations for intra-African migrants. Migration in
Africa occurs primarily within the same region (table 6). For instance, in Western Africa,
in 2017, more than 89 per cent of the international migrant stock originated from within
the region. In Northern Africa, however, the international migrant stock originating from
within the region was lower, at 49 per cent. The independence of South Sudan and the
resulting migration that occurred from the Sudan to South Sudan, along with political
unrest following the popular uprisings in Northern Africa and the Middle East in 2011,
greatly influenced migration patterns within Northern Africa. Eastern Africa is the most
diversified region with regard to the origin of international migrants from Africa, as it
receives significant shares of migrants from all other regions except Western Africa. In
addition to economic factors driving migration to diversified economies such as Kenya
and Rwanda, the latter’s visa for foreign workers may attract migrants to the region. In
2000–2017, conflict and political instability were a driver of forced migration from Middle
Africa to the United Republic of Tanzania and from Northern Africa, mainly the Sudan,
to Uganda.
51
Economic Development in Africa Report 2018
With regard to regional net migration in 1985–2015, Northern and Western Africa
consistently reported negative total net migration, that is, in these regions, emigration
exceeded immigration. Eastern, Middle and Southern Africa alternated between being
net sending and receiving regions, reflecting ongoing regional dynamics, with political
instability in Middle Africa driving migration to Eastern Africa and, in Southern Africa,
from Zimbabwe to South Africa.
2.2 Migration policies
Regional economic communities in Africa have frameworks to facilitate movements
within regions, with freedom of movement being an important principle for most regional
economic communities (table 9). This section examines regulatory frameworks at the
continental level and regional economic community protocols on the free movement of
persons and assesses their role in influencing migration patterns and trends.
2.2.1
Regulatory frameworks
Given the centrality of the free movement of persons to regional integration, and the aim
of establishing a continental free trade area, the African Union has elaborated a draft
protocol on the free movement of persons, right of residence and right of establishment,
which foresees right of entry and the abolition of visa requirements, an African common
passport, the free movement of border communities, the harmonization of national laws
and policies on immigration, the free movement of students, researchers and workers,
the mutual recognition of skills, right of residence, portability of social security, protection
of property, remittances and right of establishment. The first 10-year implementation
plan (2014–2023) of Agenda 2063 of the African Union emphasized, among others, the
following: (a) the need to domesticate all free movement of person protocols; (b) that
visa requirements for intra-African travel should be waived by 2018; (c) that opportunities
offered to regional economic community citizens should be extended to non-community
citizens; and (d) that legal frameworks for the issuance of an African common passport
should be adopted by 2023 (African Union Commission, 2015).
However, the free movement of persons is only one aspect of migration frameworks and
policies. In 2006, the African Union adopted the Migration Policy Framework for Africa,
which provided comprehensive and integrated policy guidelines for consideration by its
member States and regional economic communities in their efforts to promote migration
and development and address migration challenges on the continent (see chapter 1).
