+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com

Instructions

Please upload a Word document using APA format for this assignment (see attached for the template). Where applicable, you must show your derivations, analysis and how you obtained the responses/answers. Use title page, in-text citations, references, appropriate font size, double spaces, etc. where appropriate. The assignment will be graded for content and APA formatting. See the following criteria below.

Paper meets the specified pages or word length, demonstrates thorough understanding of the reading assignment, reflects critical thought, and relates to course content and/or industry applications.

No length requirement, but all work must be shown and/or explained.

20

Ideas and concepts are supported through resources and/or personal experiences. Ã‚Â Work exhibits truthful and verifiable statements and mathematical formulae and derivations used where applicable.

40

Posts are free of writing errors (syntax, grammar, etc.)

Try to avoid using needless fillers i.e. that. I did not count those as errors this time. Also, free of APA format errors.

___ Errors Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 1-4 =.9 5-7= .8, 8-10= .7, 11-12= .6, 13-14= .5, 15-17= .4, 18= .3, 19= .2, 20= .1, 21 or more 0.

40

Total

100

Assignment Questions:

Please show all work for this assignment and explain your derivations. Lack of step-by-step work will not be credited. Partial credit will be given for step-by-step description of answer.

a. NAAQS were established for six principal pollutants. Describe each and give examples of each applicable pollutant. (10 points)

b. In HepburnÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s Speed Model, the coefficients of vehicles are indicated for C and D. As the chief of operations in your organization, you are responsible for presenting the yearly budget for the semi trucks in your companyÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s inventory. Since your safety officer is insisting that each of your drivers must maintain an average speed of 55mph, what would be the vehicle operating cost of your company for each semi-truck in cent per mile? ____(10 points)

c. A taxi driver plans to pick you up at the airport and drop you off at the bank so you can complete some financial transaction before you head home. He notes that the change in vehicle operating cost (VOC) is 42 cents per mile. Given that his fuel consumption per minute is 0.2, what is the approximate price of fuel for this given arrangement if you delayed the driver for 36 minutes at the bank? ____(10 points)

d. The simple interest for buying a passenger transit rail is shown as the product of the principle amount (P), time (in years), and annual rate (R). The City of Phoenix plans to buy five additional mass transit cars for \$15 million, and pay off its loan in 30 years. What would the annual percentage rate be if the city plans to make an interest payment of \$2 million? ____(10 points)

e. In a box model, the maximum distance to transport particle across a city is calculated as follows: Approximate length of one side is 30 miles, width is 28 miles and the mixing height is 2 miles. Ã‚Â To the nearest mile, what will be this distance? ____(10 points)

f. In a box model, the maximum distance to transport particle across a city is calculated as follows: Approximate length of one side is 30 miles, width is 28 miles and the mixing height is 2 miles. For a pollutant particle emitted on one side of the town, what is the maximum time it will take to be transported across the city with wind velocity of 10 miles per hour (to the nearest hour)? ____(12 points)

g. In a box model, the maximum distance to transport particle across a city is calculated as follows: Approximate length of one side is 30 miles, width is 28 miles and the mixing height is 2 miles. Ã‚Â To the nearest hour what will be the average time it will take a particle to travel from one side to the other (to the nearest hour)? ____(12 points)

h. If you are the planning engineer for an apartment complex your organization plans to build close to the highway and you know that your potential tenants will complain of traffic noise hazards. You want to assure them that you have adequately carried out the noise impact analysis. Given that the sea level pressure is 0.00002N/m, to ensure that pressure level does not exceed 12 decibels, the sound pressure of concern must be___________ (in N/m). ____(13 points)

i. In the Rocky Mountain region, there are endangered species like jumping mice and burrowing owls that are protected by the EPA. If you want to build a roadway to facilitate traffic congestions in Denver, part of your plan will include using SimpsonÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s diversity index to calculate the number of organisms in two communities. If EPA warned you that there are 400 burrowing owls in proposed region Community A and 500 burrowing owls in proposed region Community B, determine SimpsonÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s diversity index for community A. ____(13 points)

