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combine the work you did for Milestones One, Two, and Three. It should be a complete, polished artifact containing all of the critical elements of the final product. It should reflect the incorporation of feedback gained throughout the course.

Your work should be submitted in the following order:

Title Page from Milestone Three

Milestone One

Milestone Two

Milestone Three

The final project for this course is the creation of a credibility analysis of a research publication. The project is divided into three milestones, which will besubmitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final submissions. These milestones will be submitted in Modules

The final product will be submitted in week Nine.In this assignment, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following course outcomes:? Analyze research designs used in the social sciences for how they produce valid and credible research? Select research publications relevant to specific topics following appropriate standards and guidelines in the social sciences ? Assess the appropriateness of the claims made in published studies relevant to specific topics in the social sciences? Interpret evidence in peer-reviewed research that support personal claims regarding a specific social sciences topicPromptFor this assessment, you will analyze and review a series of research publications for credibility, how the experiments have been designed, and how the authors’ results sections inform or do not inform their conclusions. You will choose a topic area which has three preselected research articles associated with it to perform your analysis; later in the assessment, you will be asked to locate an additional article that relates to this topic area. Following your analysis of all of the articles, you will reflect on them holistically and make claims about how they contribute to the understanding of the topic, and what future research into the topic area could explore.Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:

I. Overview: For this part of the assessment, you will summarize the important information in the preselected studies that you have chosen in order to guide your analysis later in the assessment. This will include how the research was designed, as well as the results and conclusions that were reached.

A. Describe the research design of each of the preselected studies that you have chosen. Be sure to include the specific methodology as well as the hypothesis, the variables and details on the selection of participants.

B. Describe the results of each of the studies that you chose and how the results of the studies support or do not support the research hypothesis.

C. Describe the conclusions that the authors in each of the chosen studies reached based on their results.

II. Research Analysis: For this part of the assessment, you will begin your analysis of the studies that you have selected using the information that you have previously collected. Your analysis will focus on the research design of the studies, and how the conclusions are or are not supported by the results of the studies. Following your analysis of the preselected studies, you will research and select an additional study which pertains to the topic area.

A. Compare the research methodologies used in your chosen studies and explain why these methodologies were used over other methodologies. In other words, in your comparison you could include why methodologies are informed by the hypothesis created by the author of the study. Be sure to support your response with examples and support from the chosen studies.

B. Explain why the research designs of your chosen studies ensure that the study is or is not valid, reliable, and credible. Be sure to support your response with examples and support from the chosen studies.

C. Explain how the results of your chosen studies appropriately support the conclusions that were reached. If the results do not support the conclusions reached, briefly describe the more appropriate conclusions given the results presented. In other words, you could consider the results section and how the authors used that information to reach their conclusions, even if their claims are inaccurate.

D. Select an additional research article that aligns with the appropriate standards and guidelines used in the social sciences which would help inform future research into the topic area of the chosen studies. In other words, based on what the chosen studies have demonstrated about the topic area, what present research might inform future research in this area?

E. Explain how the article you chose follows the appropriate standards and guidelines of the field. Some questions to consider: Is the article peer reviewed? Is the article relevant to the topic? Is the article still currently relevant?

F. Explain how the research article you located would help inform future research into the topic area of your chosen studies. Be sure to support your response with examples and support from the chosen studies.

III. Reflection: For this part of the assessment, you will analyze the studies for how they contribute to their topic area. Be sure to provide examples and support from the studies presented in your research analysis and incorporate your personal claims and thoughts into your responses.

A. Describe how the evidence in the chosen studies contributes to the collective understanding of the topic.

B. Explain any new conclusions that you could reach about the topic area based on the evidence provided in your chosen studies. In other words, inyour interpretation of the evidence provided in the chosen studies, what conclusions can you reach that go beyond the research?

C. Predict what future research in the topic area of the chosen studies could explore.

Milestones:

Milestone One: Reading & SummarizingIn Module Two, you will choose a set of preselected studies. Using these studies, you will summarize the important information in order to guide your analysis later in the course. This will include an overview of the methods used as well as the results and conclusions presented by the authors. This milestone will be graded with the Milestone One Rubric.

Milestone Two: AnalyzingIn Module Four, you will begin your analysis of the previously selected studies using the information you presented in Milestone One. Your analysis will focus on a critique of the research design of the studies as well as the relationship between the design, the results generated from that design, and the conclusions drawn from those results. This milestone will be graded with the Milestone Two Rubric.

