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Why solar energy isn’t widely used in madinah city in Saudi Arabia

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Summary
The results of the survey show that the vast majority of people
who filled out the questionnaire know about solar energy and
prefer it over regular energy sources, and they agree that the cost
of establishing a solar system is beneficial in the long run, and
they believe that solar energy is better than regular energy
sources in preserving the environment, they believe that the city
council should educate people More about the environmental
and economic benefits of solar energy. In another way,
combining solar energy and regular energy sources could be the
best solution nowadays. But what might prevent people from
installing systems of solar energy is the high cost of setting up a
solar system and the misconception that it is very complex and
cannot be understood, but in fact, things are simple and easy to
understand.
Surprisingly solar energy is preferable to regular energy sources
in the society of Madinah Therefore, the indicators are positive
and indicate that the demand for solar energy will increase, and
with the rapid progress of technology in recent years, a cheaper
way to manufacture materials may be discovered, and thus the
cost will decrease.
So hopefully in the near future, we will see more solar energy
systems installed around the city of Madinah
UNIT 4B
Technical English Report Writing
Writing Strategies
BY THE END OF THIS UNIT, YOU WILL…
LEARN HOW TO SUMMARIZE
LEARN HOW TO PARAPHRASE
ELAN 0202
English Department
Technical English Report Writing
SUMMARISING- REVIEW FROM Academic English 1
Technical English Report Writing
B- Compare these summaries of the paragraph you just read. Work with a partner. Discuss how the summaries are similar and
how they are different. Choose the summary you think is best.
1. Children from ages three to five participated in the study about company logos.
In the study, children recognised logos from McDonald’s, Disney, Toyota, and
Shell. The researchers were surprised.
Technical English Report Writing
Paraphrasing
Technical English Report Writing
Difference between summarising and paraphrasing
Paraphrasing
Summarising
Constructing a passage
into your own words
Put main ideas into
your own words.
Use your own sentence
structure(include
examples).
Present only the most
important points (no
examples).
You must quote the
source.
You must quote the
source.
Is this an example of summarising or paraphrasing?
Technical English Report Writing
Read this article about city of Madinah.
Welcome to Madinah!
1
When visitors come to Madinah, they feel a sense of peace and tranquillity. They are eager to see the holy city and spend time in
the Prophet’s (‫ )ﷺ‬Mosque. The Prophet Muhammed (‫ )ﷺ‬said: ‫ام‬
ِ ‫صالَة ٌ فِي َم ْس ِجدِي َه َذا َخي ٌْر ِم ْن أَ ْل‬
َ ‫ف‬
ÙŽ
َ ‫صالَةٍ فِي َما ِس َواه ِإالَّ ْال َم ْس ِج َد ْال َح َر‬
“One prayer in this mosque of mine is better than one thousand prayers in any other mosque except Al-Masjid-AI-Haram.” (Bukhari)
In addition, the Prophet Muhammed (‫ )ﷺ‬said: َ‫ت ِب َم َّكة‬
َ ‫ض ْعفَ ْى َما َج َع ْل‬
Ù’ ‫” اللَّ ُه َّم‬
ِ ‫اج َع ْل ” ِمنَ ْال َب َر َكة ِب ْال َمدِينَ ِة‬
“O Allah! Bestow on Medina twice the blessings you bestowed on Makkah.” (Bukhari)
2
On arrival, pilgrims are welcomed at the Prince Muhammed bin Abdul Aziz International Airport. This airport is considered to be
one of the best in the Middle East. It is only a short bus or taxi ride from the Prophet’s Mosque. A dedicated shuttle service
leaves the airport every 30 minutes and takes passengers very close to the Haram.
Technical English Report Writing
Read this article about city of Madinah.
Welcome to Madinah!
3
There are many places to eat and shop inside the airport. The famous local Madinah Made shop sells many varieties of dates,
prayer mats and souvenirs. Visitors and pilgrims can purchase mobile phone credit from local telecom providers like the Saudi
Telcom Company (STC). Private car rentals and public transport are readily available, and visitors are taken quickly and quietly to
their respective hotels.