1
Title
Class, Section, Term
American Public University
Professor Alfred Einstein
Date
ABBREVIATED TITLE (No more than 50 letters and spaces)
2
Anxiety Made Visible: Multiple Reports of Anxiety and Rejection Sensitivity
Introduction
Our study investigated anxiety and rejection sensitivity. In particular, we examined
how participant self-ratings of state and trait anxiety and rejection sensitivity would differ
from the ratings of others, namely, the close friends of participants.
Literature Overview
Anxiety and rejection sensitivity are two important facets of psychological
functioning that have received much attention in the literature. For example, Ronen and
Baldwin (2010) demonstrated….
Method
Participants
Participants were 80 university students (35 men, 45 women) whose mean age was
20.25 years (SD = 1.68). Approximately 70% of participants were European American,
15% were African American, 9% were Hispanic American, and 6% were Asian American.
They received course credit for their participation.
Procedure
Recruitment. We placed flyers about the study on bulletin boards around campus,
and the study was included on the list of open studies on the Psychology Department
website. To reduce bias in the sample, we described the study as a Ã¢â‚¬Å“personality studyÃ¢â‚¬Â
rather than specifically mentioning our target traits of anxiety and rejection sensitivity.
ABBREVIATED TITLE (No more than 50 letters and spaces)
3
Session 1: Psychiatric diagnoses. During the initial interview session, doctoral level
psychology students assessed participants for psychiatric diagnoses. Eighteen percent of
the sample met the criteria for generalized anxiety disorder according to the Structured
Clinical Interview for DSMÃ¢â‚¬â€œIV Axis I Disorders (First, Gibbon, Spitzer, & Williams,
1996).
Session 2: Assessments. All participants attended a follow-up session to complete
assessments. Participants were instructed to bring a friend with them who would complete
the other-report measures.
Self-report measures. We first administered several self-report measures, as follows.
State and trait anxiety. Participants took the StateÃ¢â‚¬â€œTrait Anxiety Inventory for Adults
(STAIÃ¢â‚¬â€œA; Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983), a 40-item self-report
measure to assess anxiety.
Rejection sensitivity. Participants took the Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (RSQ;
Downey & Feldman, 1996), an 18-item self-report measure that assesses rejection
sensitivity.
Other-report measures. We also included other-report measures to obtain
independent sources of information about participantsÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ levels of anxiety and rejection
sensitivity.
State and trait anxiety. We adapted the STAIÃ¢â‚¬â€œA so that questions referred to the
target participant rather than the self.
ABBREVIATED TITLE (No more than 50 letters and spaces)
4
Rejection sensitivity. We adapted the RSQ so that questions referred to the target
participant rather than the self.
Results
State and Trait Anxiety
State anxiety.
Self-report data. For state anxiety, participant self-report data indicated that
participants were significantly less likely….
Other-report data. For state anxiety, other-report data indicated that friends of
participants were significantly more likely….
Trait anxiety.
Self-report data. For trait anxiety, participant self-report data indicated that
participants were significantly less likely….
Other-report data. For trait anxiety, other-report data indicated that friends of
participants were significantly more likely….
Rejection Sensitivity
The results for rejection sensitivity paralleled those for anxiety, demonstrating that….
Discussion
Strengths and Limitations
Some of the strengths of our research were….
ABBREVIATED TITLE (No more than 50 letters and spaces)
5
Directions for Future Research