A series of other migration policies and frameworks followed that aimed to promote the
better use of labour through greater liberalization and by ensuring safer conditions, such
52
Migration for Structural Transformation
Table 9
Ratification and implementation of protocols on the free movement of persons in regional
economic communities
RATIFICATION RATE
CURRENT ENTRY AND
VISA REQUIREMENTS
FOR FELLOW REGIONAL
ECONOMIC COMMUNITY
NATIONALS
DEVELOPMENTS CONCERNING
THE RIGHT OF RESIDENCE AND
RIGHT OF ESTABLISHMENT FOR
FELLOW REGIONAL ECONOMIC
COMMUNITY NATIONALS
COMMON
PASSPORT
LABOUR
MOBILITY
AMU
Three of five member
States have ratified the
respective protocol on
the free movement of
persons
Nationals do not require a
visa for entry in 53 per cent
of member States; nationals
are issued a visa upon arrival
in 20 per cent of member
States
Mauritania has not ratified the
protocol, but is the only member
State that guarantees freedom of
establishment and equal treatment
of nationals of Mauritania and
foreign persons and legal entities
No
Visa reciprocity
agreements
for short-term
mobility
CENSAD
In development:
Draft agreement on
free movement and
establishment of persons
within the territory of
member States of CENSAD; protocol on free
movement
Nationals do not require a
visa for entry in 51 per cent
of member States; nationals
are issued a visa upon arrival
in 22 per cent of member
States; holders of diplomatic
passports do not require
a visa and plans ongoing
to extend this privilege to
students, business people,
athletes and academics
No
No
No
COMESA Two of 20 member States
have ratified the Protocol
on the Free Movement of
Persons, Labour, Services,
Right of Establishment
and Residence; 17 of
20 member States have
ratified the Protocol on
the Gradual Relaxation
and Eventual Elimination
of Visa Requirements
Nationals do not require a
visa for entry in 26 per cent
of member States; nationals
are issued a visa upon arrival
in 30 per cent of member
States
No
No
Labour mobility
is envisaged
in the treaty;
limited
progress on
implementation
EAC
Nationals do not require a
visa for entry in 80 per cent
of member States; nationals
are issued a visa upon arrival
in 20 per cent of member
States
Free movement of labour
provisions for certain categories of
professionals in member States;
right to social security benefits
and right of establishment;
harmonization of employment
policies and labour legislations is
envisaged and mutual recognition
agreements allow for cross-border
practices among professionals and
entitle professionals of member
States to the same treatment as
nationals
Yes; national
identification
is also used
for entry
in member
States
Kenya, Rwanda
and Uganda
have abolished
work permit
fees for their
respective
nationals;
Rwanda has a
temporary work
permit for semiskilled workers
All five member States
have ratified the Protocol
on the Establishment of
the EAC Common Market
53
Economic Development in Africa Report 2018
Table 9
Ratification and implementation of protocols on the free movement of persons in regional
economic communities (continued)
RATIFICATION RATE
ECCAS
CURRENT ENTRY AND
VISA REQUIREMENTS
FOR FELLOW REGIONAL
ECONOMIC COMMUNITY
NATIONALS
DEVELOPMENTS CONCERNING
THE RIGHT OF RESIDENCE AND
RIGHT OF ESTABLISHMENT FOR
FELLOW REGIONAL ECONOMIC
COMMUNITY NATIONALS
COMMON
PASSPORT
Yes; travel
books and/or
cards
LABOUR
MOBILITY
Article 3 of
the protocol
addresses
labour mobility
Nationals do not require a
visa for entry in 45 per cent
of member States; nationals
are issued a visa upon arrival
in 9 per cent of member
States
The four member States that
have ratified the protocol have
also implemented the right of
establishment
ECOWAS All 15 member States
have ratified the Protocol
on the Free Movement of
Persons, Residence and
Establishment
Visa-free entry for all
ECOWAS citizens
Yes; travel
The Common Approach on
certificates
Migration (2008) provides the
overall framework for mobility
within the region; residence
cards; right of establishment
granted; progress made towards
harmonizing education certificates,
but equal treatment of migrant
workers and nationals still a
challenge in areas such as
security of employment, job loss,
re-employment and training
IGAD
In development: Protocol
on the free movement of
persons
Nationals do not require a
visa for entry in 50 per cent
of member States; nationals
are issued a visa upon arrival
in 50 per cent of member
States
Regional Migration Policy
Framework (2012) envisages
facilitation of labour mobility within
the region
No
Migration
Action Plan
(2015–2020)
identifies priority
actions to better
manage labour
migration
SADC
Seven of 15 member
States have ratified
the Protocol on the
Facilitation of Movement
of Persons (2005) but it
is not yet operational as it
requires ratification by at
least 10 member States
Nationals do not require
a visa for entry in 65 per
cent of member States;
nationals are issued a visa
upon arrival in 15 per cent of
member States; provisions for
member States to conclude
bilateral agreements for visa
exemptions
In line with the Protocol on
Employment and Labour, member
States are encouraged to ensure
that fundamental rights (labour,
employment and social protection)
are granted to migrant workers
and their families; Qualifications
Framework aims to standardize
recognition of training and
qualifications within SADC
South Africa
grants
permanent
and
temporary
work permits;
border
passes allow
circulatory
migration
among
cross-border
traders
Botswana and
South Africa
grant work
permits for
certain workers;
South Africa has
bilateral labour
agreements with
several member
States
Four of 11 member
States have ratified the
respective protocol on
the free movement of
persons
Labour and
Employment
Policy (2009)
addresses
labour migration
Sources: International Centre for Migration Policy Development and IOM, 2015; UNCTAD, 2017a.
