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I need help from you to correct the 16 questions I got wrong in the applied ecology test. I have 7 wrong multiple-choice questions and 9 free response questions that I didn’t answer them right or I didn’t write anything for them at all. Partial credit:

These are the rules for creating a paper with correcting all of the 16 questions to be able to fix my grade.

For those of you that would have hoped for a better grade given more time, I am offering partial credit if you take the following steps for the questions you missed points on and/or did not have time to complete:

a) multiple choice / T/F / fill in the blank: you can write down why the answer you chose was wrong and why the right answer is right (both parts are necessary for partial credit). Please note that answering “why” requires a clear explanation.

b) Short answer: Variable partial credit will be provided (up to full credit refund) if you write down what you got wrong and what you would need to add to get points, as well as why that added information is necessary for answering the question (again, requiring an explanation). If you did not have time to answer the question, you can simply answer as if it is your first response; however, if I gave you feedback, you cannot copy what I wrote unless you elaborate and provide reasoning.

Question 3
0 out of 2 points
Compare a large patch with a small patch. Which patch will likely have
greater habitat heterogeneity?
Selected
Answer:
Answers:
The small patch.
Habitat heterogeneity is not correlated with patch
size.
The large patch.
Both patches will be similar in habitat
heterogeneity.
The small patch.
Question 10
0 out of 2 points
Researchers test a hypothesis on the effects of pollution of microplastics
on larval fish growth. They have 4 aquaria: one pair with no
microplastics and one pair with commonly found levels of
microplastics. In each tank they rear larval fish, measure their growth
over time, and compare the fish growth between the two pairs of tanks.
The researchers find significantly slower growth in the tanks with the
microplastics.
Which of the following is the best null hypothesis about the
correlation between fish growth and microplastics?
Selected
Answer:
Answers:
Fish growth is correlated with presence/absence
microplastics.
Fish growth is correlated with presence/absence
microplastics.
The researcher is curious if there is a correlation
between fish growth and presence/absence
microplastics.
The researcher believes fish growth is not
correlated with presence/absence microplastics.
Fish growth is not correlated with
presence/absence microplastics.
Question 11
0 out of 2 points
The wildlife managers reduce the tick population using pesticides in some
colonies and not in others. After two months the managers record how many
ferrets have the ferret-flu in both the colonies with and without the pesticideapplication.What is the dependable variable in this experiment?
Selected Answer:
The pesticide application
Answers:
The abundance of ticks
The two-month waiting period
Number of ferrets with the flu
The pesticide application
Question 12
1 out of 2 points
What does the Theory of Island Biogeography explain?
Selected
Answer:
Answers:
All listed are correct.
Differences in habitat quality of terrestrial island
ecosystems
All listed are correct.
The geographic distribution of island
Differences in species richness on islands
Question 16
0 out of 2 points
What happens to a population that is larger than the Minimum Viable
Population (MVP) size?
Selected
Answer:
A population larger that the MVP is immune to
diseases.
Answers:
A population larger that the MVP is unlikely to go
extinct in the wild.
A population larger that the MVP is immune to
invasive species.
A population larger that the MVP is immune to
habitat destruction.
A population larger that the MVP is immune to
diseases.
Question 18
0 out of 2 points
Which of the following is an advantage of ex situ conservation?
Selected
Answer:
Answers:
Ex situ conservation includes the conservation of
other species through shared habitat.
Ex situ conservation guarantees persistence of
species.
Ex situ conservation has few practical complications.
Ex situ conservation includes the conservation of
other species through shared habitat.
Ex situ conservation is effective in conservation
education.
Question 20
0 out of 2 points
Why are populations that occur on larger ‘islands’ less likely to go extinct?
Selected
Answer:
Answers:
These places are more attractive to individuals that
move across the landscape (e.g., individuals from
source subpopulations).
These places are more attractive to individuals that
move across the landscape (e.g., individuals from
source subpopulations).
These populations use a specific resource (specialist)
These populations are more prone to the damage of
invasive species (e.g., invasive tree snakes).
These populations generally have more individuals in
their population
Question 28
7 out of 10 points
A simplified system for a pond is shown below.
(a) Explain in full sentences, using cause-and-effect logic, how inputs and
outputs between system components will be impacted if nitrogen and
phosphorus inputs to the system increase.
(b) (If not already done) Connect these cause-and-effect changes to the most
extreme case we talked about in class that can result from excess nitrogen
and phosphorus; make sure to fully explain the ecological impacts.
Selected
Answer:
a. when nitrogen and phosphorus level increase in
water it will cause pollution in water to have less oxygen
levels, utrification will kill aquatic life and create a dead
zone and less oxygen will dissolve.
b. example of extreme case of this situation could be
chesapeake bay, water quality is very low cause killing
fish and zoo plankton, ecological impact will affect
biodiversity of aquatic life and water quality which would
affect water health.
Correct
Answer:
[None]
Response
Feedback:
good, but why are there less oxygen levels? more algal
growth –> More algal death –> more decomposition by
microbes of the dead algae that consumes oxygen as
an input. good job noting dead zones of low oxygen as
that is the worst case scenario I was looking for.
Question 29
2.5 out of 5 points
Biogeochemical cycles are not independent of one
another as we have learned. Explain at least one
interaction between two of the biogoechemical cycles as
a result of human impact, whether certain or uncertain.
As an example you can focus on uncertainties in plant
productivity with respect to increased CO2
concentrations.
Selected
Answer:
a. biogeochemical cycle is the transfer and
transformation nutrients between biotic and
abiotic factors through biosphere hydrosphere
lithosphere and atmosphere. Also humans have
impacted the carbon cycle causing the
atmosphereto become a carbon sink due to
increased carbon levels.
Correct
Answer:
[None]
Response
Feedback:
good, and how does this potentially affect water,
nitrogen, or phosphorus cycle?
Question 30
0 out of 10 points
“Humanity’s large-scale effort to dam the world’s rivers has been described as
the largest single anthropogenic alteration of the freshwater cycle” according
to Kotze et al. (2022).
(a) How do dams alter at least two of the fluxes (2 distinct processes of water
movement) present within the water cycle?
(b) Using factor(s) in the I=PxAxT(xS) formula, compare the (long-term, direct
and indirect) impact that dams might have on the environment in an area like
relatively rural Iowa versus arid and populous regions like southern California.
(c) explain how dams fit into the 5 major causes of biodiversity loss.
Selected Answer:
a.
Correct Answer:
[None]
Response Feedback:
[None Given]
Question 32
0 out of 5 points
Thinking about applications to conservation, explain why it is useful to
measure and calculate biodiversity in more than one way / on more than one
scale.
Selected
Answer:
assesing water quality scale, collection of samples
and analizying them to detect changes.
Correct Answer:
[None]
Response
Feedback:
can you explain how this relates to measuring
diversity?
Question 33
4 out of 5 points
Explain what population viability analysis (PVA) is and how modelling can be
used to inform conservation efforts (you are welcome to use an example to
illustrate the explanation).
Selected
Answer:
population viability analysis (PVA) is a method of risk
assessment that is used often in conservation biology
and is species-specific. It is typically described as the
process that determines the possibility that a population
would become extinct in a specific number of years.
Correct
Answer:
[None]
Response
Feedback:
good, what about the applications to conservation
through modelling?
Question 34
0 out of 5 points
The Virginia Deer Management Program aims to control and stabilize deer
populations at a cultural carrying capacity. Based on the objectives of the
program, how does this likely differ from the biological carrying capacity?
Selected Answer:
[None Given]
Correct Answer:
[None]
Response Feedback:
[None Given]
Question 35
0 out of 5 points
Explain how the power relationship between area and species relates to the
claim by Lepcyzk et al. (2017) that “adding just a small amount of additional
green space to small neighborhood parks will considerably increase bird
species richness”
Selected Answer:
[None Given]
Correct Answer:
[None]
Response Feedback:
[None Given]
Question 36
5 out of 10 points
Fragmentation per se (i.e., without loss in area of habitat) is thought to harm a
species’ chance of survival for several reasons.
(a) List 2 or more independent reasons why smaller habitat patches may be
worse for a population’s viability than larger habitat patches.
(b) As outlined in the Orrock (2020) and Fahrig (2018) readings, explain one
reason why a matrix of smaller habitat patches may provide benefits that are
not not provided by a smaller number of larger habitat patches comprising the
same area.
Selected
Answer:
a. diseases and imbreading will causes problems and
diseases that would cause to death
b. its helpful in natu
Correct
Answer:
[None]
Response
Feedback:
Try to connect why disease/indbreeding may be higher
in smaller patches. For b) you could mention ideas of
landscape complementation and the mosaic concept or
that smaller habitats may even benefit heterogenity
because inferior species have a better chance at
winning out in smaller populations, benefitting overall
species richness.
Question 37
0 out of 5 points
Explain at least one benefit and at least one drawback of including lowerquality habitats for biodiversity in urban and suburban green space
designs/plans.
Selected Answer:
one benefit one drawback –
Correct Answer:
[None]
Response Feedback:
[None Given]
Welcome to EVPP/BIOL 377:
Applied Ecology
Lecture 1 — June 28th, 2022
Professor: Dr. Stephanie Schmidt
Summer 2022
DR. STEPHANIE SCHMIDT (SHE/HER/HERS)
• Michigan State alum! (mathematics, environmental science)
• Graduated from George Mason University in 2022
2
INTRODUCTIONS
• Name
• Major
• What environmental events, stories, or problems
have most affected you?
• When do you feel most connected to the
environment around you?
3
OUTLINE FOR TODAY
Part One
• Overview of syllabus for 377: Applied Ecology
• Defining applied ecology – why do we study it?
• Applying the scientific method
• In-class activity
4
SYLLABUS
Syllabus
5
LITERATURE REVIEW ASSIGNMENT
• The purpose of a literature review is to collect relevant, timely
research on your chosen topic, and synthesize it into a cohesive
summary of existing knowledge in the field.
• This prepares you for making your own argument on that topic, or for
conducting your own original research.
• Literature Review Assignment 062422.docx
6
LITERATURE REVIEW ASSIGNMENT
7
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS
• 1 Science in the News report and short overview to class
• Sign up at the end of class Thursday!
• 3 assignments
• Will be explained on Thursday
8
WHAT IS APPLIED ECOLOGY?
•
: the scientific study of interactions between organisms
and their environment
9
WHAT IS APPLIED ECOLOGY?
• Ecology : the scientific study of interactions between organisms
and their environment
10
WHAT IS APPLIED ECOLOGY?
• Applied ecology: the assessment, management, and mitigation of
human impact on the environment
• Assessment of human impact on the environment
• Management of human impact on environment
• Mitigation of human impact on the environment
11
WHAT IS APPLIED ECOLOGY?
• Applied ecology studies…
how concepts, theories, models, or methods of fundamental ecology can be
applied to solve environmental problems
12
WHAT IS APPLIED ECOLOGY?
• Applied ecology aims to…
use ecological knowledge to improve:
• the state of biodiversity
• the services ecosystems deliver
13
WHAT IS APPLIED ECOLOGY?
• Applied ecology is expansive and multidisciplinary
• Agriculture
• Urbanization
• Management of resources (fish, timber, water)
• Ecosystem services (coastline protection, water purification)
• Global climate change
15
WHERE DOES APPLIED ECOLOGY FIT IN?
16
STUDYING APPLIED ECOLOGY BY ISSUE
• Biological invasion
• Pollution
• Forest fires
• Climate change
17
SL257/SS481: Wetland Ecological Models (ufl.edu)
APPLIED ECOLOGY BY SCALE
• Global ecology
How regional exchanges in energy and materials
influence functioning/distribution of life
• Landscape ecology
How landscape structures affect the abundance,
distribution, and interaction of organisms
• Ecosystem ecology
Interactions between living and nonliving
system components (energy/matter flows/cycles)
• Community ecology
Species diversity patterns; interspecies interactions
• Population ecology
Dynamics of population change; how factors
affect distribution and abundance of individuals
within a population
• Organismal ecology
Relationships between an organism & environment;
how organisms adapt
18
(Urry et al., 2016)
SCALES OF APPLIED ECOLOGY
• The Species Scale: Does it make sense?
• Puts focus on “attractive” species (seals, whales,
pandas, bald eagles, lions, elephants)
• De-emphasizes habitat importance
19
STUDYING APPLIED ECOLOGY BY SYSTEM
• Forest ecology forest management
• Landscape ecology regional planning
• Agroecology agricultural management
SL257/SS481: Wetland Ecological Models (ufl.edu)
STUDYING APPLIED ECOLOGY BY GOAL/TECHNIQUE
• Restoration ecology
• Bioremediation / Phytoremediation
• Historical ecology
• Evolutionary Ecology
SL257/SS481: Wetland Ecological Models (ufl.edu)
APPLIED ECOLOGY IS A SCIENCE
Homework assignments will require you to read peer-reviewed journals and analyze how
the authors applied the scientific method.
You will identify:
– Knowledge gap – what are the researchers trying to add to the field
– Null Hypothesis – there is no difference/correlation between….
– ______________ variables
– ______________ variables
– Experimental approach
– Conclusion – Reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis
– Implications or limitations
22
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
23
APPLIED ECOLOGY IS A SCIENCE
– Knowledge gap – what are the researchers trying to add to the field
– Null Hypothesis – there is no difference/correlation between….
– ______________ variables
– ______________ variables
– Experimental approach
– Conclusion – Reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis
– Implications or limitations
24
WHY STUDY APPLIED ECOLOGY?