In the future, we hope that researchers will consider multiple sources of information
when making assessments of anxiety. We also recommend….
Entire example attributed to (Lee, 2011).
ABBREVIATED TITLE (No more than 50 letters and spaces)
6
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢
The title of the paper is not in bold. Only the headings at Levels 1Ã¢â‚¬â€œ4 use bold. See
this post for a clarification on when to use boldface.
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢
Every paper begins with an introduction. However, in APA Style, the heading
Ã¢â‚¬Å“IntroductionÃ¢â‚¬Â is not used, because what comes at the beginning of the paper is
assumed to be the introduction.
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢
The first heading comes at Level 1. In this paper, the first heading is Ã¢â‚¬Å“Literature
Overview,Ã¢â‚¬Â so it goes at Level 1. Your writing style and subject matter will
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢
Subsequent headings of equal importance to the first heading also go at Level 1
(here, Method, Results, and Discussion).
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢
For subsections, we recommend that if you are going to have them at all, you
should aim for at least two (e.g., the Literature Overview section has no
ABBREVIATED TITLE (No more than 50 letters and spaces)
7
subsections, whereas the Method section has two Level 2 subsections, and one of
those Level 2 sections is further divided into three sections, etc.). Again, the
number of subsections you will need will depend on your topic and writing style.
Ã¢â‚¬Â¢
Level 3, 4, and 5 headings are indented, followed by a period, and run in with the
text that follows. If there is no intervening text between a Level 3, 4, or 5 heading
and another lower level heading following it, keep the period after the first
heading and start the next heading on a new line (e.g., see Ã¢â‚¬Å“State anxietyÃ¢â‚¬Â and
Ã¢â‚¬Å“Trait anxietyÃ¢â‚¬Â at Level 3 in the Results section, which are immediately followed
by lower level headings and text). Begin each heading on a new line; do not run
headings together on the same line.
Entire example attributed to (Lee, 2011).
References
Lee, C. (2011, April 14). How to Use Five Levels of Heading in an APA Style Paper.
Finally, the reference page. The reference page has the word appears at the top of the
page centered. Also, the reference page has double space entries and there is a hanging Ã‚Â½
inch hanging indention on the 2nd and proceeding lines.
ABBREVIATED TITLE (No more than 50 letters and spaces)
8
TLMT601-Transportation Economics
Math Tutorial Guide
Problem Examples
Transportation Demand, Statistical Analysis of
Economic Relations, Vehicle Operating Costs &
Interest Calculation, Box Model, & Programming
Problems
In trip calculation, it is observed that a Wal-Mart store driver successfully made a total of 104
trips in a given period of time. During field calculation, it is shown that the calculated number of
trips is actually 128. What is the value of the trip adjustment factor?
Ã°Ââ€˜â€¡Ã°Ââ€˜â€“Ã°Ââ€˜â€” Ã°Ââ€˜Å“Ã°Ââ€˜ÂÃ°Ââ€˜Â Ã°Ââ€˜â€™Ã°Ââ€˜Å¸Ã°Ââ€˜Â£Ã°Ââ€˜â€™Ã°Ââ€˜â€˜
Ã°ÂÂÂ¾Ã°Ââ€˜â€“Ã°Ââ€˜â€” =
Ã°Ââ€˜â€¡Ã°Ââ€˜â€“Ã°Ââ€˜â€” (Ã°Ââ€˜ÂÃ°Ââ€˜Å½Ã°Ââ€˜â„¢Ã°Ââ€˜ÂÃ°Ââ€˜Â¢Ã°Ââ€˜â„¢Ã°Ââ€˜Å½Ã°Ââ€˜Â¡Ã°Ââ€˜â€™Ã°Ââ€˜â€˜)
Kij=Tij(observed)/Tij(calculated)
Tij(observed) = 104
Tij(calculated) = 128
Kij= 104/128
Kij = .8125
2
Travel Demand
It is shown that the population of New York City, NY is much greater than that of Irvington, NJ.
Employment opportunities, malls, social activities and tourist sites in New York City are therefore
more than that in Irvington. If attractiveness for New York and Irvington are therefore 1,800 and
180 respectively and if the calculated impedance of migration is known to be 1.57, based on
Gravity-Based model, estimate in demand the number of people who travel between Irvington, NJ
and New York City per week.