See https://www.uneca.org/oria/pages/regional-economic-communities and http://migration.igad.int/.
54
Migration for Structural Transformation
as the Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings, Especially
Women and Children (2006); the African Union Social Policy Framework (2008), which
sought collaboration between social security schemes to ensure benefits from labour
circulation; the Declaration of the Global African Diaspora Summit (2012); the African
Union Youth and Employment Pact (2013), which aimed to develop an African Union and
regional economic community labour migration plan; the African Union Horn of Africa
initiative on human trafficking and the smuggling of migrants (2014); and the African
Union Commission Strategic Plan (2014–2017), which contained a strategy to promote
labour migration. In the Declaration on Migration (2015), member States committed to
undertaking the speed up of the implementation of continent-wide visa free regimes, the
expeditious operationalization of the African common passport, the mutual recognition
of qualifications and skills, a mechanism for the empowerment of African women and
youth in education and strengthened efforts to combat human trafficking.
Services trade through the temporary movement of natural persons, or mode 4 of the
General Agreement on Trade in Services, is the supply of a service by a service supplier
of one member, through the presence of natural persons of a member in the territory
of any other member, and this is closely related to regional and international migration,
with regard to temporary migration. However, mode 4 is likely ill-equipped for managing
labour migration, which is increasingly driven by the interaction of migration-related
agreements at the following three levels: multilateral opening up of labour markets via
mode 4 and similar African Union and regional economic community initiatives; European
Union mobility partnerships; and bilateral migration management agreements. It may be
argued that the latter represent the most comprehensive regulation of migration currently
available in treaty law. Such regulations and treaties on migration divide horizontally
by skill levels. For example, non-trade, bilateral migration agreements are the main
channels for recruiting low-skilled migrants, whereas trade agreements, including under
mode 4, tend to address highly skilled segments of the labour market.
Finally, the African Union Commission, ILO, IOM and the United Nations Economic
Commission for Africa are implementing the Joint Labour Migration Programme for
Africa, which was formally adopted in 2015 by African Heads of State and Government
as a comprehensive programme on labour migration governance for the region. Some
processes regarding facilitating migration and making it more secure are therefore
already under way.
55
Economic Development in Africa Report 2018
2.2.2
Regional economic community protocols on the free movement of persons:
Ratification and implementation
Right to work and establish
Since gaining independence, most African countries have embraced regionalism as a
framework to increase intra-African trade (UNCTAD, 2013). Africa, in comparison with
other regions, has therefore had a unique experience in terms of nation building and
regional integration, as both processes occurred almost in parallel (Agadjanian, 2008).
As countries developed national frameworks for trade and labour movements, regional
organizations established frameworks aimed at facilitating the flow of goods, services,
labour and capital across borders.