26
POPULATION GROWTH AND IMPACT
27
10,000
yrs ago
0
500
1000
Year
1500
2000
(billions)
Human population
0 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
The global population has increased
from 1 billion in 1800 to over 7.4
billion today
(Withgott and Laposata (2019), page
121)
HUMAN IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT
• How does human impact the environment on these scales?
Pollution
Habitat Loss
Resource exploitation (overharvesting)
Introduction of species
Anthropogenic climate change
28
IN-CLASS ACTIVITY
• Science Daily News
29
PART TWO
• Ecosystems; matter and energy
30
ECOSYSTEMS: SYSTEMS
Plants
Animals
Waste Heat
Solar
Energy
Decomposers, scavengers, bacteria, fungi
Waste material and waste energy flows
31
ECOSYSTEMS: SYSTEMS
Exchange of matter
Surroundings
Energy gain
Open
System
Exchange of matter
32
Energy loss
ENERGY FLOWS THROUGH AN ECOSYSTEM
• Green arrows:
• Red arrows:
Figure 2.15. Energy flows and chemical nutrient cycle in an
ecosystem (Withgott & Laposata, 2019, Page 37)
33
MATTER CYCLES THROUGH AN ECOSYSTEM
• Blue arrows:
Figure 2.15. Energy flows and chemical nutrient cycle in an
ecosystem (Withgott & Laposata, 2019, Page 37)
34
MATTER & ENERGY IN AN ECOSYSTEM
35
ECOSYSTEMS: SYSTEMS
Exchange of matter
Surroundings
Energy gain
Open
System
Exchange of matter
36
Energy loss
CHANGES TO MATTER CYCLES AND
ENERGY FLOWS
37
THE WATER (HYDROLOGIC) CYCLE
• How have humans
impacted the water
cycle?
(Withgott & Laposata, 2019)
38
THE CARBON CYCLE (ORGANICS, CO2, CH4)
• How have humans
impacted the carbon
cycle?
(Withgott & Laposata, 2019)
39
NITROGEN CYCLE (ORGANICS, N2, NH3 , NO3- , NOX)
• How have humans
impacted the nitrogen
cycle?
(Withgott & Laposata, 2019)
40
NITROGEN
CYCLE
N2 is most abundant gas in atm,
but it is extremely stable!
How does N get transformed into
less-stable organic compounds?
•
Nitrogen fixation: Soil
microbes turn N2 into NH3
(ammonia), bioavailable as
NH4+ (ammonium)
•
Nitrifying bacteria convert
NH3 into NO2- (nitrite) / NO3(nitrate)
•
plants assimilate these forms
into organic compounds in
their cells
(Withgott & Laposata, 2019, Page 43)
NITROGEN
CYCLE
•
Nitrogen mineralization can
recycle organic N from
decomposing plants/animals
into soil NH3
– plants cannot simply “eat”
organic N compounds like
protein
•
Denitrification returns N in
soil to atmosphere;
common in wet environments
NO2- and NO3- → N2
(Withgott & Laposata, 2019, Page 43)
HUMAN IMPACT ON BIOGEOCHEMISTRY
• Human population growth has had lasting impacts on biogeochemical
cycles
43
10,000
yrs ago
0
500
1000
Year
1500
2000
(billions)
Human population
0 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
The global population has increased
from 1 billion in 1800 to over 7.4
billion today
(Withgott and Laposata (2019), page
121)
NITROGEN CYCLE
• Net movement of nitrogen
from soils to waterways
• Eutrophication → Hypoxia (Dead Zones)
44
(NOAA, 2022)
https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/podcast/feb18/nop13-hypoxia.html
PHOSPHORUS CYCLE (ORGANICS, SRP (PO4-), MINERAL P)
• How have humans
impacted the
phosphorus cycle?
(Withgott & Laposata, 2019, page 5)
45
IN-CLASS ACTIVITY




What issue is presented?
What tools, if any, are used to help aid in:

The assessment of the human impact on the Chesapeake Bay?