Ã°Ââ€˜â€°Ã°ÂÂÂ´Ã°ÂÂÂµ = Ã°Ââ€˜ÂÃ°ÂÂÂ´ Ã°Ââ€˜ÂÃ°ÂÂÂµ Ã°ÂÂÂ¼Ã°ÂÂÂ´Ã°ÂÂÂµ
Vab = Na*Nb*Iab
Vab = demand for transportation between New York and Irvington, Na = New York City=1800,
Nb = Irvington=180, travel impedance = 1.57
Vab = 1800x180x1.57 = 508,680 people per week
3
Linear Aggregate Demand
Elasticity can be defined as percentage change in demand for a 1% change in decision attribute.
For linear aggregate demand, what is the mathematical representation/formula for this statement?
You must define the parameters you choose to use for this answer.
x = mode type, trip purpose, time of day, trip length, trip-maker characteristics, existing level of
factor
V = the point elasticity of travel demand
4
Arc Elasticity of Vehicle Traffic
In the City of Joplin, due to weather devastation and hurricane effects, the cost of parking in the
local Square has increased by 20%. This change has not only reduced the number of vehicles that
travel to the Square by 5%, but it has also forced the inhabitants of Joplin to use buses. Bus trips
have therefore increased to 20%. With respect to the cost of parking in the local Square, determine
the elasticity of vehicle traffic.
initial parking price = p1
final parking price =p2=1.20p1
initial transit demand = Vt1
final transit demand=Vt2=1.20Vt1
initial auto demand =Va1
final auto demand=Va2=.95Va1
eTP=(Va2-Va1)(p1+p2)/2/(p2-p1)(Va1+Va2)/2
=(.95Va1-Va1)(p1+1.20p1)/2/{(1.2p1-p1)(Va1+.95Va1)/2}
= -.28205
(0.05) *
0.20 *
2.20 =
1.95 =
(0.11) /
0.39 /
2.00 =
2.00 =
(0.06) /
0.20
0.20 =
-0.28205
5
Arc Elasticity of Bus Traffic
In the City of Joplin, due to weather devastation and hurricane effects, the cost of parking in the
local Square has increased by 20%. This change has not only reduced the number of vehicles that
travel to the Square by 5%, but it has also forced the inhabitants of Joplin to use buses. Bus trips
have therefore increased to 20%. With respect to the cost of parking in the local Square, determine
the elasticity of bus transit.
initial parking price = p1
final parking price =p2=1.20p1
initial transit demand = Vt1
final transit demand=Vt2=1.20Vt1
initial auto demand =Va1
final auto demand=Va2=.95Va1
eTP=(Vt2-Vt1)(p1+p2)/2/(p2-p1)(Vt1+Vt2)/2
=(1.20Vti-Vti)(p1+1.2p1)/2/{(1.20p1-p1)(Vt1+1.20Vt1)/2}
=1
6
Average Cost
In your own words, describe the meaning of average cost. You normally buy a crate of wine for
\$75. One crate has 6 bottles of wine. After a month, the store clerk informs you that the same crate
of wine now costs \$82. However, there are 7 bottles in a crate. To the nearest cent, determine the
average cost of the crate from last month to now. (20 points)
Average Costs: The average total cost, ATC, is the total cost associated with 1 unit of output. It is calculated as the ratio of the
total cost to the output: ATC = TC /V , where TC is the total cost and V is the volume (output). The average fixed cost, AFC, is the
fixed cost associated with 1 unit of output and is calculated as the ratio of the fixed cost to the output, AFC = FC /V . Similarly, the
average variable cost is the cost of 1 unit of output and is calculated as the ratio of the variable cost to the output, AVC = VC /V .
The concept of average costs is useful in the economic evaluation of transportation system improvements because it helps assess
the cost impacts of improvements at a given supply level.
75/6=\$12.50 per bottle 82/7=\$11.71 per bottle 12.50-11.71= .79 difference in bottle cost
75-82=-7, or a case has increased in cost by \$7.00
7
Marginal Cost
In your own words, describe the meaning of marginal cost. You normally buy a crate of wine for
\$75. One crate has 6 bottles of wine. After a month, the store clerk informs you that the same crate
of wine now costs \$82. However, there are 7 bottles in a crate. To the nearest cent, determine the
marginal cost for one additional bottle of wine now. (20 points)