Milestone Three: Expanding Upon the TopicIn Module Six, you will research and select an additional study which pertains to the topic area you selected in the earlier milestone assignments. You will also evaluate the three studies you selected for their contribution to their topic area. Finally, you will integrate the information presented in the published studies and the information learned in this class to draw your own conclusions about the topic area using appropriate evidence to support your claims.

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Reading and Summarizing
Institution Affiliation
Date
2
Prescription Drug Abuse
Prescription drug (PD) abuse is one of the problems experienced in America. Studies
have shown that PD abuse is more prevalent among young adults, who are the heaviest users.
Still, elderly patients are at a heightened risk of misusing the prescribed medicines. This
document focuses on evaluating the existing literature surrounding PD abuse and the motivation
behind it.
In their article, Conn & Marks (2014) focus on evaluating the racially/ethnic group
differences in abuse of prescription drugs (PD) within a nationally selected sample of US
adolescents. The researchers’ further purpose is to identify potential social factors that influence
such risky behavior. The article outlines that although the misuse of PD has recently shown a
significant decline, the prevalence of this problem remains stable in the adolescent population
necessitating serious corrective measures that should be taken into consideration. Studies show
that the abuse of PD is more prevalent among white adolescents compared to non-white
adolescents.
Hypothesis
The research hypothesizes that perceived peer and parental disapproval of various substance
use influences the adolescents’ attitude towards substance abuse.
The Independent And Dependent Variables
The independent variable in this study is the family and peer disapproval (positive or negative
disapproval). On the other hand, the dependent variable is the misuse of the PD.
Participants
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The participants included in the above study were US civilians and non-institutionalized
adolescents and their ages ranged from 12 to 17 years old. The researchers utilized the National
Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) in select data to apply in this research. The chosen
participants were Hispanic, African American, and White American. The chosen participants
were aged between 12 and 17 years.
The study methods
The data collection method is secondary data analysis, where NSDUH is in-person interviews
used to gather data. The audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) and computerassisted personal interviewing (CAPI).
Results:
The hypothesis was supported, findings show that 10.4% of adolescents endorsed misuse of one
or more types of PD. Compared to African and Latin adolescents, White adolescents reported a
high level of misuse of PDs.
Conclusion
The findings indicate the influence of the parents’ and peer attitudes on substance use.
Article 3: Kelly, B. C., Rendina, H. J., Vuolo, M., Wells, B. E., & Parsons, J. T. (2015).
Influences of motivational contexts on prescription drug misuse and related drug
problems. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 48(1), 49-55.
Summary
The article begins by explaining that the misuse of PD in America has become a
pandemic, especially among young adults. The article focuses on understanding the motivational
contexts (MC) that influence the misuse of PD among young adults.
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Hypothesis
The study hypothesizes that higher scores on MC are associated with higher PD misuse
frequencies.
The Independent and Dependent Variables
The independent variables used in the study are the motivation contexts (positive, negative, and
tempting situations), while the dependency variables are the frequency of misuse of PD.
Participants
In this study, the researchers utilized time-space sampling to recruit four hundred young adults
recruited from New York City. A venue-based population was applied to the youths active in
the nightlife scenes. The eligibility criteria included age between 18-29, reported misuse of the
PD at least 3 times in the last 6 months, and reported PD misuse at least once in the last 6n
months.
Study method
Survey was used as a study method to capture the data from the selected participants. The
surveys collected demographic data, information about misuse of PD, and motivational contexts.
Results
The hypothesis was supported, findings indicate that both positive and negative MC to drugs are
associated with a greater frequency of PD misuse among young adults. However, only the
negative MCs are linked directly to drug dependence and drug problems.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the article illustrates negative situations associated with the misuse of PD
are primary drivers of drug problems and symptoms of dependence among young adults.
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Addressing the negative situations can help in reducing the drug dependency problem among
young adults.
Martins, S. S., Kim, J. H., Chen, L. Y., Levin, D., Keyes, K. M., Cerdá, M., & Storr, C. L.
(2015). Nonmedical prescription drug use among US young adults by educational
attainment. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 50(5), 713-724.
Martins, Kim, Chen, Levin, Keyes, Cerdá& Storr’s (2015) in their study illustrates that