The free movement of persons is fundamental to facilitating labour mobility to areas
where it can be more productive. However, with the exception of those in EAC
and ECOWAS, regional integration agendas in Africa have progressed slowly. All
regional economic communities except CEN-SAD and IGAD have adopted such
protocols, yet the rate of ratification of the protocols has been highly uneven (see
table 9). EAC and ECOWAS member States have ratified the respective protocols;
only two members of COMESA have ratified the respective protocol. Each member
State of ECOWAS grants visa-free entry for ECOWAS citizens, and all EAC and
IGAD nationals can travel to member States without a visa or can obtain a visa upon
arrival. EAC and ECOWAS also issue common passports, and ECCAS issues travel
books and/or cards. Entry into several regional economic communities is facilitated
through special immigration counters. In most regional economic communities,
however, visa regimes remain far from the African Union target of the abolishment
of visa requirements for all African citizens in all African countries by 2018. Progress
has been made in eliminating restrictions related to visa regimes, yet progress in the
implementation of provisions on the right to reside and establish are often restricted
to highly skilled professionals. Lack of progress in the mutual recognition of skills
and certificates not only discourages the cross-border movement of labour but
constrains labour mobility (United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, African
Union and African Development Bank Group). EAC has made progress towards
the mutual recognition of professions for accountants and architects and ECOWAS
has made progress towards the harmonization of education certificates. Provisions
on the right to reside and establish do not apply to low-skilled and semi-skilled
migrants, as regional economic community member States differ greatly with regard
to economic development, and high unemployment rates in countries often raise
concerns about foreign workers competing with nationals for similar positions. In
56
Migration for Structural Transformation
some regions, migration is regulated through bilateral agreements. For example,
in SADC, several member States regulate economic migration through bilateral
labour agreements. Botswana grants work permits for certain workers and South
Africa has bilateral labour agreements with several member States.
Migration within regional economic communities
The above section discussed the relevance of regional integration for migration
within regional economic communities. The trajectory in intraregional migration
in regional economic communities has been upward, with a notable increase
in 2000–2010. In 2017, the share of migrant stocks within regional economic
communities was substantially higher, when compared with interregional shares,
with the exception of AMU and the EAC (table 10). In EAC, deepening integration,
with the implementation of the EAC Common Market regulations on the free
movement of workers, eased mobility barriers in the region. The recent upsurge
in immigration can also be linked to the growing influx of migrants from Asia,
including to Eastern, Southern and Western Africa.
Table 10
Shares of international migrant stock within and between regional economic communities, 2017
(Percentage)
DESTINATION
ORIGIN
AMU
CEN-SAD
COMESA
EAC
ECCAS
ECOWAS
IGAD
SADC
AMU
16.8
45.2
5.8
0.0
1.4
29.2
0.5
0.9
CEN-SAD
1.6
33.4
14.3
3.5
7.3
25.8
11.9
2.2
COMESA
0.4
8.8
30.5
16.7
8.1
0.1
22.8
12.7
EAC
0.0
7.7
29.4
23.4
9.3
0.1
15.9
14.3
20.0
ECCAS
0.1
5.7
22.4
16.0
26.0
2.1
7.8
ECOWAS
1.2
46.7
0.3
0.0
3.6
47.1
0.2
1.0
IGAD
1.0
15.0
33.7
15.0
2.7
0.0
31.7
1.0
SADC
0.0
1.0
22.0
13.0
12.3
0.0
6.2
45.5
Source: UNCTAD calculations, based on United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs, 2017a.
57
Economic Development in Africa Report 2018
2.3 Patterns with regard to duration and status
The duration of migration varies considerably. While some migrants move for a
definitive period, others migrate without prior knowledge as to when they might
return. Migration in Africa is predominantly circular in nature and characterized by
an emigration-diaspora-return continuum or origin-destination continuum (Adepoju,
2008; Oucho, 1990). Demand for labour has been a driver of circular migration
in some regions. For example, contract migration for the mining sector in South
Africa, which until recently relied on the large-scale recruitment of migrants from
neighbouring countries, has been a driver of circulatory labour mobility.