Marginal Cost: The marginal cost of a transportation good or service is the incremental cost of producing an additional unit of
output. The terms of incremental cost, differential cost, and marginal cost have essentially similar meaning but typically are used in
contexts that have very subtle differences. Incremental cost is a small increase in cost. Differential cost is the ratio of a small
increment of cost to a small increase in production output. Marginal cost analysis is relevant in transportation system evaluation
because an agency may seek the incremental cost changes in response to planned or hypothetical production of an additional unit
of output with respect to facility construction, preservation, or operations. Marginal cost and average cost can differ significantly.
For example, suppose that an agency spends \$10 million to build a 10-mile highway and \$10.5 million to build a similar 11-mile
highway, the average costs are \$1 million and \$0.954 million, respectively, but the marginal cost of the additional mile is \$0.5
million. The expressions related to marginal cost are as follows: Marginal variable cost: MVC = Ã¢Ë†â€š VC Ã¢Ë†â€šV Marginal total cost:
MTC = Ã¢Ë†â€š TC Ã¢Ë†â€šV = Ã¢Ë†â€š FC Ã¢Ë†â€šV + Ã¢Ë†â€š VC Ã¢Ë†â€šV = Ã¢Ë†â€š VC Ã¢Ë†â€šV = MVC Like average cost, marginal cost concepts help an agency or shipper to
evaluate the cost impacts of various levels of output or the additional cost impact of moving from a certain output level to another.
12.50-11.71= .79 difference in bottle cost
75-82=-7 or a case has increased in cost by \$7.00
8
Unit Travel
In your own words, describe the meaning of unit travel. When traveling on a Greyhound bus,
without intervention or obstruction, it is important to determine the unit travel time. If you leave
Cleveland in a bus full of 24 passengers and arrive Cincinnati in 3 hours, what will be the average
unit travel time in person minutes? (20 points)
Unit travel: Unit in-vehicle travel time per traveler, U 1 = OCC Ãƒâ€” TT V where TT V is the average vehicular operating travel time
and OCC is the average vehicle occupancy. In cases where the travel speeds of trucks and other commercial vehicles are
significantly different from passenger vehicles, separate travel time estimates should be made for each vehicle class.
Assuming that 24 passengers include me, the average unit travel time will be 24 x 180 = 4320 without interruption. 3 hours = 180
minutes multiplied by 24 passengers.
9
Vehicle Operating Cost
Vehicle costs are direct expenses that include the fixed and variable costs of ownership. These
variable costs are typically referred to as the Vehicle Operating Costs, or VOC. These costs vary
based on use and are normally expressed in cents per mile. VOC savings are based on
transportation improvements that result in reduced VOCs compared to an established baseline
cost.
10
HepburnÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s VOC Speed Model
Example: In HepburnÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s Speed Model, the coefficients of vehicles are indicated for C and D. As
the chief of operations in your organization, you are responsible for presenting the yearly budget
for the semi trucks in your companyÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s inventory. Since your safety officer is insisting that each of
your drivers must maintain an average speed of 55mph, what would be the vehicle operating cost
of your company for each semi-truck in cent per mile?
VOC = a0 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ a1S + a2S2
VOC = 38.1 – (0.093 X 55) + (0.00033 X 552)
Variables Source:
VOC = 38.1 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ (5.115) + (0.99825)
VOC = 33.9833
11
Change in Fuel for delay
Example: A taxi driver plans to pick you up at the airport and drop you off at the bank so you can
complete some financial transaction before you head home. He notes that the change in vehicle