The management of human impact on the Chesapeake Bay?

The mitigation of human impact on the Chesapeake Bay?
What ecological concepts or theories
a) explain the issue that has arisen?
b) Are applied to solving the problem?
What models are mentioned for monitoring, assessing, tracking, and managing the problem?
46
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
• How has human population altered biogeochemical cycles?
Water
Carbon
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
• How do you think this affects ecosystem interactions?
47
HUMAN IMPACT ON ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
• What are the four types of
ecosystem services?
• How has human development
affected ecosystem services?
48
TO DO
• If you haven’t yet – fill out introduction survey
• (Course Content →
First Day of Class →
Introduction)
• Sign up for Science in the News
• Submit reflection on Chesapeake Bay video (Discussion Board)
• Complete environmental issue interests
• (Course Content → First Day of Class)
49
ASSIGNED READING
• Review:
• DeFries et al. (2004)
• Essential Ecology textbook (if necessary)
• P. 38, 43-47, ch. 3 (51-74)
50
SCIENCE IN THE NEWS
• Go to
https://www.sciencedaily.com/news/earth_climate/environmental_science/
• Under the banner “Enviro”, click on a subtopic that interests you (e.g.,
agriculture)
51
th
Lecture 2 – June 30 , 2022
Applied Ecology
COURSE UPDATES / SCHEDULE
Homework 1: Due Saturday June 2nd at 11:59:59 PM
Online Textbook available
Guidelines for Literature Review available
Presentation groups – assigned next week
Guidelines for Science in the News Article
2
OVERVIEW: HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS (3)
Homework assignments will require you to read peer-reviewed journals and analyze how
the authors applied the scientific method.
You will identify:
– Knowledge gap – what are the researchers trying to add to the field
– Null Hypothesis – there is no difference/correlation between….
– ______________ variables
– ______________ variables
– Experimental approach
– Conclusion – Reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis
– Implications or limitations
3
OUTLINE
– Human impact on the environment
– Recap from last class – energy/matter and systems
– Biogeochemical cycles and relationships to impacts on environment
4
HUMAN POPULATION AND IMPACT
– What is one of the largest
contributors to humans
altering our environment?
5
HUMAN POPULATION AND IMPACT
– What is one of the largest
contributors to humans
altering our environment?
6
HUMAN POPULATION AND IMPACT
: Cumulative area of biologically
productive land and water required to sustain a
person/population (consumption, waste)
7
HUMAN POPULATION AND IMPACT
– What is one of the largest
contributors to humans
altering our environment?
• The Fourth factor: Sensitivity (S)?
8
HUMAN POPULATION AND IMPACT
– What is one of the largest
contributors to humans
altering our environment?
Population growth rate is not equal across the globe
. (Withgott and Laposata, 2019)
9
HUMAN IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT
What does it mean to impact an ecological ecosystem?
Ecosystem: a system of complex interactions of a biological community that includes interactions
between populations and interactions with the nonliving (abiotic) parts of the environment
How can a systems approach help us approach human impact on the environment?
10
ECOSYSTEMS: SYSTEMS
Plants
System:
Animals
a network of relationships among a group of parts, elements, or components
Waste Heat
Solar
that interact with and influence one another
Energy
through the exchange of energy, matter, and/or information
Decomposers, scavengers, bacteria, fungi
Waste material and waste energy flows
11
ECOSYSTEMS: SYSTEMS
Plants
Animals
Waste Heat
Solar
Energy
Decomposers, scavengers, bacteria, fungi
Waste material and waste energy flows
12
HUMAN IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT
• How do humans impact ecological systems?
• Pollution
• Habitat Loss
• Resource exploitation (also called
)
• Introduction of non-native species
• Human-induced (anthropogenic) climate change
13
WHAT IS APPLIED ECOLOGY?
• Applied ecology: the assessment, management, and mitigation of
human impact on the environment
• Assessment of human impact on the environment
• Management of human impact on environment
• Mitigation of human impact on the environment
14
ENERGY AND MATTER RECAP
•
Energy flows and matter cycles through
ecosystems
•
Trophic level: energy and matter
consumption level of an organism,
depending on their relationship to other
organisms in the food web
•
•
Producers—get energy from sunlight
Consumers—get energy from
producers or other consumers
15
ENERGY RECAP
1. All life requires energy to function.
2. Energy is transformed from solar energy to chemical energy
by producers
3. Consumers obtain energy only through chemical energy
4. 90% of energy obtained by an organism is used up and “lost”
– only 10% is available for its consumer
5. The energy contained in a given trophic level
is limited by the amount of energy available to it
at the next lower trophic level.
16
MATTER RECAP
1. All life requires elements to build
up their biomass
2. Elements have both inorganic and
organic forms
3. Inorganic matter can be
assimilated by producers
4. Consumers obtain matter from
producers and/or other consumers

5. Matter is recycled through
decomposition and other processes
17
TODAY’S QUESTIONS
How do abiotic environmental factors affect ecosystem services?
(How do altered nutrient cycles influence ecosystem services?)
1) What does biogeochemical mean?
2) What is the connection between nutrient source/sinks, net fluxes, and residence time?
3) How can a systems approach elucidate ecological impacts and solutions of pollution and carbon cycling?
4) How can we monitor pollution and carbon cycling over space and time?
5) What is a watershed? Why is a watershed approach helpful in pollution analyses?
18
WHY FOCUS ON ENERGY AND MATTER??
•
Humans have direct impacts on the basics of our environment – the abiotic components