4
Visitors from all over the world are welcome to visit this peaceful city all year round and to enjoy the wonderful atmosphere. The
best time to visit Madinah is during Ramadan and the season of Hajj because people can enjoy the blessing of these months.
Visitors, known as guests, are frequently served with Zamzam water. People appreciate the hospitality they receive from the
people of Madinah.
Technical English Report Writing
Read this article about city of Madinah.
Welcome to Madinah!
5
Modern shopping malls contrast with traditional markets known as souks, where people can purchase souvenirs, dates, miswak
and the famous Madinah mint. People can go sightseeing on double-decker buses or with local cab drivers willing to assist the
pilgrims for a small fee. Visitors can visit famous historical places such as Mount Uhud and Quba Mosque.
6
In recent years, the city has taken on several renovation projects to improve public spaces and increase tourism. The
construction of new tourist attractions like The Prophet’s Mosque Expansion Exhibition helps visitors understand and appreciate
the history of Islam.
Technical English Report Writing
Welcome to Madinah!
7
This city is also famous as a centre of Islamic knowledge. The world-renowned Islamic University of Madinah is situated seven
kilometres from the Prophet’s (‫ )ﷺ‬Mosque. Students come from all over the world to study Islamic Sciences in Arabic. In
addition, the university opened STEM colleges serving science, technology, engineering and mathematics students in 2012,
where the medium of instruction is English.
1. Why is the Islamic University so famous?
A. ☐ It opened in 2012.
2.
C. ☐ Islamic knowledge
D. ☐ near the Prophet’s (‫ )ﷺ‬Mosque
B. ☐ to go sightseeing
C. ☐ to go shopping
D. ☐ to pray in the Prophet’s (‫ )ﷺ‬Mosque
B. ☐ technical subjects
C. ☐ students
D. ☐ medium of instruction
What is the main reason why people visit Madinah?
A. ☐ to study
3.
B. ☐ STEM colleges
What is STEM?
A. ☐ English
Vocabulary in Context.
Here are some words from the reading. Scan the text to help you find the correct definition.
contrast
eager
Word
tranquil renovate
medium bestow atmosphere respected renowned
Definition
1.
to repair and improve something, especially a building
2.
wanting to do or have something very much
3.
peaceful calm state without any noise or worry
4.
famous and respected
5.
system of communication
6.
the feeling or mood that you have in a particular place
7.
something that is different from another thing
8.
to give something to somebody, especially to show how much
they are respected
9.
belonging or relating to each one of the people or things
that have been mentioned
Technical English Report Writing
Language focus for writing: Synonyms
Using synonyms helps you to improve the quality of your writing by avoiding repetition.
Match the synonyms below. You may use your mobile devices to help.
This website may be useful: https://www.thesaurus.com/browse/oxford)
Technical English Report Writing
Language focus for writing: Synonyms
Using synonyms helps you to improve the quality of your writing by avoiding repetition.
Technical English Report Writing
Scaffold for writing
Technical English Report Writing
Scaffold for writing
Write the main idea and details for each paragraph.
Para
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Main Idea
The blessing of
visiting Madinah.
Details (key words and phrases)
The Prophet’s (‫ )ﷺ‬Mosque –1000 times more reward than other mosques
(other than the mosque in Makkah) for prayer
Writing a summary
A summary is a short paragraph. It gives the main ideas of the entire text with some details. The summary is
written in your own words but you do not include opinions or examples. It is, however, useful to use synonyms.
Remember to write in the present tense. Also include the name of the author and title of the work if possible.
Summary of ‘Welcome to Madinah!’ (about 100 words/ one paragraph)
In the article, Welcome to Madinah!, the author mentions….
