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Part A: Essays to post on Blackboard

Respond to


essay questions.

Use notes and PowerPoints to respond to questions. Do not use internet resources.

Two typed pages, standard margins

Double spaced, 12 pt. Times News Roman font

Discuss divine and natural revelation.

Describe the attributes (components) of a religious experience.

Describe two types of Biblical Criticism

Explain the meaning of code, cult, creed as they relate to the content of faith.

How might a Christian anthropologist explain the unique status of human beings among the rest of creation.

Discuss the covenant with Abraham.

Describe at least three differences between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Foundations of Theology and
Christian Morality
LTHE 101
• Hermeneutics – Theory and methodology of interpretation
• Exegesis – Careful investigation of the original meaning of
texts in their historical and literary contexts
• Biblical Criticism – Various ways of doing biblical exegesis,
each having a specific goal and a specific set of questions.
Ways of doing biblical exegesis
1. Historical Criticism
Who is the historical Jesus?
What was the historical, social and religious contexts of the
biblical writings?
2. Form Criticism
How was the spoken word repeated over the years?
Ways of doing biblical exegesis (continued)
3. Source Criticism
What other documents did the authors of the bible use?
Ways of doing biblical exegesis (continued)
4. Redaction Criticism –
How were the edits made to the books of
the Bible?
Why were the edits made?
Ways of doing biblical exegesis (continued)
5. Literary Criticism
What is the structure of the text?
Characters, setting, speed
6. Textual Criticism
How did the early copies of the books differ?
Which copies were the earliest, most reliable?
• Multiple copies of texts
• Textual criticism
• Final form of text
• Literary criticism
• Editing the traditions
• Redaction criticism
• Written traditions
• Source criticism
• Oral traditions
• Form criticism
• The event
• Historical criticism
Rausch, Thomas P. The College Student’s Introduction to Theology, pg. 1021
Matthew 21:1-9
they approached Jerusalem and came to
Bethphage on the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent two
disciples, 2saying to them, “Go to the village ahead
of you,
Mark 11:1-10
As they approached Jerusalem and came to
Bethphage and Bethany at the Mount of Olives, Jesus
sent two of his disciples, 2saying to them, “Go to the
village ahead of you,
and at once you will find a donkey tied there, with
her colt by her.
and just as you enter it, you will find a colt tied there,
which no one has ever ridden.
Untie them and bring them to me. 3If anyone says
anything to you, say that the LORD needs them, and
he will send them right away.” 4
Untie it and bring it here. 3If anyone asks you, ‘Why
are you doing this?’ say, ‘The LORD needs it and will
send it back here shortly.'”
This took place to fulfill what was spoken through the
prophet: 5″Say to Daughter Zion, ‘See, your king
comes to you, gentle and riding on a donkey, and on
a colt, the foal of a donkey.'”
Matthew 21:1-9
disciples went and did as Jesus had instructed
brought the donkey and the colt and placed
their cloaks on them for Jesus to sit on.
Mark 11:1-10
4They went and found a colt outside in the street,
tied at a doorway. As they untied it, 5some people
standing there asked, “What are you doing, untying
that colt?” 6They answered as Jesus had told them
to, and the people let them go.
7When they brought the colt to Jesus and threw their
cloaks over it, he sat on it.
Matthew 21:1-9
Mark 11:1-10
very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road,
while others cut branches from the trees and spread
them on the road. 9
8Many people spread their cloaks on the road, while
others spread branches they had cut in the fields.
The crowds that went ahead of him and those that