•
Biotic / ecosystem functioning cannot be separated from nutrient cycling.
• Energy and nutrient inputs help shape food webs
•
Energy in plants and animals literally fuels our existence
•
The cycling of nutrients is responsible for many of the ecosystem services we are provided with
• Soil fertility and plant productivity
• Water purification
• Carbon storage/sequestration
•
Nutrients can be easily monitored and tracked over
19 time.
CONTROLS ON ECOSYSTEMS: NUTRIENTS
•
•
___________: pressures on a food web that influence the availability of resources to lower trophic levels
(e.g. producers)
___________: pressures on a food web applied by a higher trophic level
•
Bottom-up controls have been well documented
20
CONTROLS ON ECOSYSTEMS: NUTRIENTS
•
•
Bottom-up controls have been well documented
Chlorophyll a
•
___________: pressures on a food web that influence the availability of resources to lower trophic levels
(e.g. producers)
___________: pressures on a food web applied by a higher trophic level
21
Phosphorus concentration
NUTRIENT CYCLING
Bio∙geo∙chemical cycles
What does biogeochemical mean?
22
NUTRIENT CYCLING
Bio∙geo∙chemical cycles
What does biogeochemical cycle mean?
Pathways of the transport and transformation of nutrients
between biotic and abiotic components of earth
within the planet’s biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere
23
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
• Cycles are systems characterized by
reservoirs and fluxes
– Reservoir: pool or storage
compartment
•
biogeochemical cycles
usually include reservoirs of
the atmosphere,
lithosphere, pedosphere
(soil), and biosphere
– Flux: rate at which materials move
between reservoirs
24
BOTTOM-UP: BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
– Humans have had a fundamental impact on biogeochemical cycles.
– We have altered the nature of nutrient pathways in several ways:
– Abundances within reservoirs
– fluxes between reservoirs
– Residence times in different reservoirs
25
NITROGEN
CYCLE
(Withgott & Laposata, 2019, Page 43)
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
• The ocean stores 1,335,000,000 km3
of water
• Flux in: 2,000 km3/yr from GW
40,000 km3/yr as runoff
373,000 km3/yr as precip
• Flux out: 413,000 km3/yr as evap
Sink:
Flux In ?? Flux Out
Source: Flux In ?? Flux Out 0
27
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Human impacts:
• Globally
• Fluxes of both evaporation and
precipitation are increasing
• Regionally
• Warming-induced strengthening of
precipitation in wet areas;
strengthening of evaporation on land
• Deforested areas
• decreased evatoranspiration
•
and precip
increased runoff
• Urbanized areas
• increased precip
• increased runoff
28
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Human impacts:
• Globally
• Fluxes of both evaporation and
precipitation are increasing
• Regionally
• Warming-induced strengthening of
precipitation in wet areas;
strengthening of evaporation on land
• Deforested areas
• decreased evatoranspiration
•
and precipitation
increased runoff
• Urbanized areas
• increased precip
• increased runoff/reduced infiltration
29
NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS CYCLES
• Why are human alterations to N and P cycles so important in
bottom-up controls?
30
NITROGEN
CYCLE
PHOSPHORUS
CYCLE
primarily altered from
the use of phosphorus
fertilizers in agriculture
Indirect effect on
climate: increasing
carbon sinks
Figure 15.2: Once created, a molecule of reactive nitrogen has a cascading impact on
people and ecosystems as it contributes to a number of environmental issues.
NITROGEN
CYCLE
How does human impact on the nitrogen cycle affect greenhouse gases?
Carbon dioxide
Methane
Nitrous oxide
PHOSPHORUS
CYCLE
•
Unlike H2O,
carbon, or nitrogen,
there is no gaseous form
of phosphorus
•
Most P is bound to rocks
–
•
only becomes soluble /
biologically reactive
through weathering
(phosphate, PO43-)
P is a limiting
nutrient
PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
2007
Fall of
USSR?
P Used for Fertilizer,
1800 to 2010
1940s:
Green Revolution
● Traditional farming
relied upon manure
& mobile soil P
● Over 80% of current
phosphorus used for
fertilizer / food
production comes
from phosphate rock
PHOSPHORUS
CYCLE
Only 20% of all mined P is
consumed in food
● 9.5 MT → waterways
(soil & human excreta)
● 55% P is lost between
“farm and fork”
● ~50% of P in human
waste is lost
(Cordell, 2009)
WHAT IS EUTROPHICATION?
Eutrophication is characterized by excessive plant and algal growth due to the increased
availability of one or more limiting growth factors needed for photosynthesis (Schindler 2006)
N AND P POLLUTION
40
ALTERED INPUTS IN CHESAPEAKE BAY
sun
herbivory
CO2
N
P
Algae
(phytoplankton)
zooplankton
O2
decomposition
predation
microbes
decomposition
fish
ALTERED INPUTS IN CHESAPEAKE BAY
sun
herbivory
CO2
Algae
(phytoplankton)
zooplankton
O2
decomposition
predation
N
microbes
P
decomposition
fish
ALTERED INPUTS IN CHESAPEAKE BAY
sun
herbivory
CO2
Algae
(phytoplankton)
zooplankton
O2
predation
N
P
Fish
ALTERED INPUTS IN CHESAPEAKE BAY
sun
herbivory
CO2
Algae
(phytoplankton)
zooplankton
O2
decomposition
predation
N
microbes
P
decomposition
fish
ASSESSING ECOSYSTEM RESPONSE
• How do we assess an ecosystem’s response to altered biogeochemistry?
45
ASSESSING ECOSYSTEM RESPONSE
1. Observe systems in the environment
2. Experiment
3. Model
46
Tidal
Potomac River:
Assessment of
Water Quality
Through BottomUp Food Web
Assessments
47
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What data is useful to collect?
48
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What other data is useful to collect for water quality assessments?
• Temperature
• Conductivity
• Dissolved Oxygen
• pH
• Water clarity (Light attenuation / turbidity)
49
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What other data is useful to collect for water quality assessments?
• Temperature
• Conductivity
• Dissolved Oxygen
• pH
• Water clarity (Light attenuation / turbidity)
50
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What other data is useful to collect for water quality assessments?
• Temperature
• Conductivity – ability of water to conduct an electrical current (~ ionic strength)
• Dissolved Oxygen
• pH
• Water clarity (Light attenuation / turbidity)
51
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What other data is useful to collect for water quality assessments?
• Temperature
• Conductivity
• Dissolved Oxygen – most aquatic organisms require > 5 mg/L
• pH
• Water clarity (Light attenuation / turbidity)
52
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What other data is useful to collect for water quality assessments?
• Temperature
• Conductivity
• Dissolved Oxygen – most aquatic
organisms require > 5 mg/L
• pH (acidity)
• Water clarity (Light attenuation /
turbidity)
53
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What other data is useful to collect for water quality assessments?
• Temperature
• Conductivity
• Dissolved Oxygen – most aquatic
organisms require > 5 mg/L
• pH (acidity)
• Water clarity (Light attenuation
/ turbidity)
54
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What other data is useful to collect for water quality assessments?
• Temperature
• Conductivity
• Dissolved Oxygen – most aquatic
organisms require > 5 mg/L
• pH (acidity)
• Water clarity (Light attenuation / turbidity)
55
CONCEPTS IN WATER BODY ASSESSMENTS
• We can assess waterways for pollutants using biogeochemical analyses
56
CONCEPTS IN WATER BODY ASSESSMENTS
• How to put results in context? (What are our “independent variables”?)
• Habitat types
• Surrounding area landcover / land use:
• Water dynamics
57
CONCEPTS IN WATER BODY ASSESSMENTS
• How to explain data?
58
WATERSHED ECOLOGY
• Landscape or regional assessments of
nutrient pollution in waterways requires an
understanding of watersheds
• What is a watershed?
• All of the land that drains to a common
point
• (often the mouth of a named river or
stream)
Where is the common point?
Were is the boundary of the watershed?
59
WATERSHED ECOLOGY
60
LEVELS OF WATERSHEDS
61
LEVELS OF WATERSHEDS
Beaver Dam Run
– Broad Run
Horsepen
Run
Sugarland
Run
Lower Rock
Creek
Four Mile
Run/Pimmit Potomac
Cameron
Run
Neabsco
Creek
62
STREAM STATS
• See drainage basin for any given point on any stream/river
• Obtain water quantity and landcover attributes for basin
63
CONCEPTS IN WATER BODY ASSESSMENTS
64
CONCEPTS IN WATER BODY ASSESSMENTS
• National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment method using the
Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (hereafter called NEEA)
65
EUTROPHICATION ASSESSMENT
• National Estuarine
Eutrophication Assessment
method and modifications,
called Assessment of
Estuarine Trophic
Status(hereafter called NEEA)
• influencing factors
• overall eutrophic
condition
• future outlook
66
EUTROPHICATION ASSESSMENT
Examines:
• influencing factors
• overall eutrophic condition
• future outlook
The results are then combined into a
single overall rating.
A completeness and reliability of the
overall eutrophic condition
assessment is based on the temporal
and spatial availability of data
https://coastalscience.noaa.gov/project/national-estuarine-eutrophication-assessmentupdate/#:~:text=Eutrophication%20is%20the%20overabundance%20of,in%20some%20cases%20ecosystem%20collapse
67
CARBON
CYCLE
*GPP = GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY (PRODUCING BIOMASS FROM PHOTOSYNTHESIS)
CARBON CYCLE
68
CARBON CYCLE
• Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most abundant of the heat-trapping
greenhouse gases that are increasing due to human activities,
• its production dominates atmospheric forcing of global climate change
• Also GHGs: methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)
• Methane has higher greenhouse-warming potential per
molecule than CO2,
• Human activities have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide by
about 40% over pre-industrial levels and more than doubled the
amount of nitrogen available to ecosystems.
69
CARBON CYCLE
https://video-alexanderstreetcom.mutex.gmu.edu/watch/land-carbon-cycle-animation
70
CARBON CYCLE
• How is CO2 monitored?
https://www.exploratorium.edu/video/monitoring-climatechange
71
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
A system has feedback mechanisms in which inputs and outputs
of the overall system / for system interactions can help stabilize or
destabilize systems
– Negative feedback: input balanced by output (control system)
– Positive feedback: increased output leads to increased input leads to …
In environmental systems, it is often complicated to predict the impact
of an altered input on the system as a whole
What are some negative and positive feedbacks in biogeochemical cycles?
Natural cycling? Human-altered cycling?
72
CARBON CYCLE
• CO2 is an input for photosynthesis.
• Can higher levels of atmospheric CO2 be
offset by higher levels of NPP?
Activity: increased temperature leads to
increased photosynthesis, increased CO2 leads to
both increased photosynthesis and increased
temperature, and increased photosynthesis leads
to decreased CO2. Assume these are the only
couplings. Draw a systems diagram which
describes the CO2-photosynthesis-temperature
system.
73
HUMAN IMPACT ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
• “The human mobilization of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from the
Earth’s crust and atmosphere into the environment has increased 36, 9,
and 13 times, respectively, compared to geological sources over preindustrial times.”
• Rephrase this in terms of nutrient fluxes and residence times.
74
ASSESSING CARBON STORAGE
https://video-alexanderstreetcom.mutex.gmu.edu/watch/learn-about-the-importantconsequences-that-deforestation-has-on-the-global-carboncycle
75
Welcome to EVPP/BIOL 377:
Applied Ecology
Lecture 1 — June 28th, 2022
Professor: Dr. Stephanie Schmidt
Summer 2022
DR. STEPHANIE SCHMIDT (SHE/HER/HERS)
• Michigan State alum! (mathematics, environmental science)
• Graduated from George Mason University in 2022
2
INTRODUCTIONS
• Name
• Major
• What environmental events, stories, or problems
have most affected you?
• When do you feel most connected to the
environment around you?
3
OUTLINE FOR TODAY
Part One
• Overview of syllabus for 377: Applied Ecology
• Defining applied ecology – why do we study it?
• Applying the scientific method
• In-class activity
4
SYLLABUS
Syllabus
5
LITERATURE REVIEW ASSIGNMENT
• The purpose of a literature review is to collect relevant, timely
research on your chosen topic, and synthesize it into a cohesive
summary of existing knowledge in the field.
• This prepares you for making your own argument on that topic, or for
conducting your own original research.
• Literature Review Assignment 062422.docx
6
LITERATURE REVIEW ASSIGNMENT
7
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS
• 1 Science in the News report and short overview to class
• Sign up at the end of class Thursday!
• 3 assignments
• Will be explained on Thursday
8
WHAT IS APPLIED ECOLOGY?
•
: the scientific study of interactions between organisms
and their environment
9
WHAT IS APPLIED ECOLOGY?
• Ecology : the scientific study of interactions between organisms
and their environment
10
WHAT IS APPLIED ECOLOGY?
• Applied ecology: the assessment, management, and mitigation of
human impact on the environment
• Assessment of human impact on the environment
• Management of human impact on environment
• Mitigation of human impact on the environment
11
WHAT IS APPLIED ECOLOGY?
• Applied ecology studies…
how concepts, theories, models, or methods of fundamental ecology can be
applied to solve environmental problems
12
WHAT IS APPLIED ECOLOGY?
• Applied ecology aims to…
use ecological knowledge to improve:
• the state of biodiversity
• the services ecosystems deliver
13
WHAT IS APPLIED ECOLOGY?
• Applied ecology is expansive and multidisciplinary
• Agriculture
• Urbanization
• Management of resources (fish, timber, water)
• Ecosystem services (coastline protection, water purification)
• Global climate change
15
WHERE DOES APPLIED ECOLOGY FIT IN?
16
STUDYING APPLIED ECOLOGY BY ISSUE
• Biological invasion
• Pollution
• Forest fires
• Climate change
17
SL257/SS481: Wetland Ecological Models (ufl.edu)
APPLIED ECOLOGY BY SCALE
• Global ecology
How regional exchanges in energy and materials
influence functioning/distribution of life
• Landscape ecology
How landscape structures affect the abundance,
distribution, and interaction of organisms
• Ecosystem ecology
Interactions between living and nonliving
system components (energy/matter flows/cycles)
• Community ecology
Species diversity patterns; interspecies interactions
• Population ecology
Dynamics of population change; how factors
affect distribution and abundance of individuals
within a population
• Organismal ecology
Relationships between an organism & environment;
how organisms adapt
18
(Urry et al., 2016)
SCALES OF APPLIED ECOLOGY
• The Species Scale: Does it make sense?
• Puts focus on “attractive” species (seals, whales,
pandas, bald eagles, lions, elephants)
• De-emphasizes habitat importance
19
STUDYING APPLIED ECOLOGY BY SYSTEM
• Forest ecology forest management
• Landscape ecology regional planning
• Agroecology agricultural management
SL257/SS481: Wetland Ecological Models (ufl.edu)
STUDYING APPLIED ECOLOGY BY GOAL/TECHNIQUE
• Restoration ecology
• Bioremediation / Phytoremediation
• Historical ecology
• Evolutionary Ecology
SL257/SS481: Wetland Ecological Models (ufl.edu)
APPLIED ECOLOGY IS A SCIENCE
Homework assignments will require you to read peer-reviewed journals and analyze how
the authors applied the scientific method.
You will identify:
– Knowledge gap – what are the researchers trying to add to the field
– Null Hypothesis – there is no difference/correlation between….
– ______________ variables
– ______________ variables
– Experimental approach
– Conclusion – Reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis
– Implications or limitations
22
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
23
APPLIED ECOLOGY IS A SCIENCE
– Knowledge gap – what are the researchers trying to add to the field
– Null Hypothesis – there is no difference/correlation between….
– ______________ variables
– ______________ variables
– Experimental approach
– Conclusion – Reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis
– Implications or limitations
24
WHY STUDY APPLIED ECOLOGY?