Technical English Report Writing
Activity 1: Summarize this in groups
A 28 year old man in Austin, Texas didn’t break into a business and
run, like most criminals. Instead, he took several sausages then
simply fell asleep inside the business (“Police: Man breaks into
Austin meat business, sleeps”).
Technical English Report Writing
Now it’s your turn to paraphrase.
Go back to this article.
Read all seven paragraphs. Use the steps to paraphrase this article.
1
When visitors come to Madinah, they feel a sense of peace and tranquillity. They are eager to see the holy city and spend time in
the Prophet’s (‫ )ﷺ‬Mosque. The Prophet Muhammed (‫ )ﷺ‬said: ‫ام‬
ِ ‫صالَة ٌ فِي َم ْس ِجدِي َه َذا َخي ٌْر ِم ْن أَ ْل‬
َ ‫ف‬
ÙŽ
َ ‫صالَةٍ فِي َما ِس َواه ِإالَّ ْال َم ْس ِج َد ْال َح َر‬
“One prayer in this mosque of mine is better than one thousand prayers in any other mosque except Al-Masjid-AI-Haram.” (Bukhari)
In addition, the Prophet Muhammed (‫ )ﷺ‬said: َ‫ت ِب َم َّكة‬
َ ‫ض ْعفَ ْى َما َج َع ْل‬
Ù’ ‫” اللَّ ُه َّم‬
ِ ‫اج َع ْل ” ِمنَ ْال َب َر َكة ِب ْال َمدِينَ ِة‬
“O Allah! Bestow on Medina twice the blessings you bestowed on Makkah.” (Bukhari)
2
On arrival, pilgrims are welcomed at the Prince Muhammed bin Abdul Aziz International Airport. This airport is considered to be
one of the best in the Middle East. It is only a short bus or taxi ride from the Prophet’s Mosque. A dedicated shuttle service
leaves the airport every 30 minutes and takes passengers very close to the Haram.
Technical English Report Writing
Skimming & Scanning
Look at the differences between the two reading techniques below:
Skimming
Scanning
What is it about?
Reading and understanding
Searching and finding
Purpose
Gives you the main idea of the text.
Look for specific information like
dates, numbers, facts or keywords
Method
Read the title, headings and subheadings.
Move your eyes quickly through the
Look at any pictures and diagrams.
text.
Read the first sentence of each paragraph as
well as the first and last paragraph.
Benefit/ Use
A quick method of reading.
A quick method of searching.
People skim texts to decide whether they
People already know the information
would like to read the text in full.
they are looking for.
Technical English Report Writing
References

1) https://www.bbc.co.uk/teach/skillswise

2) https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/examples-of-paraphrasing/

3)https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/using_research/quoting_paraphrasing_and_summarizing/paraphrasing.html

4) https://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/courses/elc/studyzone/570/pulp/hemp3.htm
Technical English Report Writing
UNIT 5
Technical English & Report Writing –
Plagiarism and Referencing
BY THE END OF THIS UNIT, YOU WILL…
â­¶
LEARN THE DEFINITION OF PLAGIARISM
â­¶
KNOW HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM
– BE ABLE TO REFERENCE A CITATION CORRECTLY BOTH INSIDE AND OUTSIDE THE TEXT
â­¶
KNOW HOW TO REFERENCE DIFFERENT KINDS OF SOURCES
ELAN 0202
year 2021-22
English Department
Academic
Look at these pictures?
What do you notice?
Technical English Report Writing
Technical English Report Writing
7
6- Translating from one language to another
7- Spinning- using computer software to
change words around
Technical writing involves integrity and
honesty.
• You must show that your work can be trusted and is reliable.
• The information in the report must be accurate.
• Statistics (graphs, charts etc) must be accurately interpreted.
• You must be honest.
• You must reference other peoples ideas and work. This means you
MUST cite work accurately and correctly.