the use of Non-medical prescription drugs (NMPD) in non-college young adults in the US
remains unknown. They, therefore, focus on investigating NMPD, specifically stimulants and
opioids, and disorders linked to drug misuse varies by educational achievement, and evaluate the
sex, race/ethnicity within the education subgroups among the American young adults aged
between 18 and 22 years.
Hypothesis
The researchers hypothesize that the presence of psychological distress can be associated with
the misuse of NMPD.
Variables
The dependent variable is NMPD use. The independent variables include sex, racial or ethnic
background, education, and psychological distress.
Participants
The data used in this study was gathered from NSDUH use files. Thirty-six thousand
seven hundred eighty-one participants aged 18- 22 years were sampled between 2008,2009, and
2010. The participants incorporated in the study were selected countrywide. The participants
included in the study must have been aged between 18 and 22 years and were undertaken
between 2008 and 2010.
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Study method
The secondary data analysis method was used in collecting data needed in the study. However,
NSDUH used surveys to collect data from group of participants.
Results
The hypothesis was supported, non-college attending youths with a high school degree and
below reported a higher prevalence of NMPO use compared to the college attending young
adults. Similarly, they reported psychological distress to misuse of NMPO. The non-collecting
attending females aged from 18 to 22 years reported a higher risk of misuse of opioids compared
to malls in the same category.
Conclusions
In conclusion, the article outlines the need for the establishment of young adult
prevention and intervention program to target the misuse of the NMPD beyond the colleges.
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References
Conn, B. M., & Marks, A. K. (2014). Ethnic/racial differences in peer and parent influence on
adolescent prescription drug misuse. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral
Pediatrics, 35(4), 257-265.
Kelly, B. C., Rendina, H. J., Vuolo, M., Wells, B. E., & Parsons, J. T. (2015). Influences of
motivational contexts on prescription drug misuse and related drug problems. Journal of
substance abuse treatment, 48(1), 49-55.
Martins, S. S., Kim, J. H., Chen, L. Y., Levin, D., Keyes, K. M., Cerdá, M., & Storr, C. L.
(2015). Nonmedical prescription drug use among US young adults by educational
attainment. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology,
1
Prescription Drug Abuse
Name
Institution Affiliation
Date
2
Prescription Drug Abuse
Current/Additional Article: McCabe, S. E., Teter, C. J., Boyd, C. J., Wilens, T. E., &
Schepis, T. S. (2018). Sources of prescription medication misuse among young adults in the
United States. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 79(2), 3340. https://doi.org/10.4088/jcp.17m11958
Following Appropriate Standards and Guidelines of the Field
The selected article is highly credible. Hence, the conclusions make significant
contributions to empirical evidence on the topic. Particularly “The Journal of Clinical
Psychiatry” is credible and recognized nationally among healthcare practitioners and scholars.
The article is relevant as it explores the abuse of prescription drugs by the study group.
Moreover, the study is based large sample, so the results can be conclusive for the national
population. Finally, this article is useful since it is current (published within the last 5 years) and
builds on the conclusions and limitations of the preselected studies and other previous empirical
evidence. Moreover, the study was based on data from the 2009-2014 National Survey and
captured recent trends in prescriptive drug misuse for the study group.
How the Study Help in Future Studies in the Topic Area
This study explored and integrated different variables, including substance abuse
disorders (SUD) symptoms, other substance use, sources of PDM, and educational status, to have
better insights on the topic. This study examined the differences in PDM among young adults
based on their educational status from the symptoms perspectives, and the results show
significant differences among different groups. Those not attending college, especially the high
school dropout, reported the highest incidence of abuse of sedatives/tranquilizers and
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prescription opioids which were most prevalent (McCabe et al., 2018). Controlling for age, sex,
and race/ethnicity, the results confirmed the highest incidences of past year Sedative/tranquilizer
and opioid use disorder (McCabe et al., 2018).
Conversely, college students/graduates reported the highest incidences of prescription
stimulant misuse. Lifetime prevalence is higher among college graduates, and full-time college
students report higher rates of past year abuse (McCabe et al., 2018). However, controlling for
age, sex, and race/ethnicity, those not in college showed the highest rates of abuse. Hence this
study shows that educational status determines the kind of possible drug misuse, and age, sex,
and race/ethnicity are significant covariables. Moreover, the study reported high risks of higher
opioid misuse for college students than in previous national studies.
Friends and families are the main sources of the misuse of prescription drugs. Education
status is an important factor, with those from college most likely to obtain free from friends and