followed shouted,
9Those who went ahead and those who followed
“Hosanna to the Son of David!” “Blessed is he who
comes in the name of the LORD!”
“Hosanna!” “Blessed is he who comes in the name of
the LORD!” 10″Blessed is the coming kingdom of our
father David!”
“Hosanna in the highest heaven!”
“Hosanna in the highest heaven!”
Foundations of Theology and
Christian Morality
LTHE 101
Answering the Big Questions
Who am I?
Where have I come from?
Why is there evil in the world?
What is after our life ends?
What can I know?
What should I do? What may I hope for?
• Not an abstract intellectual exercise – effects the practical
• Questions and uncertainty still remain
complete trust and confidence in
someone or something
Hebrews 11:1: “Faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction
of things not seen“
For Christians, faith is personal not just believing that Jesus is the Son of
God but believe in Him.
Married couples make a public pledge to be faithful to each other
Belief — clinging to something as true even in the absence of certitude
Faith and Reason
by Pope John Paul II 1998
Two wings of the human spirit by
which it soars to the truth
• Reason prepares way to faith
• Reason can show there is a god
• Reason without faith is inclined to error
• Faith without reason turns to superstition
• Faith stirs reason to explore paths it may not have taken
FAITH – “the center of gravity”
Primordial Faith
Human Quality
Structuring Activity
Unifying center of meaning and value
How we filter our experiences
Physical Reality
Religious Faith
Intellectual Response
Relational Response
• Prime model of faith
• Encountered the unknown
God and went from comfort
to wanderer
• Courage of conviction –
acted on what he believed
Act of Faith involves …
1. Total response of the person
2. Free response through grace
3. Fidelity – no conditions of time, health or age
4. Creative Transformation – self-transformation,
transformation of relationships with others,
transformation of the world
Content of Act of Faith
CREED – Orthodoxy
Doctrinal Content
CODE – Orthopoesis
Moral Implications
CULT – Orthopraxis
Transforming Activity Liturgy / Prayer
James Fowler – Stages of Faith Development
“Stages of Faith: The Psychology of Human Development and the
Quest for Meaning,” (1981)
Book outlines six stages of faith development that people experience
from infancy to maturity.
1940 – 2015
American Methodist Theologian
Activity – Stages of Faith Development
Foundations of Theology and
Christian Morality
LTHE 101
God-given help that allows people to know and
live a more virtuous life
directs us to
supernatural happiness
No one can come to me unless
the Father draws him (Jn 6:44)
We love because God loved us
first (1Jn 4:19)
For by grace you have been saved through faith;
and this is not your own doing, it is the gift of
God (Eph 2:8)
Inner Instinct – “interior” grace
Moves us to believe
Disposes the individual to recognize and respond
to “exterior” grace of God revelation.
1. Sanctifying – supernatural life – makes the soul holy
2. Actual – supernatural push or encouragement.
It’s a supernatural kick in the pants.
Temporary supernatural intervention by God to
enlighten the mind or strengthen the will to
perform supernatural actions that
lead to heaven.
Two Ways of Looking at Being Saved
• Saved
• Remission of our sins and our
entrance into the Christian life
• Initially justified at baptism and
then each time we go to
confession and finally in our final
• One time
• Sola fide – by faith alone
• Growth of grace and charity in a
• Once our sins our forgiven we
must grow in holiness and will
continue to do so throughout
our lives until our final
• Being saved / justified
Gifts of the Holy Spirit
Fear of the Lord
Ways to receive grace
People in our lives
Created world
“Dip in” and “ Winnowing fan”
Agricultural method developed by ancient cultures
for separating grain from chaff.