26
POPULATION GROWTH AND IMPACT
27
10,000
yrs ago
0
500
1000
Year
1500
2000
(billions)
Human population
0 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
The global population has increased
from 1 billion in 1800 to over 7.4
billion today
(Withgott and Laposata (2019), page
121)
HUMAN IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT
• How does human impact the environment on these scales?
Pollution
Habitat Loss
Resource exploitation (overharvesting)
Introduction of species
Anthropogenic climate change
28
IN-CLASS ACTIVITY
• Science Daily News
29
PART TWO
• Ecosystems; matter and energy
30
ECOSYSTEMS: SYSTEMS
Plants
Animals
Waste Heat
Solar
Energy
Decomposers, scavengers, bacteria, fungi
Waste material and waste energy flows
31
ECOSYSTEMS: SYSTEMS
Exchange of matter
Surroundings
Energy gain
Open
System
Exchange of matter
32
Energy loss
ENERGY FLOWS THROUGH AN ECOSYSTEM
• Green arrows:
• Red arrows:
Figure 2.15. Energy flows and chemical nutrient cycle in an
ecosystem (Withgott & Laposata, 2019, Page 37)
33
MATTER CYCLES THROUGH AN ECOSYSTEM
• Blue arrows:
Figure 2.15. Energy flows and chemical nutrient cycle in an
ecosystem (Withgott & Laposata, 2019, Page 37)
34
MATTER & ENERGY IN AN ECOSYSTEM
35
ECOSYSTEMS: SYSTEMS
Exchange of matter
Surroundings
Energy gain
Open
System
Exchange of matter
36
Energy loss
CHANGES TO MATTER CYCLES AND
ENERGY FLOWS
37
THE WATER (HYDROLOGIC) CYCLE
• How have humans
impacted the water
cycle?
(Withgott & Laposata, 2019)
38
THE CARBON CYCLE (ORGANICS, CO2, CH4)
• How have humans
impacted the carbon
cycle?
(Withgott & Laposata, 2019)
39
NITROGEN CYCLE (ORGANICS, N2, NH3 , NO3- , NOX)
• How have humans
impacted the nitrogen
cycle?
(Withgott & Laposata, 2019)
40
NITROGEN
CYCLE
N2 is most abundant gas in atm,
but it is extremely stable!
How does N get transformed into
less-stable organic compounds?
•
Nitrogen fixation: Soil
microbes turn N2 into NH3
(ammonia), bioavailable as
NH4+ (ammonium)
•
Nitrifying bacteria convert
NH3 into NO2- (nitrite) / NO3(nitrate)
•
plants assimilate these forms
into organic compounds in
their cells
(Withgott & Laposata, 2019, Page 43)
NITROGEN
CYCLE
•
Nitrogen mineralization can
recycle organic N from
decomposing plants/animals
into soil NH3
– plants cannot simply “eat”
organic N compounds like
protein
•
Denitrification returns N in
soil to atmosphere;
common in wet environments
NO2- and NO3- → N2
(Withgott & Laposata, 2019, Page 43)
HUMAN IMPACT ON BIOGEOCHEMISTRY
• Human population growth has had lasting impacts on biogeochemical
cycles
43
10,000
yrs ago
0
500
1000
Year
1500
2000
(billions)
Human population
0 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
The global population has increased
from 1 billion in 1800 to over 7.4
billion today
(Withgott and Laposata (2019), page
121)
NITROGEN CYCLE
• Net movement of nitrogen
from soils to waterways
• Eutrophication → Hypoxia (Dead Zones)
44
(NOAA, 2022)
https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/podcast/feb18/nop13-hypoxia.html
PHOSPHORUS CYCLE (ORGANICS, SRP (PO4-), MINERAL P)
• How have humans
impacted the
phosphorus cycle?
(Withgott & Laposata, 2019, page 5)
45
IN-CLASS ACTIVITY




What issue is presented?
What tools, if any, are used to help aid in:

The assessment of the human impact on the Chesapeake Bay?

The management of human impact on the Chesapeake Bay?