• If you summarise, paraphrase or quote, you MUST cite your
reference otherwise
Technical English Report Writing
Watch this video:
https://sites.google.com/a/unisacommscience.co.za/writing-for-academic-integrity/how-to-reference/3-1-how-to-reference-books
Inside Writing- Book 4: p. 97
Technical English Report Writing
Inside Writing- Book 4: p. 98
Technical English Report Writing
Referencin
g
Technical English Report Writing
Effective Writing- Book 3: p.82
(See the next slide.)
Technical English Report Writing
Effective Writing- Book 3: p.82
Technical English Report Writing
(See the next slide.)
Effective Writing- Book 3: p.82
Effective Writing- Book 3: p.82
2.
3.
4.
5.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Technical English Report Writing
Go to this website: https://www.citethisforme.com/
Correct referencing:
On this site we will
look at:
1)- the different
citation styles
2)-plagiarism
3)Harvard
referencing styles
Use quotations and citations to:
a. make your arguments stronger by quoting an authority on the topic,
b. present an author’s position on a topic,
c. show more academic credibility to your work.
d. disagree with an author
and create an account.
Activity of referencing 5 books – anything
Websites from internet – wikipedia, and quoting another website
Referencing a pdf
Referencing a video
Use cite this for me website to reference this book.
.
You can also say:
Levring (2018) argues…
or Levring (2018) explains…
or Levring (2018) claims..
Paraphrase the text.
Choose an article to paraphrase. Check with your teacher.
UNIT 5 Writing
Report Writing: Mini Assignment
Poor
(0)
Needs to
improve
(OKGood)
(2)
Assignment
worth 15%
Very
GoodExcellent
(3)
• Check with your teacher which research article to (1)
Style+
• Paraphrase.
Make
sure you
alsogiving
include
references correctly inside
Clearly
and
accurately
paraphrases
an
article
examples
Word
where
appropriate
summarising where necessary and
choice and
outside
theandtext.
keeping the authors ideas.
Grammar
Use synonyms and keywords.
Use quotations correctly (At LEAST one quotation).
References work correctly inside and outside the text.
(At least one reference)
Spelling
and
punctua
tion
Correct spelling of words.
Correct punctuation (.,?,!), and capitalisation.
Style
Sentences are in good order.
Appropriate headings/ subheadings and paragraph structure.
References
• 1 Bonamy, D., 2012. Technical English. Pearson.
• 2) https://www.citethisforme.com/
• 3) Sites.google.com. 2020. 3.1 How To Reference Books – Writing For Academic Integrity. [online] Available at:
https://sites.google.com/a/unisacommscience.co.za/writing-for-academic-integrity/how-to-reference/3-1how-to-reference-books [Accessed 2 July 2020].
• 4. https://www.scribbr.com/
UNIT 3B
TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION-
Report Structure
BY THE END OF THIS UNIT, YOU WILL…

WHAT A TECHNICAL REPORT SHOULD LOOK LIKE

KNOW WHAT TO INCLUDE IN YOUR FINAL REPORT

HAVE AN UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT EACH SECTION OF THE REPORT SHOULD INCLUDE
ELAN 0202
English Department
Islamic University of Madinah
A technical report conveys technical
information in a clear format.
This guide explains the accepted format
required for a technical report. In addition, it
explains what is required in each section of
the report and why.
PURPOSE OF REPORT
One of the main forms of communication in engineering is the technical report.
ï‚´ Every report has a purpose. This could be:
ï‚´ To convince the reader of something. For example:
ï‚´ to convince a government agency of the effect of a particular course of action
ï‚´ to convince a client that your solution will fulfil their needs
ï‚´ to convince the public that a proposed project will bring benefits
ï‚´ To persuade the reader to do something. For example:
ï‚´ to persuade a government or council to adopt a particular course of action
ï‚´ to persuade a client to choose one design over another
ï‚´ to persuade an organisation to partner with your company on a project
ï‚´ To inform the reader about something (usually for a further purpose). For example:
ï‚´ to provide a government department with information they will base policy on
ï‚´ to instruct other engineers who will work from your plans
ï‚´ to present the outcomes of a project to stakeholders
ï‚´ When planning an assignment report, your first step is to clarify its purpose; that is, what you want it to
achieve.