The household surveys under the Africa Migration Project show that the share
of returning migrants is low, ranging from 2 per cent in Uganda to 25 per cent in
Burkina Faso (table 11; World Bank, 2013). Most migrants who return do so in less
than five years, except in Senegal, where most migrants stayed abroad for more
than 15 years, suggesting that trans-border migration, in particular its temporary
and circular pattern, is largely influenced by immediate and specific economic
needs to relieve households of economic pressures (Agadjanian, 2008).
Table 11
Returning migrants and distribution of duration of stay abroad, 2009–2010
(Percentage)
MIGRANTS WHO
RETURNED
MIGRANTS WHO
RETURNED IN
< 5 YEARS MIGRANTS WHO RETURNED IN 5–15 YEARS MIGRANTS WHO RETURNED IN > 15 YEARS
Burkina Faso
25
67
16
16
Kenya
3
57
31
12
Nigeria
4
63
28
9
Senegal
9
32
2
66
South Africa
19
68
28
5
Uganda
2
77
23
Sources: Shimeles, 2010 (data for Burkina Faso and Senegal); World Bank, 2013.
Note: Return rates are based on internal and international migrants.
58
Migration for Structural Transformation
2.4 Irregular migration
The migration data in the previous sections are based on regular migration. Irregular
migration, a feature of movements in Africa, is defined as movement that takes place
outside the regulatory norms of origin, transit and destination countries (IOM, 2013; see
Glossary). Immigration in large parts of the continent is irregular (Lucas, 2006). Owing to
its widespread nature, irregular migration is difficult to quantify.
Globally, the magnitude of irregular migration is estimated at 10–15 per cent of
international migration flows (IOM, 2010). Estimates of irregular migration are often
based on arrest records in the receiving country and/or country from which a migrant
has been deported. Estimates on the magnitude of irregular migration in Africa are few
and vary widely (Karagueuzian and Verdier-Chouchane, 2014).
The main intra-African flow of irregular migration is trans-Saharan migration in the
Agadez, the Niger–Sabha, Libya corridor, with an estimated 90 per cent of migrants on
the route planning to migrate to Europe (Karagueuzian and Verdier-Chouchane, 2014).
Irregular migration flows and stocks in Northern Africa are on the rise (Fargues, 2009;
IOM, 2008). Studies find that within Northern Africa, the main irregular migrant receiving
country is Libya, mainly because of its long border along the Sahara and its pan-African
migration policy.11 Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria and South Africa are also major destinations for
irregular migrants in Africa.
2.5 Gender component of migration
Men migrants dominate, yet women’s migration is growing in importance in Africa and
is reflected in the growing number of women migrating for work and education and to
pursue other economic opportunities. Women migrants are concentrated in particular
niches (International Centre for Migration Policy Development and IOM, 2015). For
example, in Southern Africa, the growing number of women migrants from Zimbabwe in
cross-border trade and other migratory niches is due in large part to ongoing dynamics
in socioeconomic structures, the decline in traditional, men-centred forms of livelihood
and a rise in women-headed households, in response to structural adjustment polices
(Andall, forthcoming; Muzvidziwa, 2001). At the same time, women are increasingly
11
Karagueuzian and Verdier-Chouchane (2014) define the pan-African migration policy of Libya
from the 1990s to the mid-2000s as “a diplomatic move consisting at first of official declarations, as a response to the international embargo against Libya (1992–1999) and the rapprochement with the Organization of African Unity (former African Union), and subsequently
friendly laws towards sub-Saharan migrants”.
59
Economic Development in Africa Report 2018
Africa
recorded
a slight migration,
decrease from
per cent
in 1990
to 45
per centin contract
engaging
in formal
contract
for 47.2
example
women
from
Lesotho
in 2005, recovering to 47.1 per cent in 2017. It should be noted, however,
agricultural
employment
in
South
Africa.