Foundations of Theology and
Christian Morality
LTHE 101
• Descendent of King David
• Observant of Jewish law
• Righteous judge
• Great military leader
• Will bring about the messianic age with peace among all nations,
perfect harmony and abundance in nature, reinstate the temple, etc.
Titles for Jesus, the Christ
Jesus – “God saves”
Son of David – Born from the line of King
Rabbi – Teacher
Immanuel / Emmanuel – “God is with us”
Redeemer – Frees from slavery
Master – Addressed by apostles
I Am – Title for God is “Iam Who am”
Suffering Servant – takes on the sins of others
and suffers for them
Alpha and Omega – first and the last
Prince of Peace – Aspect of being the
Messiah / Christ – Anointed One
Who do you say I am?
Incarnation – “into flesh”
Reasons for the Incarnation
1. In order to save us by reconciling us with God
2. We might know God’s love
3. Our model for holiness
4. Make us partakers of the divine nature
New Covenant
• Law written on hearts not on stone
• This is my blood of the covenant, which will be shed on
behalf of many for the forgiveness of sins” (Matthew 26:28).
• The death of Christ ushered in the New Covenant.
It is now possible to have the true forgiveness of sin.
• Jesus himself is the
Mediator of this
Covenant between God and man.
The divide of the Christian Church
Growing issues starting in the
1. Filioque Controversy
The Nicene Creed – the First Council of Constantinople in 381:
• “We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds
from the Father. Who with the Father and the Son is worshiped and
The change to the Nicene Creed in 589 after the Synod of Toledo, Spain:
• “We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds
from the Father and the Son. Who with the Father and the Son is
worshiped and glorified.
2. Primacy of the bishop of Rome
Eastern church – the bishop of Rome is first among equals
Western church – the bishop of Rome has immediate and direct control
over the whole church and when he speaks on matters of faith and
morals he is infallible (not able to make an error).
3. Doctrines such as the Immaculate Conception and purgatory divided
the churches.
The Great Schism
1054 – Delegation representing the pope, excommunicated the Patriarch
of Constantinople – he in turn excommunicated the pope
1965 Pope Paul VI and Patriarch of Constantinople meet and
nullify the mutual excommunication
1204 – Crusade to release Jerusalem from the control of Muslims.
The crusaders spend three days looting and vandalizing Constantinople,
the central city of the Eastern church.
5 differences between the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodox Church
1517 A.D.
1054 A.D.
Protestant Reformation
1517 Martin Luther posted his Ninety-five Theses on the door of the
Castle Church, Wittenberg, Germany.
1521 – Martin Luther excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church
Some of the issues that were the basis of the Protestant Reformation
Clerical celibacy
Faith or Faith + Works
Scripture alone is God’s revelation, not Scripture + Tradition
Foundations of Theology and
Christian Morality
LTHE 101
religare – to tie or bind together
religio – respect for what is sacred
✓Lifts us up out of our daily lives into a glimpse of another
way to view things.
✓Social circle that consists of the very old,
very young and everyone else.
✓Provides rules for living
✓Provides support
✓Discourages self-indulgent behavior
✓Moderation in all things
To give meaning to life
• Use religious narratives, symbols and traditions
• Some form of religion is found in every known culture
• Usually practiced in a public way by a group
• Can include feasts, festivals, God or gods, marriage,
funerals, music, art, sacrifice, service, rites of initiation
Rites of Passage – assist an individual to move from one phase to
another phase on the journey of life
Amish – Rumshpringa usually begins at the age of 14-16 and ends when
the child chooses to be baptized within the Amish church or chooses to
leave the community for good.
Jewish – When a boy turns 13,
he celebrates his stepping into manhood
by reading the Torah, which is held at a
synagogue followed by a small get-together.
This ceremony is called Bar Mitzvah.
Quinceanera Celebration of a girl’s fifteenth birthday to mark her
transition into womanhood.
What/Who Is Divine
Multiple gods
Hinduism, Ancient Greeks
and Romans
Single god
Judaism, Islam, Christianity
No deities
Atheism, Buddhism, Taoism
Nonhuman beings (animals, plants,
natural world)
Indigenous nature worship,
Eight Elements of Religion
1. Beliefs – Creeds; cognitive aspect
2. Access to spiritual experiences
3. Rituals – repeated physical gestures or activities used to reinforce
religious teachings, elicit spiritual feelings and connect worshiper
with God
4. Community
5. Central stories / myths
6. Ethics
7. Sacredness – Sacred space, sacred time
Father of the Jewish people (1440 BCE) 18 Million
Father of the Christian people through the Jews (30 CE) 2 Billion
Father of Islam (610 CE) 1.3 Billion
Central figure of the
Jewish Scriptures / Old Testament
• Jews worship in Synagogues
• A Jewish Religious leader is called a
Rabbi (literally ‘teacher’)
Shabbat (The Sabbath)
• The most important day of the week is Shabbat (the Sabbath). It is