The mitigation of human impact on the Chesapeake Bay?
What ecological concepts or theories
a) explain the issue that has arisen?
b) Are applied to solving the problem?
What models are mentioned for monitoring, assessing, tracking, and managing the problem?
46
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
• How has human population altered biogeochemical cycles?
Water
Carbon
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
• How do you think this affects ecosystem interactions?
47
HUMAN IMPACT ON ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
• What are the four types of
ecosystem services?
• How has human development
affected ecosystem services?
48
TO DO
• If you haven’t yet – fill out introduction survey
• (Course Content →
First Day of Class →
Introduction)
• Sign up for Science in the News
• Submit reflection on Chesapeake Bay video (Discussion Board)
• Complete environmental issue interests
• (Course Content → First Day of Class)
49
ASSIGNED READING
• Review:
• DeFries et al. (2004)
• Essential Ecology textbook (if necessary)
• P. 38, 43-47, ch. 3 (51-74)
50
SCIENCE IN THE NEWS
• Go to
https://www.sciencedaily.com/news/earth_climate/environmental_science/
• Under the banner “Enviro”, click on a subtopic that interests you (e.g.,
agriculture)
51
th
Lecture 2 – June 30 , 2022
Applied Ecology
COURSE UPDATES / SCHEDULE
Homework 1: Due Saturday June 2nd at 11:59:59 PM
Online Textbook available
Guidelines for Literature Review available
Presentation groups – assigned next week
Guidelines for Science in the News Article
2
OVERVIEW: HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS (3)
Homework assignments will require you to read peer-reviewed journals and analyze how
the authors applied the scientific method.
You will identify:
– Knowledge gap – what are the researchers trying to add to the field
– Null Hypothesis – there is no difference/correlation between….
– ______________ variables
– ______________ variables
– Experimental approach
– Conclusion – Reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis
– Implications or limitations
3
OUTLINE
– Human impact on the environment
– Recap from last class – energy/matter and systems
– Biogeochemical cycles and relationships to impacts on environment
4
HUMAN POPULATION AND IMPACT
– What is one of the largest
contributors to humans
altering our environment?
5
HUMAN POPULATION AND IMPACT
– What is one of the largest
contributors to humans
altering our environment?
6
HUMAN POPULATION AND IMPACT
: Cumulative area of biologically
productive land and water required to sustain a
person/population (consumption, waste)
7
HUMAN POPULATION AND IMPACT
– What is one of the largest
contributors to humans
altering our environment?
• The Fourth factor: Sensitivity (S)?
8
HUMAN POPULATION AND IMPACT
– What is one of the largest
contributors to humans
altering our environment?
Population growth rate is not equal across the globe
. (Withgott and Laposata, 2019)
9
HUMAN IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT
What does it mean to impact an ecological ecosystem?
Ecosystem: a system of complex interactions of a biological community that includes interactions
between populations and interactions with the nonliving (abiotic) parts of the environment
How can a systems approach help us approach human impact on the environment?
10
ECOSYSTEMS: SYSTEMS
Plants
System:
Animals
a network of relationships among a group of parts, elements, or components
Waste Heat
Solar
that interact with and influence one another
Energy
through the exchange of energy, matter, and/or information
Decomposers, scavengers, bacteria, fungi
Waste material and waste energy flows
11
ECOSYSTEMS: SYSTEMS
Plants
Animals
Waste Heat
Solar
Energy
Decomposers, scavengers, bacteria, fungi
Waste material and waste energy flows
12
HUMAN IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT
• How do humans impact ecological systems?
• Pollution
• Habitat Loss
• Resource exploitation (also called
)
• Introduction of non-native species
• Human-induced (anthropogenic) climate change
13
WHAT IS APPLIED ECOLOGY?
• Applied ecology: the assessment, management, and mitigation of
human impact on the environment
• Assessment of human impact on the environment
• Management of human impact on environment
• Mitigation of human impact on the environment
14
ENERGY AND MATTER RECAP
•
Energy flows and matter cycles through
ecosystems
•
Trophic level: energy and matter
consumption level of an organism,
depending on their relationship to other
organisms in the food web
•
•
Producers—get energy from sunlight
Consumers—get energy from
producers or other consumers
15
ENERGY RECAP
1. All life requires energy to function.
2. Energy is transformed from solar energy to chemical energy
by producers
3. Consumers obtain energy only through chemical energy
4. 90% of energy obtained by an organism is used up and “lost”
– only 10% is available for its consumer
5. The energy contained in a given trophic level
is limited by the amount of energy available to it
at the next lower trophic level.
16
MATTER RECAP
1. All life requires elements to build
up their biomass
2. Elements have both inorganic and
organic forms
3. Inorganic matter can be
assimilated by producers
4. Consumers obtain matter from
producers and/or other consumers
5. Matter is recycled through
decomposition and other processes
17
TODAY’S QUESTIONS
How do abiotic environmental factors affect ecosystem services?
(How do altered nutrient cycles influence ecosystem services?)
1) What does biogeochemical mean?
2) What is the connection between nutrient source/sinks, net fluxes, and residence time?
3) How can a systems approach elucidate ecological impacts and solutions of pollution and carbon cycling?
4) How can we monitor pollution and carbon cycling over space and time?
5) What is a watershed? Why is a watershed approach helpful in pollution analyses?
18
WHY FOCUS ON ENERGY AND MATTER??
•
Humans have direct impacts on the basics of our environment – the abiotic components
•
Biotic / ecosystem functioning cannot be separated from nutrient cycling.
• Energy and nutrient inputs help shape food webs
•
Energy in plants and animals literally fuels our existence
•
The cycling of nutrients is responsible for many of the ecosystem services we are provided with
• Soil fertility and plant productivity
• Water purification
• Carbon storage/sequestration
•
Nutrients can be easily monitored and tracked over
19 time.
CONTROLS ON ECOSYSTEMS: NUTRIENTS
•
•
___________: pressures on a food web that influence the availability of resources to lower trophic levels
(e.g. producers)
___________: pressures on a food web applied by a higher trophic level
•
Bottom-up controls have been well documented
20
CONTROLS ON ECOSYSTEMS: NUTRIENTS
•
•
Bottom-up controls have been well documented
Chlorophyll a
•
___________: pressures on a food web that influence the availability of resources to lower trophic levels
(e.g. producers)
___________: pressures on a food web applied by a higher trophic level
21
Phosphorus concentration
NUTRIENT CYCLING
Bio∙geo∙chemical cycles
What does biogeochemical mean?
22
NUTRIENT CYCLING
Bio∙geo∙chemical cycles
What does biogeochemical cycle mean?
Pathways of the transport and transformation of nutrients
between biotic and abiotic components of earth
within the planet’s biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere
23
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
• Cycles are systems characterized by
reservoirs and fluxes
– Reservoir: pool or storage
compartment
•
biogeochemical cycles
usually include reservoirs of
the atmosphere,
lithosphere, pedosphere
(soil), and biosphere
– Flux: rate at which materials move
between reservoirs
24
BOTTOM-UP: BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
– Humans have had a fundamental impact on biogeochemical cycles.
– We have altered the nature of nutrient pathways in several ways:
– Abundances within reservoirs
– fluxes between reservoirs
– Residence times in different reservoirs
25
NITROGEN
CYCLE
(Withgott & Laposata, 2019, Page 43)
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
• The ocean stores 1,335,000,000 km3
of water
• Flux in: 2,000 km3/yr from GW
40,000 km3/yr as runoff
373,000 km3/yr as precip
• Flux out: 413,000 km3/yr as evap
Sink:
Flux In ?? Flux Out
Source: Flux In ?? Flux Out 0
27
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Human impacts:
• Globally
• Fluxes of both evaporation and
precipitation are increasing
• Regionally
• Warming-induced strengthening of
precipitation in wet areas;
strengthening of evaporation on land
• Deforested areas
• decreased evatoranspiration
•
and precip
increased runoff
• Urbanized areas
• increased precip
• increased runoff
28
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Human impacts:
• Globally
• Fluxes of both evaporation and
precipitation are increasing
• Regionally
• Warming-induced strengthening of
precipitation in wet areas;
strengthening of evaporation on land
• Deforested areas
• decreased evatoranspiration
•
and precipitation
increased runoff
• Urbanized areas
• increased precip
• increased runoff/reduced infiltration
29
NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS CYCLES
• Why are human alterations to N and P cycles so important in
bottom-up controls?
30
NITROGEN
CYCLE
PHOSPHORUS
CYCLE
primarily altered from
the use of phosphorus
fertilizers in agriculture
Indirect effect on
climate: increasing
carbon sinks
Figure 15.2: Once created, a molecule of reactive nitrogen has a cascading impact on
people and ecosystems as it contributes to a number of environmental issues.
NITROGEN
CYCLE
How does human impact on the nitrogen cycle affect greenhouse gases?
Carbon dioxide
Methane
Nitrous oxide
PHOSPHORUS
CYCLE
•
Unlike H2O,
carbon, or nitrogen,
there is no gaseous form
of phosphorus
•
Most P is bound to rocks
–
•
only becomes soluble /
biologically reactive
through weathering
(phosphate, PO43-)
P is a limiting
nutrient
PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
2007
Fall of
USSR?
P Used for Fertilizer,
1800 to 2010
1940s:
Green Revolution
● Traditional farming
relied upon manure
& mobile soil P
● Over 80% of current
phosphorus used for
fertilizer / food
production comes
from phosphate rock
PHOSPHORUS
CYCLE
Only 20% of all mined P is
consumed in food
● 9.5 MT → waterways
(soil & human excreta)
● 55% P is lost between
“farm and fork”
● ~50% of P in human
waste is lost
(Cordell, 2009)
WHAT IS EUTROPHICATION?
Eutrophication is characterized by excessive plant and algal growth due to the increased
availability of one or more limiting growth factors needed for photosynthesis (Schindler 2006)
N AND P POLLUTION
40
ALTERED INPUTS IN CHESAPEAKE BAY
sun
herbivory
CO2
N
P
Algae
(phytoplankton)
zooplankton
O2
decomposition
predation
microbes
decomposition
fish