2- STRUCTURE- A technical report should contain the following sections;
Section
Details
Title page
This must include the title of the report.
ABSTRACT
(Summary)
A summary of the whole report including important features, results and conclusions
Contents
Introduction
Numbers and lists all section and subsection headings with page numbers
States the objectives of the report and comments on the way the topic of the report is to be
treated. Leads straight into the report itself.
Divided into numbered and headed sections. These sections separate the different main ideas
BODY (MAIN TEXT)
in a logical order
of the report
Conclusions
Recommendations
References
Appendices (if
appropriate)
A short, logical summing up of the ideas developed in the main text
Summarise your findings. What you learnt from the report and what you recommend
Details of published sources of material referred to or quoted in the text (including any lecture
notes and URL addresses of any websites used.
Any further material which is essential for full understanding of your report (e.g. large scale
diagrams, computer code, raw data, specifications) but not required by a casual reader
2- Title- Cover Page
A good title must be very clear.
It answers two basic questions:
What is the subject of the report
What type of report is it?
TITLE
E.g. sea pollution – control devices
You can use words like: analysis,
recommendations, summary, review etc.
For a simple title page, write the title in the
middle of the page.
1mark Name of University,
Department and
TITLE of the report
1 mark
Name of Student, ID, and DATE
Name of Teacher and Section Number
A technical report should contain the following sections;
How to ake the title more specific?
GENERAL
MORE
SPECIFIC
A general topic is difficult to research well and cover thoroughly.
To help you decide on a topic write down some key words and phrases. Check the internet for information BUT do NOT
copy from the internet. You can take ideas from books, the internet, friends etc.
USE THE GRAPHIC ORGANISOR ABOVE TO HELP YOU START THINKING OF A RESEARCH QUESTION FOR YOUR REPORT.
2- CONTENTS PAGE/ Contents/ Table of Contents
Numbers and
Table of Contents lists all section and
(TOC)
subsection headings
with page numbers
Contents
• The table of contents (TOC) in the technical report structure allows
readers to find the information they want.
• The headings that appear in the report are listed in the T.O.C. For an
effective T.O.C make sure the report has effective headings
– It is not necessary to write the words ‘Table of Contents”.
1 mark
Page numbers in order
Effective Headings
1 mark
Effective Subheadings
2- CONTENTS PAGE
Numbers and
Table of
lists all section and
Contents
subsection headings
(TOC)
with page numbers
Contents
(3 marks
total)
1 mark
1 mark
The table of contents in the technical report
structure allows readers to find the information
they want. A well organized report becomes
ineffective if the table of contents, is not clear.
T.O.C is a guide to the report’s structure. The
headings that appear in the report are listed in
T.O.C. For effective T.O.C make sure the report
has effective headings.
Page numbers in order
Effective Headings
1 mark
Effective Subheadings
The Contents page below is from a report.
What is wrong with this contents page?
3- ABSTRACT
Abstract-
summary of whole report
A summary SHOULD include three paragraphs or one paragraph covering the points
below.
It consists of three paragraphs OR one paragraph with the three parts
mentioned below(approximately100 – 200 words in total)
ABSTRACT
Write this once you have finished your report.
Then add it before the contents page.
2 marks
First paragraph – introduction of the topic- Why did you choose this topic?
2 marks
Second paragraph – How did you do it?
2 marks
Third paragraph- what were your results?
Example 1- REAL SAMPLE ABSTRACTs
 Diet and obesity in Los Angeles County 2007–2012: Is there a measurable effect
 of the 2008 “Fast-Food Ban”?
ï‚´ The abstract:
We evaluate the impact of the “Los Angeles Fast-Food Ban”, a zoning regulation that has restricted
opening/remodelling of standalone fast-food restaurants in South Los Angeles since 2008.