Other
evidence
points
to
changes
in labour
that these data are based on the gender distribution of international migration
marketstocks
dynamics
in
developed
countries,
arising
from
ageing
populations,
with
in African countries and thus do not reflect the gender distribution of demand
theskilled
migrants
that left
thethe
continent.
for highly
labour
from
developing world, including from Africa, creating new
opportunities for women doctors, nurses, teachers and other professionals (BBC News,
Figure 9 Female migrants as a percentage of the international migrant
2002; Katseli et al, 2006).
Some recent studies refer to a feminization of migration (see Pfeiffer et al, 2007),
defined as an increase in the number of women migrants, including as a proportion of
the total, yet this is not as evident in Africa compared with developed regions. United
Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs data shows that the feminization
of migration based on the share of women migrants in the total international migrant
stock has only been observed in developed countries. The stock of women migrants
increased slightly and stood above 50 per cent in 1990–2017, as shown in figure 10.
At the global level, however, there has been a slight decline, as women constituted
49 per cent of the total international migrant stock in 1990 and 48.4 per cent in
2017. A similar trend has been observed in developing countries, as the share of
women migrants in the total international migrant stock declined in 2005–2015.
Africa recorded a slight decrease, from 47.2 per cent in 1990 to 45 per cent in
2005, recovering to 47 per cent in 2017. However, the data are based on the
the stock
of international
migrants
originating
from Africa
living
genderSecond,
distribution
of international
migrant
stocks
in countries
in but
Africa
and do not
outside the continent was 6.9 million in 1990 and increased rapidly to 16.9
reflect million
the gender
distribution
of
migrants
that
have
left
the
continent.
In
addition,
in 2017 (Figure 5). Hence, with the exception of 2010, since 1990 there
comparatively,
Southern
Africa
has
consistently
reported
a
much
lower
share
and
have been more international migrants of African origin that live within the
continent
outside Africa,
but the margin
is narrowing.
Extra-continental
Northern
Africathan
experienced
a significant
decline
in women’s
migration in 1990–
migration
and migration
Africa experienced
growth than
intra-con2005. The
data suggest
that to
although
there have stronger
been increasing
numbers
of African
tinental migration during 1990-2017.
women migrating, the share of migrants has not increased at the continental level.
In 2017, share of international
women migrants
in Eastern Africa
exceeded
continental average
47%
50%
Chapter 3 explores the dynamics of men’s and women’s migration in selected countries
in Africa in more detail, to better understand these trends and what has triggered these
developments.
60
Migration for Structural Transformation
Figure 10
Women migrants as share of international migrant stock in
(a) world regions and (b) African regions
(Percentage)
A. World regions
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
1990
1995
World
2000
2005
Developed regions
2010
2015
Developing regions
2017
Africa
B. African regions
51
49
47
45
43
41
39
1990
1995
2000
2005
Eastern Africa
Middle Africa
Southern Africa
Western Africa
2010
2015
2017
Northern Africa
Source: UNCTAD calculations, based on United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs, 2017a.
61
Economic Development in Africa Report 2018
2.6 Conclusions
Migration is integral to Africa. With regard to the magnitude of migration, international
migrant stocks have increased since 1990 and remain primarily intra-African.
Youth unemployment levels on the continent are high and there is therefore a higher
propensity to migrate among youth, as evidenced by the fact that Africa has the lowest
median age of migrants in the world. Without accessible opportunities for decent work
at home, youth will continue to move, seeking job opportunities wherever they can
reasonably access them (see chapter 3).
Distinct patterns have emerged between regions. Migration in Northern Africa is
distinctly extra-continental, as reflected in its relatively higher level of extra-continental
emigration in comparison with all other regions. Rising levels of migration in Western
and Southern Africa may be linked to demand for labour in major economic hubs
in the two regions. Intra-African migration in Eastern Africa is comparatively more
diversified with regard to the origins of international migrants from Africa, with
economic factors, as well as conflict and political instability, being key drivers of
migration to the region.