the day on which Jews remember the seventh day of creation on
which God rested. On Shabbat Jews stop working and make time for
God and family life.
• Shabbat starts on Friday evening and ends at sunset on Saturday.
• Shabbat begins with the family sharing a meal.
• During Shabbat, services are held at the synagogue, often led by a
Covenant – “to cut”
• An agreement between two parties
• Sealed in blood
• Permanent
• Often accompanied by a sign
First covenant in the Bible is between God and Noah
God promises to not flood the earth again
Sign of the covenant is a rainbow
Covenant with Abraham
The covenant between Abraham and God
consisted of three separate parts:
• the promised land
• the promise of the descendants
• the promise of blessing and redemption
Early Christian Community
Jesus’ Ascension – tells Apostles to remain in Jerusalem; wait for the
gift of the Holy Spirit
Pentecost – Boldly claim faith in Jesus the Messiah
Many come to believe (3,000 in one day accept the message)
All Christians were to proclaim the message to Jews and Gentiles.
Eventually cut off from Judaism;
But kept many of the aspects of that faith
monotheism; 10 commandments; Bible (Greek translation);
sense of community; frequent meetings; leader roles defined
By 150 A. D.
Most Christians were in communities outside of Jerusalem.
Bishop was the leader in each community
Presbyters and deacons helped oversee the community.
Spoke Greek
Used the term “church” for
each community
Peter and Paul died as martyrs in Rome
Letters were exchanged between
the communities
Foundations of Theology and
Christian Morality
LTHE 101
October 15, 2019
• Grace – God given help that allows
people to know and live a more virtuous
life and directs us to supernatural
• Ritual – The prescribed words and
ceremonies for a religious service
• Worship – Giving praise to God
• Liturgy – Official worship of the Church
Physical Reality
Points to Reality
Shows another
invisible reality
1. Sacraments have a visible and invisible reality, a reality open to all
the human senses but grasped in its God-given depths with the eyes of
2. External sign of something sacred — Combines material and spiritual
Council of Trent (1545) defined seven sacraments
Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Penance,
Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony
Sacramental Worldview
Concept 1: The reality of God is mirrored in the world.
Concept 2: Grace is available through human activity and
life in the world
Concept 3: Participation in the Sacraments
Ethical Implications
Four levels of sacramentality
1. Jesus
2. Church
3. Sacraments
4. All life, activity and events are the
arena where God’s presence is
• Remind individuals of God’s presence in their
lives and calls them to prayer.
• Actions done at Mass, in which the people
are asked to participate — Holy water, ashes, palms, candles
• Other sacramentals, rosaries and medals, scapular
• Sacramentals are different from sacraments in that they have been
instituted by the Church and do not find their origin in Christ.
• Baptism we are born again
• Confirmation makes us strong
• The Eucharist furnishes our daily spiritual food
• Penance heals the soul wounded by sin
• Anointing of the Sick removes the last remnant of human frailty, and
prepares the soul for eternal life
• Holy Orders supplies ministers to the Church of God
• Matrimony gives the graces necessary for living spousal commitment and
for those who are to raise children in the love
Indelible Mark: Three sacraments, Baptism, Confirmation and Holy Orders,
impress a character on the soul and cannot be received more than once
Ways to Classify the Sacraments
• Initiation: Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist
• Healing: Reconciliation, Anointing of the Sick
• Service: Matrimony, Ordination
Benefit the individual: Baptism, Confirmation, Penance, the Eucharist,
and Anointing of the Sick
Benefit society and the Church: Orders and Matrimony,
• Initiated into a community of
• Water and Word signify going
down into the tomb with Jesus
and being raised.
• Become a “new” creation.
• Dead to sin and alive in Jesus
• Commitment to discipleship
Ethical Implications – Covenant Morality
Strengthened and sealed
Anointed with chrism oil
Ordinarily by the bishop
Marked with the Spirit
Ethical Implications – Morality of Relationships
• Source and summit of the Christian life
• Proclaiming the Word and Breaking the
• Meal of Thanksgiving
• Focal point for the community to share
their faith
Ethical Implications – Communion and Justice
Beyond faith community to human family
Anointing of the Sick
• Christ’s ministry of care,
comfort and healing
• Blessed oil is used
• Seriously ill, aged and dying
• God’s
mercy and
Ethical Implications – Compassion
To live within the perspective of God’s mercy and forgiveness
For sick and dying – perspective of hope and confidence
• Life of inclusive communion
• Sacramentalized in Church,
before the Church and for the
Holy Orders
• Preaching, teaching,
administering the sacraments
• Public servant of the Church
Ethical Implications –
Self-sacrificial love
Fidelity and Service

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