Food retail permits issued after the ban are more often for small food/convenience stores and less
often for larger restaurants not part of a chain in South Los Angeles compared to other areas; there
are no significant differences in the share of new fast-food chain outlets, other chain restaurants, or
large food markets. About 10% of food outlets are new since the regulation, but there is little
evidence that the composition has changed differentially across areas. Data from the California
Health Interview Survey show that fast-food consumption and overweight/obesity rates have
increased from 2007 to 2011/2012 in all areas. The increase in the combined prevalence of
overweight and obesity since the ban has been significantly larger in South Los Angeles than
elsewhere. A positive development has been a drop in soft drink consumption since 2007, but that
drop is of similar magnitude in all areas.
172 words.
Example 2- SAMPLE ABSTRACTS from Students
ABSTRACT: INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Example 3- SAMPLE ABSTRACTS from Students
ABSTRACT: INTERNET OF THINGS
Exercise: Improve this abstract.
ABSTRACT: FOUNDATIONS
Introduction- 3 marks
The Introduction:
ï‚´
introduces the topic of the report in context;
ï‚´
explains the problem;
ï‚´
indicates the purpose of the report;
ï‚´
Length: ½ to ¾ of a page.
ï‚´ Is this a good introduction?
ï‚´ Discuss
EXAMPLE of an Introduction
Heading 1
Heading 2
A list is best
introduced by a
grammatically
complete
sentence.
If items are
numbered, a
period follows
each number and
each entry begins
with a capital
letter.
Light Water Nuclear Reactors
Introduction
ï‚´ There are approximately five hundred nuclear power plants in operation or
under construction worldwide. These plants can produce as much as 370,000
megawatts of electricity. These nuclear power plants can be categorised into
four types:
ï‚´ 1. Light water reactors
ï‚´ 2. Heavy water reactors
ï‚´ 3.Gas-cooled reactors
ï‚´ 4. Breeder reactors
EXAMPLE of an Introduction
Heading 1
Heading 2
Light Water Nuclear Reactors
Introduction
ï‚´ The four parts of this report discuss:
If a list completes
the sentence that
introduces it,
items begin with
lowercase letters.
ï‚´ 1. the design and operation of pressurised water reactors;
ï‚´ 2. the design and operation of boiling water reactors;
Commas or
semicolons are
used to separate
each item,
ï‚´ 3. safety measures employed in these reactors; and
 4. economic aspects of these reactors’ operation.
and the last item
ends with a period.
ï‚´ The sections on the two types of light water reactors will describe the components and explain
their operation. The section on safety measures will discuss the causes of meltdown, safety
systems used in both types of reactors, and the role of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission
plays to ensure the safety of these reactors. The final section will review the various costs
involved in the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant.
EXAMPLE 2 of an Introduction
Focus on the breakdown (not the meaning)
This is the Introduction to a report presenting two concept designs for a civil engineering project.
Slaty Creek Bridge: alternative designs report.
1. Introduction
A dual carriageway bridge with two traffic lanes in each direction is to be constructed on the Calder
Freeway crossing Slaty Creek in the Shire of Macedon Ranges in Victoria. The bridge will rise
approximately 15 metres above the river surface and span 125 metres between man-made
compacted fill embankments. This report presents two concept designs for the bridge. The designs
are presented in the form of sketches of the elevations and cross-sections of the structures. They are
then compared in terms of construction method, construction and maintenance costs, possible
disruption to traffic during construction, durability and aesthetics. This discussion underpins the
preliminary recommendation that completes the report.
EXAMPLE 2 of an Introduction
Slaty Creek Bridge: alternative designs report.
1. Introduction
A dual carriageway bridge with two traffic lanes in each direction is to be constructed
on the Calder Freeway crossing Slaty Creek in the Shire of Macedon Ranges in
Victoria.
EXAMPLE 2 of an Introduction
Slaty Creek Bridge: alternative designs report.
