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ANTH 100 – Theory and History of Biological Anthropology
Summer 2022
Midterm Exam Questions
Midterm (30% of nal grade)
Deadline: Friday, July 8th by 12:00 PM (NOON)
Please respond to BOTH of the following essay prompts (3-4 pages each). Be aware of
how we will grade based on the point breakdowns and provide clear, complete explanations to
each part of the prompts. Since you will be completing these responses at home, I expect (1)
speci c examples from the readings (2) well-edited essays, and (3) each aspect of the prompt
specifically addressed. You should cite your sources (use in-text citations!)
The highest grades will go to essays that use specific examples and that clearly and accurately
respond to each part of the prompt.
Essay prompts (50 points each, 100 points total)
1. The term “evolution” has been used to describe various biological processes. Define what
“evolution” meant to Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, to Charles Darwin, and to Richard Owen
(25 points). Darwin’s concept of evolution differed from previous interpretations and was
met with widespread disapproval. Explain how Darwin’s concept of evolution was
uniquely different as compared to previous interpretations of evolutionary processes (10
points) and what major criticisms were brought against Darwin’s theory (you should
discuss many). Which of these criticisms was most damaging to Darwin’s theory (explain
your choice and why it is the most damaging) (15 points).
2. The concept of evolution has caused contentious debate since well before the time of
Charles Darwin. Discuss how the concept of evolution (Darwinian evolution or any other
form of evolutionary theory) has been misinterpreted and used in negative ways from any
time prior to Darwin up to Thomas Hunt Morgan (15 points). Explain how these
misinterpretations of evolutionary philosophies are incorrect and provide evidence/
examples to support your answer (15 points). Lastly, make a case for whether the
mutationists (de Vries and Morgan) deviated from Darwin’s idea of evolution or if
mutationism simply represents a modified version of Darwinian Natural Selection (20

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