ALTERED INPUTS IN CHESAPEAKE BAY
sun
herbivory
CO2
Algae
(phytoplankton)
zooplankton
O2
decomposition
predation
N
microbes
P
decomposition
fish
ALTERED INPUTS IN CHESAPEAKE BAY
sun
herbivory
CO2
Algae
(phytoplankton)
zooplankton
O2
predation
N
P
Fish
ALTERED INPUTS IN CHESAPEAKE BAY
sun
herbivory
CO2
Algae
(phytoplankton)
zooplankton
O2
decomposition
predation
N
microbes
P
decomposition
fish
ASSESSING ECOSYSTEM RESPONSE
• How do we assess an ecosystem’s response to altered biogeochemistry?
45
ASSESSING ECOSYSTEM RESPONSE
1. Observe systems in the environment
2. Experiment
3. Model
46
Tidal
Potomac River:
Assessment of
Water Quality
Through BottomUp Food Web
Assessments
47
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What data is useful to collect?
48
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What other data is useful to collect for water quality assessments?
• Temperature
• Conductivity
• Dissolved Oxygen
• pH
• Water clarity (Light attenuation / turbidity)
49
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What other data is useful to collect for water quality assessments?
• Temperature
• Conductivity
• Dissolved Oxygen
• pH
• Water clarity (Light attenuation / turbidity)
50
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What other data is useful to collect for water quality assessments?
• Temperature
• Conductivity – ability of water to conduct an electrical current (~ ionic strength)
• Dissolved Oxygen
• pH
• Water clarity (Light attenuation / turbidity)
51
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What other data is useful to collect for water quality assessments?
• Temperature
• Conductivity
• Dissolved Oxygen – most aquatic organisms require > 5 mg/L
• pH
• Water clarity (Light attenuation / turbidity)
52
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What other data is useful to collect for water quality assessments?
• Temperature
• Conductivity
• Dissolved Oxygen – most aquatic
organisms require > 5 mg/L
• pH (acidity)
• Water clarity (Light attenuation /
turbidity)
53
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What other data is useful to collect for water quality assessments?
• Temperature
• Conductivity
• Dissolved Oxygen – most aquatic
organisms require > 5 mg/L
• pH (acidity)
• Water clarity (Light attenuation
/ turbidity)
54
ASSESSING BOTTOM-UP CONTROLS
• What other data is useful to collect for water quality assessments?
• Temperature
• Conductivity
• Dissolved Oxygen – most aquatic
organisms require > 5 mg/L
• pH (acidity)
• Water clarity (Light attenuation / turbidity)
55
CONCEPTS IN WATER BODY ASSESSMENTS
• We can assess waterways for pollutants using biogeochemical analyses
56
CONCEPTS IN WATER BODY ASSESSMENTS
• How to put results in context? (What are our “independent variables”?)
• Habitat types
• Surrounding area landcover / land use:
• Water dynamics
57
CONCEPTS IN WATER BODY ASSESSMENTS
• How to explain data?
58
WATERSHED ECOLOGY
• Landscape or regional assessments of
nutrient pollution in waterways requires an
understanding of watersheds
• What is a watershed?
• All of the land that drains to a common
point
• (often the mouth of a named river or
stream)
Where is the common point?
Were is the boundary of the watershed?
59
WATERSHED ECOLOGY
60
LEVELS OF WATERSHEDS
61
LEVELS OF WATERSHEDS
Beaver Dam Run
– Broad Run
Horsepen
Run
Sugarland
Run
Lower Rock
Creek
Four Mile
Run/Pimmit Potomac
Cameron
Run
Neabsco
Creek
62
STREAM STATS
• See drainage basin for any given point on any stream/river
• Obtain water quantity and landcover attributes for basin
63
CONCEPTS IN WATER BODY ASSESSMENTS
64
CONCEPTS IN WATER BODY ASSESSMENTS
• National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment method using the
Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (hereafter called NEEA)
65
EUTROPHICATION ASSESSMENT
• National Estuarine
Eutrophication Assessment
method and modifications,
called Assessment of
Estuarine Trophic
Status(hereafter called NEEA)
• influencing factors
• overall eutrophic
condition
• future outlook
66
EUTROPHICATION ASSESSMENT
Examines:
• influencing factors
• overall eutrophic condition
• future outlook
The results are then combined into a
single overall rating.
A completeness and reliability of the
overall eutrophic condition
assessment is based on the temporal
and spatial availability of data
https://coastalscience.noaa.gov/project/national-estuarine-eutrophication-assessmentupdate/#:~:text=Eutrophication%20is%20the%20overabundance%20of,in%20some%20cases%20ecosystem%20collapse
67
CARBON
CYCLE
*GPP = GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY (PRODUCING BIOMASS FROM PHOTOSYNTHESIS)
CARBON CYCLE
68
CARBON CYCLE
• Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most abundant of the heat-trapping
greenhouse gases that are increasing due to human activities,
• its production dominates atmospheric forcing of global climate change
• Also GHGs: methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)
• Methane has higher greenhouse-warming potential per
molecule than CO2,
• Human activities have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide by
about 40% over pre-industrial levels and more than doubled the
amount of nitrogen available to ecosystems.
69
CARBON CYCLE
https://video-alexanderstreetcom.mutex.gmu.edu/watch/land-carbon-cycle-animation
70
CARBON CYCLE
• How is CO2 monitored?
https://www.exploratorium.edu/video/monitoring-climatechange
71
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
A system has feedback mechanisms in which inputs and outputs
of the overall system / for system interactions can help stabilize or
destabilize systems
– Negative feedback: input balanced by output (control system)
– Positive feedback: increased output leads to increased input leads to …
In environmental systems, it is often complicated to predict the impact
of an altered input on the system as a whole
What are some negative and positive feedbacks in biogeochemical cycles?
Natural cycling? Human-altered cycling?
72
CARBON CYCLE
• CO2 is an input for photosynthesis.
• Can higher levels of atmospheric CO2 be
offset by higher levels of NPP?
Activity: increased temperature leads to
increased photosynthesis, increased CO2 leads to
both increased photosynthesis and increased
temperature, and increased photosynthesis leads
to decreased CO2. Assume these are the only
couplings. Draw a systems diagram which
describes the CO2-photosynthesis-temperature
system.
73
HUMAN IMPACT ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
• “The human mobilization of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from the
Earth’s crust and atmosphere into the environment has increased 36, 9,
and 13 times, respectively, compared to geological sources over preindustrial times.”
• Rephrase this in terms of nutrient fluxes and residence times.
74
ASSESSING CARBON STORAGE
https://video-alexanderstreetcom.mutex.gmu.edu/watch/learn-about-the-importantconsequences-that-deforestation-has-on-the-global-carboncycle
75
th
Lecture 3 – July 5 , 2022
Applied Ecology
COURSE UPDATES / SCHEDULE
If you are early –
1) Take midterm/final exam survey on Blackboard
2) Make sure your environmental interests survey is ranked with #1=highest
3) Go to https://news.mongabay.com/2022/04/the-worlds-dams-doing-majorharm-but-a-manageable-problem/ and start reading
>>>>
Schedule today:
1) Science in the News – 4 presentations
2) Lecture – Biodiversity and Conservation Biology
3) Break ~ 3:30 // in-class reading (if time)
4) ~ 3:45: Quiz
2
THURSDAY: please bring laptop.
FRIDAY: HW assignment 2 due.
WHAT IS APPLIED ECOLOGY?
• Applied ecology: the assessment, management, and mitigation of
human impact on the environment
• Assessment of human impact on the environment
• Management of human impact on environment
• Mitigation of human impact on the environment
3
BIODIVERSITY
Biodiversity describes the richness and variety of life on earth.
• Species diversity – increases as species ________ and ________ increase
• Genetic diversity
• Ecosystem diversity
• Functional diversity
• Biodiversity is a result of _____________
4
which is shaped by _______________
BIODIVERSITY
BIODIVERSITY
T
T
P
P
T
T
P
P
6
ASSESSING A SITE’S DIVERSITY
Ecologists often study a particular system (ecosystem, community)
made up of interactions that lead to ecosystem services.
Diversity of that system can indicate ecosystem functioning.
Functional Diversity:
Diversity of biological and chemical
processes such as energy flow and
matter recycling needed for species,
communities, and ecosystems
7
ASSESSMENT OF FOREST BIODIVERSITY
8
ASSESSMENT OF FOREST BIODIVERSITY
Simpson’s Diversity Index
•
A measure of diversity which takes into account the number of species
present, as well as the relative abundance of each species
Simpson’s index (D) = Σ(ni/N)2
–ni = number of individuals of species i
–N = total number of individuals of all species
9
ASSESSMENT OF FOREST BIODIVERSITY
Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index
•
•
Relies on small sample;
Ratio of the number of species to their importance values (e.g. biomass or
productivity) within a trophic level or community
S = # species present
pi = (ni/N)
10
LOCAL TO GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY
Humans have impacted the diversity of species present within and between
ecosystems/landscapes.
Humans have reduced biodiversity by
– causing species to go extinct
– causing populations to be extirpated
How do humans impact biodiversity?
11
BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN IMPACT
6 Main Causes of Biodiversity Loss:
1. Habitat loss – includes destruction, fragmentation, degradation
2. Pollution
3. Overharvesting
4. Invasive species
5. Climate change
6. Disease
12
BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN IMPACT
Why is it important to assess/manage/mitigate human impacts on biodiversity?
Why is biodiversity worth protecting?
https://video-alexanderstreetcom.mutex.gmu.edu/watch/extinction-can-tech-turn-the-tide
0:00 – 2:50
13
BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN IMPACT
Habitat loss –
– Farming (simplifies landscapes)
– Grazing (modifies grassland structure/composition)
– Clearing forests
– Hydroelectric dams
– Urbanization/suburban sprawl
14
BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN IMPACT
Pollution –
– Air pollution – degrades forest ecosystems
– Water pollution – affects fish/amphibians
– Agricultural runoff – harms terrestrial & aquatic ecosystems
15
BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN IMPACT
Overharvesting –
– Vulnerable species are large, few in number, long-lived, & have few young
– Oceans – contain 10% of large animals from before
16
BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN IMPACT
Invasive species –
– Introduction of non-native species to new environments