1. Introduction
A dual carriageway bridge with two traffic lanes in each direction is to be constructed on the Calder Freeway crossing Slaty Creek in the Shire of Macedon Ranges in Victoria. The
bridge will rise approximately 15 metres above the river surface and span 125 metres between man-made compacted fill embankments. This report presents two concept designs
for the bridge. The designs are presented in the form of sketches of the elevations and cross-sections of the structures. They are then compared in terms of construction method,
construction and maintenance costs, possible disruption to traffic during construction, durability and aesthetics. This discussion underpins the preliminary recommendation that
completes the report.
EXAMPLE 2 of an Introduction
Slaty Creek Bridge: alternative designs report.
1. Introduction
A dual carriageway bridge with two traffic lanes in each direction is to be constructed on the Calder Freeway crossing Slaty Creek in the Shire of Macedon Ranges in Victoria. The
bridge will rise approximately 15 metres above the river surface and span 125 metres between man-made compacted fill embankments. This report presents two concept designs
for the bridge. The designs are presented in the form of sketches of the elevations and cross-sections of the structures. They are then compared in terms of construction method,
construction and maintenance costs, possible disruption to traffic during construction, durability and aesthetics. This discussion underpins the preliminary recommendation that
completes the report.
Who is the audience?
Who are you writing it for?
https://www.monash.edu/rlo/assignment-samples/engineering/eng-writing-technical-reports/introduction
BODY OF THE REPORT
ï‚´ The Introduction helps to introduce the body of the report.
ï‚´ The information should be organised so that the reader can follow your report.
ï‚´ You should order the sections and be concise with headings and subheadings.
ï‚´ The body of the report:
ï‚´ presents the information from your research;
ï‚´ organises information logically under headings.
ï‚´ This includes:
ï‚´ diagrams, graphs, questionnaires and tables
ï‚´ ordered lists
Presentation Rules: Section Headings
Heading should be precise
Presentation Rules: Section Headings
Presentation Rules: Section Headings
Presentation Rules: Section Headings
Read the three sets of section
headings.
Which set is the most
grammatically correct?
What’s wrong with the other two
sets?
Activity 1: Where does this go in the report?
Activity 2: Where does this go in the report?
Using the passive in your reports
Understanding the difference between the
introduction and conclusion of a report
Conclusion
Conclusion
Example 3: Conclusion- this must be in your own words
Recommendations- this must be in your own words. You
must have a minimum of 3 recommendations.
Recommendations- 6 marks
Group work:
ï‚´ Now complete the activity from p. 76 of Technical English 4
ï‚´ Find the recommendations from p.84 (Technical Matters) and make a
recommendation page.
Recommendations- You must have a minimum of 3
recommendations. This section is worth 6 marks.
GRADING Section
Title page /
Contents page
ABSTRACT
(Summary)
Introduction
MARKS
2+2
6 – your own words
3
– your own words
15 marks – the 5Cs must be showing in this part of your report
You must show:
CLARITY: Clear language and word choice. Diagrams must be
clear and correctly labelled.
Coherence: Sentences and paragraphs must connect well
BODY (MAIN TEXT)
Context: Ideas must be developed well
of the report
Concreteness: No guesses. Facts based on evidence e.g.
questionnaires, diagrams, research etc.
Conciseness: Good use of technical and academic language
Marks will be given for correct spelling, grammar, word choice,
quality of sentence structure and quality of content.
Conclusions
Recommendations
References
3 – your own words
6
– your own words (at least three recommendations)
3 – Referencing inside and outside the report correctly. This includes
a page at the end of the report citing your different references in
alphabetical order.
ORGANISATION
STYLE
Credibility
Paragraphing/ Text
structure/ Coherence
Spelling & Punctuation
Referencing
(Inside the text and at
the end of the report)
MAIN
Discussion
Section
Ideas & Content
CONTEXT
Excellent
Graphs/ Data
Concreteness/
Clarity
Develops a clear and
focused report that
demonstrates
a
comprehensive
investigation
of
a
particular topic. Uses
well-researched
information with many
details to support a
main idea.