Women’s migration is growing in importance in Africa, yet gender-related data show that
migration in Africa is men-dominated, with the trends suggesting that the feminization of
migration is not as evident in Africa as in other regions.
The potential implications of the observed patterns for future migration in Africa are as
follows:
(a) Intra-African migration is expected to increase with the deepening of regional
and continental integration and the facilitated movement of people. Economic
development and increased trade and transportation will enable more people to
migrate, for shorter periods of time. This could facilitate greater migration both within
and outside Africa.
(b) Given historically well-established migration zones and increasingly integrated
regional economies, sending countries can potentially harness established networks
and diasporas for growth and investment. Such networks are also important
facilitators of migration.
(c) If conflicts continue and the negative impacts of climate change are not addressed
through climate change adaptation and mitigation financing, it is likely that some
distress-push migration will continue.
(d) With regard to extra-continental migration, long-term demand for migration from
Africa may rise in line with ageing populations in Europe. Owing to a combination
62
Migration for Structural Transformation
of low fertility rates and a large informal sector in Southern Europe that typically
employs many migrants, demand for low-skilled and skilled migrants, including from
Africa, may increase.
(e) Migration to Africa has recently reverted to growth and it is expected that economic
growth and opportunities in Africa will continue to attract migrants from outside the
continent.
This chapter provided an overview of contemporary migration patterns and trends in
Africa. The following chapters further explore the characteristics and motivations of
African migrants and the impact that migration has had on economies in Africa.
63
What is a Reflective Journal?
Journals or reflective writing assignments are designed to help recognize and clarify the
important connections between what you already know and what you are learning in
your course work. It is a way of helping you to become an active, aware and critical
learner.
A journal is a form of reflective writing and IS:
Your response to experiences, opinions, events or new information
Your response to thoughts and feelings
A way of thinking to explore your learning
An opportunity to gain self-knowledge
A way to achieve clarity and better understanding of what you are learning
A way of making meaning out of our course study
A journal is NOT:
A conveyance of information, instruction or argument
Pure description, though there may be descriptive elements in your journal
Straightforward decision or judgement (i.e., good vs bad; right vs. wrong)
A summary of the article
Outline for Journal (Reflective Writing)
Your reflective journal must follow the following format:
I. Summary
II. New Learning
III. Personal Reflection
IV. Action to Be Taken
The following details the process of writing a reflective journal not to exceed 3 pages.
1. Summarized what you read – do not describe everything – be selective. Be sure
to include the article title, author’s name
2. New Learning: Contemplate the following before you begin to write:
What did I learn that was new to me?
What insights did this new knowledge give to me?
Did it help me see something in a new light?
Did it help me understand something that I didn’t understand before?
How do I think this might be useful (in my work practice, in my studies, in my
life)?
3. Personal Reflection: Contemplate the following before you begin to write:
How did I feel about what I read?
Did it affect me emotionally and if so how?
What did I like or enjoy the reading and why?
What did I dislike and why?
What did I find easy to do or understand and why?
What did I find difficult or challenging to do or understand and why?
4. Action to be taken:
Is there any action that I will take as a result of what I read?
Do I need to plug further gaps in my knowledge?
Do I want to investigate or research further?
Helpful Journal Writing Hints:
Reflect Early
Write your thoughts down soon after you read the article you are reflecting on –
don’t wait a long time and try to catch up later or rely on memory.
Be Specific – Not General!
BE SPECIFIC, NOT GENERAL
Try to give as many specific examples as possible. These examples should show
your personal reaction. Instead of writing vague, general statements such as
‘….after reading, this article will improve my communication skills’, be more
specific: ‘….knowledge gained from this article will help me improve my
presentation in class next week as I know have a greater understanding of the
topics’.
Show the Value of Your Reflection
By reflection, you should emphasize the link between what you read and learned
and its usefulness in your specific area of study or work. Explain, with examples
how it will help you in your work and in understanding ideas. In other words show
the practical and theoretical value of seeing or doing something.

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