operating cost (VOC) is 42 cents per mile. Given that his fuel consumption per minute is 0.2, what
is the approximate price of fuel for this given arrangement if you delayed the driver for 48
minutes at the bank? (See p. 164)
Change in fuel VOC = g(d0-d1)p
VOC = Vehicle Operating Cost = 42 cents/mile
g= fuel consumption per minute = 0.2
D0-D1 = change in delay = 48 minutes
p = price of fuel
42 = 0.2 (48) p
p = 42/0.2(48)
p = 42/9.6
p = \$4.375 = \$4.38
12
Simple Interest
Example: The simple interest for buying a passenger transit rail is shown as the product of the
principle amount (P), time (in years), and annual rate (R). The City of Phoenix plans to buy five
additional mass transit cars for \$15 million, and pay off its loan in 10 years. What would the
annual percentage rate be if the city plans to make an interest payment of \$2 million?
The formula needed is i = (p)(10(r) or r = i/(p)(t)
i= interest paid = \$2 million
p = principal loan = \$15 million
t = time = 10 years
r = 2M/(15M x 10)
r = 1.33% is the interest rate.
13
Air Quality: Box Model #1 (Maximum Distance)
In a pollutant dispersion or box model, solve for the maximum distance for particle transport
across a city (shown as D). If the approximate length of one side is 40 miles, width is 28 miles and
the mixing height is 2miles, to the nearest mile what will be this distance? (See Sinha and Labi,
2007, p. 266)
The box model assumes a uniform distribution of pollutants within a space. The problem asks us to solve
for the maximum distance across the box. The formula for solving for the maximum distance:
Max distance =D= Ã¢Ë†Å¡(a^2+b^2+H^2 )
The variables in this equation are:
D= Maximum distance = variable we are solving for
a= length= 40 miles
b= width= 28 miles
H=mixing height= 2 miles
Solving for D:
D= Ã¢Ë†Å¡(a^2+b^2+H^2 )
D= Ã¢Ë†Å¡(Ã£â‚¬â€“40Ã£â‚¬â€”^2+Ã£â‚¬â€“28Ã£â‚¬â€”^2+2^2 )= D= Ã¢Ë†Å¡(1600+784+4)= D= Ã¢Ë†Å¡2388= 48.867 miles
The problem asks for D to the nearest mile therefore:
D= 49 miles
14
Air Quality: Box Model #2 (Max. Transp. Time)
In a pollution dispersion or box model, solve for the maximum transport time across the box. If the
approximate length of one side is 40 miles, width is 28 miles and the mixing height is 2miles. For a
pollutant particle emitted on one side of the town, what is the maximum time it will take to be transported
across the city with wind velocity of 8 miles per hour (to the nearest hour)? (See Sinha and Labi, 2007,
p. 266)
The box model assumes a uniform distribution of pollutants within a space. The problem asks us to solve for the maximum
transport time across the box. The formula for solving for the maximum distance (Sinha and Labi, 2007, p. 266) is:
Max distance =D= Ã¢Ë†Å¡(a^2+b^2+H^2 )
The formula for solving maximum transport time is:
tmax= (distance )/speed=d/v= (Ã¢Ë†Å¡(a^2+b^2+H^2 ) )/(v )
The variables in this equation are:
D= Maximum distance = solved for in problem a= 49 miles
a= length= 40 miles
b= width= 28 miles
H=mixing height= 2 miles
V= 8 miles/ hour
Since we solved for D and found it to be 49 miles in problem A, I can use the simple formula to solve.
tmax= (distance )/speed=d/v=(49 miles )/(8 miles per hour)= 6.125 hours
The problem calls for the maximum time it will take to be transported across the city to be rounded to the nearest hour.
tmax= 6 hours
15
Air Quality: Box Model #3 (Average Time)
In a pollutant dispersion or box model, solve for the average time for particle transport across a
city (shown as D). If the approximate length of one side is 40 miles, width is 28 miles and the
mixing height is 2miles, to the nearest hour what will be the average time it will take a particle to
travel from one side to the other (to the nearest hour)? (See Sinha and Labi, 2007, p. 266)
Max distance =D= Ã°Ââ€˜Å½2 + Ã°Ââ€˜Â 2 + Ã°ÂÂÂ»2
D was solved in problem a and found to be 49 miles
The formula for solving average transport time is:
Ã°ÂÂÂ·