relatives than those in high school, college graduates, or those not in college (McCabe et al.,
2018). Individuals with concurrent substance use and past year SUDs were most likely to obtain
drugs from multiple sources or theft and fake prescriptions than other groups (McCabe et al.,
2018). Moreover, the majority of the past month’s PDM incidences and for multiple sources had
past-year SUDs. Therefore, this study helps informs the criteria for assessment of an individual
young adult risk factor for PDM, including engagement and the possible source.
Contribution of the Preselected and Additional Studies on Collective Understanding of the
Topic
4
Both preselected studies and McCabe et al. (2018) show that PDM is a common problem
among young adults in the US, and there is a significant difference in prevalence and rates among
different groups. Conn & Marks (2014) showed that ethnic/ racial status affects misuse with the
most significant risk in white than non-white adolescents. Kelly et al. (2015) describes the situation
in America as turning into a pandemic. McCabe et al. (2018) and Martins et al. (2015) show that
PDM is influenced by education status and attainment, respectively. Moreover, the selected studies
show the significance of the external environment, including families and friends, in influencing
PDM. Both positive and negative motivational contexts (MC) and tempting situations influence
the frequency of PDM among young adults (Kelly et al., 2015). Peer and parents’ disapproval
influence adolescents’ attitudes toward substance abuse (Conn & Marks (2014). The educational
attainment of peers and parents influences their nonmedical prescription drug use and especially
the white with lower educational attainment increasing risks. According to McCabe et al. (2018),
the main source of prescription drugs for misuse are friends and families and especially among
college students.
What Future Research in the Topic Area Could Explore
A hypothesis for future study could include, “white undergraduate college graduates and
students show higher prescription stimulant misuse than non-white college graduates and
students and can be associated with educational attainment, employment status or family income.
The participant group for the study is a national sample between 2015-2019. A national survey(s)
that measure PDM status, education status/attainment, employment/daily activity, and
psychological status are most relevant.
Reflection on the Overall Topic
5
Value of the Additional Article Against Limitations
McCabe et al. (2018) main limitation is the study design since a cross-sectional study
does not provide causal determinations of relationships. Moreover, the study was based on selfreports, showing risks of misclassification and underreporting. However, despite its limitations,
the study shows the need to address PDM and SUD among noncollege students, especially
school dropouts. Second social contexts play a significant role since there is sharing between
college students and graduates. Finally, education status is an important factor in influencing
PDM.
Contributions of the Article in the Understanding of the Topic
Conn and Marks (2014) show the influence of the parents’ and peer attitudes on substance
use with greater risks among whites than non-whites. Kelly et al. (2015) shows negative
situations associated with the misuse of PD are primary drivers of PDM among young adults.
Martins et al. (2015) clarify the increased risks of PDM among young adults and the need to
establish young adult prevention and intervention program to target the misuse of the NMPD
beyond the colleges.
New Conclusions From all the Studies
Young adults in college and beyond are at high risk of prescription drug abuse, and closer
attention should be paid to key factors influencing prevalence and frequency.
An Idea on Future Direction of the Research and Recommendations
An idea for the future direction of the research is to examine how PDM compares among
college students and graduates with peers (high school dropouts) from different backgrounds,
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including race/ethnicity, family income status and education backgrounds, and their daily
activities. A major recommendation is to focus on a specific type, such as prescription stimulant
misuse, opioid misuse, and Sedative/tranquilizer use disorder, as informed by McCabe et al.
(2018).
References
7
Conn, B. M., & Marks, A. K. (2014). Ethnic/Racial differences in peer and parent influence on
adolescent prescription drug misuse. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral
Pediatrics, 35(4), 257-265. https://doi.org/10.1097/dbp.0000000000000058
Kelly, B. C., Rendina, H. J., Vuolo, M., Wells, B. E., & Parsons, J. T. (2015). Influences of
motivational contexts on prescription drug misuse and related drug problems. Journal of
Substance Abuse Treatment, 48(1), 49-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2014.07.005
Martins, S. S., Kim, J. H., Chen, L., Levin, D., Keyes, K. M., Cerdá, M., & Storr, C. L. (2014).
Nonmedical prescription drug use among US young adults by educational
attainment. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50(5), 713724. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-014-0980-3
McCabe, S. E., Teter, C. J., Boyd, C. J., Wilens, T. E., & Schepis, T. S. (2018). Sources of
prescription medication misuse among young adults in the United States. The Journal of
Clinical Psychiatry, 79(2), 33-40. https://doi.org/10.4088/jcp.17m11958

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