Accidental, e.g., zebra mussels

Intentional, e.g., food crops
– Island species specifically vulnerable
17
BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN IMPACT
Climate change –
– Modified global weather patterns warm temperatures and increase
frequency of extreme weather events
– Increase stress on populations; force organisms to shift ranges
18
BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN IMPACT
Disease
19
https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/
science.287.5452.443
BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN IMPACT
20
BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN IMPACT
Why is it important to assess/manage/mitigate human impacts on biodiversity?
Why is biodiversity worth protecting?
21
BIODIVERSITY OVER TIME
Dinosaurs
Triassic
extinctions
Large amphibians
Trilobites
Late Devonian
extinctions
Crinoids
Ordovician
extinctions
25
Brachiopods
BIODIVERSITY AND POPULATION ECOLOGY
Conservation requires monitoring
of community biodiversity;
but also requires the lens of
population ecology to assess
individual species’ population dynamics.
•Population ecology
•Community ecology
– Focusing on species
– Dynamics of population
change; factors that affect
the distribution and
abundance of individuals
within a population
diversity patterns and
interactions among species
26
BIODIVERSITY AND POPULATION ECOLOGY
Population measures are useful when identifying threats to species near extinction
Logistic Growth:
• Population size rises sharply at first but
then level off as the effects of limiting
factors become stronger
– factors are density dependent
• Eventually, population size stabilized at
carrying capacity
– may see instability as population size
approaches carrying capacity
27
http://gerrymarten.com/humanecology/chapter02.html
THREATS TO POPULATIONS
Stochastic processes – unpredictable
• demographic variance
• Chance colonization,
• random order of
immigration/emigration
• Ex: chance dispersal events
• environmental variance
• Environmental variation that can
reduce population size randomly or
totally;
• Ex: Natural disasters
28
THREATS TO POPULATIONS
Deterministic processes–predictable
• Demographic
• Birth and death rates
• Density dependence
(carrying capacity)
Stochastic processes – unpredictable
• demographic variance
• Chance colonization,
• random order of
immigration/emigration
• Ex: chance dispersal events
• Environmental
• Diurnal variation
• Seasonal variation
• Resource removal (harvesting)
• environmental variance
• Environmental variation that can
reduce population size randomly or
totally;
• Ex: Natural disasters
29
CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
Wilcove et al. (1998): Quantifying
threats to imperiled species in the
United States
— documenting major threats to species
Caughley (1994): Directions in
conservation biology
— “declining population paradigm” – we
need to study deterministic processes
governing population declines for specieslevel conservation
30
CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
31
CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
1. Evaluate human impacts on biological diversity
2. Develop practical approaches to prevent the extinction of
species (Soulé 1986, Wilson 1992)
Conservation versus Preservation
____________: maintain ecosystems and biodiversity balance and
integrity without human interference.
____________: maintain the integrity and balance of the ecosystems
and biodiversity through human action.
32
THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN Red List) –
most widespread endeavor to identify the threats affecting species
Categorical extinction risk
(consolidated metric to capture multiple symptoms of threat)
33
BIODIVERSITY OVER TIME
Cumulation
Extinctions,
% of IUCN
evaluated
species
34
BIODIVERSITY OVER TIME
Cumulation
Extinctions,
% of IUCN
evaluated
species
35
HOW TO CONSERVE?
1.
2.
3.
Single-species and population approaches
Habitat approaches
Eco-region/Landscape approaches
36
POPULATION ASSESSMENTS
Research on species and populations – aided by monitoring & modelling
• Distributions
• Abundance – slow declines in abundance are becoming common
• Population dynamics
• resource needs, population densities, carrying capacities
• Biology
• Ecological importance
37
POPULATIONS – ASSESSING THREATS
Research on threats to population declines: Peery et al. (2004)
• Direct experimentation
• Comparing modeled population responses to threats with observed population dynamics
• Demographic comparison of several geographically isolated populations
experiencing a range of hypothesized risk factors
• Inferring susceptibility from life history characteristics
• Identifying external factors that exhibit strong correlations with abundance dynamics
(e.g., correspondence of population decline with the onset date of a particular threat)
38
POPULATIONS – ASSESSING THREATS
We can predict the chance a species will go extinct given stochastic and deterministic processes.
Applied goals:
1. What is the “worst-case” scenario?
2. What is the risk of extinction if we
1. Do nothing (“background risk”)
2. Protect the species in some way
(e.g., habitat preservation)
3. Actively manage (e.g., try to
increase birth rates)
39
POPULATION ASSESSMENTS
Stochastic growth rate
Population Viability Analysis (PVA): Estimate of time to extinction for a given population
.04
.00
-.04
40
POPULATION ASSESSMENTS
• The minimum viable population (MVP) is the “smallest isolated population having a
99 percent chance of remaining extant for 1000 years despite the foreseeable
effects of demographic and environmental stochasticity, and natural catastrophes.”
41
SPECIES PRIORITIZATION
Because of Limited:
– Monitoring / methodological resources
– Manpower
– Funding

Conservation triage approach –
abandon some populations to extinction;
focus resources to populations with
higher chances of survival.
Managing woodland
populations in Canada
42
TRIAGE
SPECIES PRIORITIZATION
AND
ETHICS
What
do you
think?
43
SPECIES PRIORITIZATION
1) Keystone species
2) Umbrella species
3) Flagship species
Keystone species – species that
have disproportionately large effect
on their ecosystem
Protecting keystone species
indirectly protects other species
through ecological interaction
Example of top-down control
44
SPECIES PRIORITIZATION
1) Keystone species
2) Umbrella species
3) Flagship species
Protecting umbrella species
indirectly protects other species
through shared habitat
Requires overlapping spatial
extents at the same time
45
SPECIES PRIORITIZATION
1) Keystone species
2) Umbrella species
Protecting flagship
species indirectly
protects other species
by generating public
awareness and
political willingness
46
3) Flagship species
SINGLE SPECIES APPROACH
What are some concerns you might have for each of
these conservation triage approaches and why?
1) Keystone species
2) Umbrella species
3) Flagship species
47
RESEARCH GAPS IN SPECIES EFFORTS
Knowledge Gaps in the Definition of Threats for the Red
List Assessment of European Freshwater-Dependent
Fish Species (Branco et al., 2021)
“The present article highlights that threat
identification, on which most species
conservation efforts are built, is frequently based
on expert empirical knowledge and is generally
unsupported by scientific literature.
…
There is an actual peril of losing species-specific
fundamental research due to a lack of interest,
opportunity, or funding.”
48
ECOSYSTEM & LANDSCAPE FOCUS
1. Ecosystem
biodiversity – Global
Biodiversity Hotspot
2. Ecosystem condition Crisis Ecoregions
3. Ecosystem service
sustainability – MPAs
Global Biodiversity Hotspot – areas with >1500 endemic
plant species49& habitat patch
2. Pull/Ground
3. Barriers
Landscape characterized by resistance
(conductivity)

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