Timeavg=tavg=2Ã°Ââ€˜Â£ =
Ã°Ââ€˜Å½2 +Ã°Ââ€˜Â2 +Ã°ÂÂÂ» 2
2Ã°Ââ€˜Â£
See next slideÃ¢â‚¬Â¦
16
Air Quality: Box Model #3 cont.
The variables in this equation are:
D= Maximum distance = solved for in problem a= 49 miles
a= length= 40 miles
b= width= 28 miles
H=mixing height= 2 miles
V= 8 miles/ hour
Solving for the average time:
Since we solved for D and found it to be 49 miles in problem A, I can use the simple formula to solve.
Ã°ÂÂÂ·
=
2Ã°Ââ€˜Â£
Timeavg=tavg=
Ã°Ââ€˜Å½2 +Ã°Ââ€˜Â2 +Ã°ÂÂÂ» 2
49 Ã°Ââ€˜Å¡Ã°Ââ€˜â€“Ã°Ââ€˜â„¢Ã°Ââ€˜â€™Ã°Ââ€˜Â
49 Ã°Ââ€˜Å¡Ã°Ââ€˜â€“Ã°Ââ€˜â„¢Ã°Ââ€˜â€™Ã°Ââ€˜Â
=
=
= 3. 0625
2Ã°Ââ€˜Â£
2Ã¢Ë†â€”8 Ã°Ââ€˜Å¡Ã°Ââ€˜â€“Ã°Ââ€˜â„¢Ã°Ââ€˜â€™Ã°Ââ€˜Â  Ã°Ââ€˜ÂÃ°Ââ€˜â€™Ã°Ââ€˜Å¸ Ã¢â€žÅ½Ã°Ââ€˜Å“Ã°Ââ€˜Â¢Ã°Ââ€˜Å¸
16 Ã°Ââ€˜Å¡Ã°Ââ€˜â€“Ã°Ââ€˜â„¢Ã°Ââ€˜â€™Ã°Ââ€˜Â  Ã°Ââ€˜ÂÃ°Ââ€˜â€™Ã°Ââ€˜Å¸ Ã¢â€žÅ½Ã°Ââ€˜Å“Ã°Ââ€˜Â¢Ã°Ââ€˜Å¸
The problem calls for the average time it will take to be transported across the city to be rounded to the
nearest hour.
tavg= 3 hours
17
Noise Impact Analysis
If you are the planning engineer for an apartment complex your organization plans to build close
to the highway and you know that your potential tenants will complain of traffic noise hazards.
You want to assure them that you have adequately carried out the noise impact analysis. Given
that the sea level pressure is 0.00002N/m, to ensure that pressure level does not exceed 10
decibels, the sound pressure of concern must be___________ (in N/m)
The problem asks us to solve for the sound pressure of concern.
The formula for solving for the sound pressure is (Sinha and Labi, 2007, p. 287):
Ã°Ââ€˜Â2
Ã°Ââ€˜Â0
SPL (dB) = 10 log10 2
The variables in this equation are:
SPL (dB)= Sounds pressure level in decibels = 10 decibels
p= the sound pressure of concern = the variable we are solving for.
Ã°Ââ€˜Â0 = the reference pressure at sea level = 0.00002N/m
See next slideÃ¢â‚¬Â¦
18
Noise Impact Analysis cont.
The Math involved:
SPL(db) = 10 log 10 * (p2 / po2)
This is not a math class, nor does it have math prerequisites. As such, to help solve the equation,
go to the following link for assistance in providing the math steps:
Then, input the formula with the
new variables here (see at right):
This calculator will provide the
Correct math steps, if the formula
Is entered correctly.
19
Ecological Impact: Diversity of Species
In the Rocky Mountain region, there are endangered species like jumping mice and burrowing
owls that are protected by the EPA. If you want to build a roadway to facilitate traffic congestions
in Denver, part of your plan will include using SimpsonÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s diversity index to calculate the number
of organisms in two communities. If EPA warned you that there are 300 burrowing owls in
proposed region Community A and 300 burrowing owls in proposed region Community B,
determine SimpsonÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s Diversity Index for community A.
In this problem we are asked to solve for SimpsonÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s diversity index in community A.
The formula for solving diversity index is (Sinha and Labi, 2007, p. 321):
Ã°Ââ€˜Â (Ã°Ââ€˜Â Ã¢Ë†â€™ 1)
Ã°ÂÂÂ·=
Ã°Ââ€˜â€º1 Ã°Ââ€˜â€º1 Ã¢Ë†â€™ 1 + (Ã°Ââ€˜â€º2 (Ã°Ââ€˜â€º2 Ã¢Ë†â€™ 1)
The variables in the equation are:
D= SimpsonÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s diversity index for the ecosystem
N=the total number of burrowing owls in both ecosystems = 300 + 300 = 600 owls
Ã°Ââ€˜â€º1 = the number of burrowing owls in Community A = 300 owls
Ã°Ââ€˜â€º2 = the number of burrowing owls in Community B = 300 owls
20
Ecological Impact: Diversity of Species cont.
Solving for the diversity index:
D=
600 (600Ã¢Ë†â€™1)
300 300Ã¢Ë†â€™1 +(300(300Ã¢Ë†â€™1)
600Ã¢Ë†â€”599
300Ã¢Ë†â€”299+300Ã¢Ë†â€”299
359,400
D=
89,700+89,700
359,400
Ã°ÂÂÂ· =
=2
179,400
D=
SimpsonÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s Diversity Index is 2.
21