No guesses. Facts on
evidence,
e.g.
questionnaires,
diagrams,
research.
Diagrams
labelled
correctly.
Effectively varies the length
and pattern of sentences.
Uses
precise
words
(academic and specific
language) appropriately to
help readers understand
the topic.
Paragraphs are used consistently
and
effectively.
Each
paragraph has an effective
topic
sentences
(TS)
with
relevant supporting sentences
(SS)
and
explanation
with
conclusion.
Moves
readers
smoothly and easily throughout
the report.
Demonstrates
a
good
command of capitalization
and grammar; Accurate use of
punctuation. Errors only occur
where ambitious punctuation is
attempted.
Minimum of THREE references
which
correspond
to
referencing in the main text.
Citations must be referenced
according to the Harvard
referencing
system
in
alphabetical order. Students
reflect on the citations using
their own words.
Good
(2)
Presents a report with
some
relevant
facts
based
on
limited
research.
May include some
diagrams,
charts,
graphs or tables.
Uses a variety of simple
and complex sentences.
Uses some transition words
and precise language to
help readers.
Paragraphs are used to group
ideas although not consistently.
A TS is supported with some SS.
Paragraphs are generally on
topic but lack a smooth
transition.
Spelling of medium frequency
words is generally accurate.
Capitalization,
punctuation,
and usage are mostly correct
but limited (minor errors that do
not confuse the reader)
Minimum of TWO references
which
correspond
to
referencing in the main text.
Citations must be referenced
according to Harvard and in
alphabetical order.
Needs
Shows
a
minimal
attempt to craft a report
(creates a weak report)
Errors
occur
when
interpreting data, or
data not relevant to
assignment.
Uses
mainly
simple
sentences.
Academic/
specific language is very
limited in use. Some words
and phrases may be
vague or inaccurate.
Is structured poorly; lacks a clear
beginning; details and ideas are
disorganized;
report
ends
abruptly.
High frequency words are
generally accurate. Errors may
interfere with a clear reading of
the writing (the errors confuse
the reader) – run-ons, comma
splices and fragments
At least one reference which
may or may not refer to the
main text.
Does not present a
report. The writer is
unfocused and unsure of
what to say.
No attempt to include
any diagram, picture,
table etc.
Sentences are fragmented
and /or incomplete. Uses
only basic vocabulary to
explain ideas.
Sentences are not connected in
any meaningful way; lack of
planning makes the text almost
impossible to follow.
Makes many serious errors in
spelling. Makes repeated and
serious errors in word choice,
punctuation,
usage
and
capitalization
No referencing and/or parts of
report are plagiarized.
(3)
Improvement
(1)
Poor
(0)
Readability
Correctness
(Clarity & Conciseness)
& Concreteness
Cover
Contents
Page
Abstract
Intro.
Ideas &
content
Clarity/
Data
Readability
Para/text/c
Spelling/
Conclusion
Recommendat
ions
References
(inside/outsi
de text)
2
2
6
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
6
3
Percentage plagiarized from main body
Marks deducted
oherence
Punctuation
75-100%
50-75%
25-50%
10- 25%
9-12
6-9
3-6
1-3
TOTAL
40
-Plagiarism
Final
TOTAL
References
1https://www.aboutcivil.org/formal-elements-of-technical-report.html
2- https://www.bstemplates.com/technical-report-example/
3- https://www.monash.edu/rlo/assignment-samples/engineering/eng-writing-technical-reports
4https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/subject_specific_writing/professional_technical_writing/technical_reports_and_report_abstracts/index.html
5- http://www.sussex.ac.uk/ei/internal/forstudents/engineeringdesign/studyguides/techreportwriting
6- https://templatelab.com/technical-reports/
3- Writing an effective ABSTRACT- checklist
Step 1
Start by reading your report. Look for these main parts:
purpose, methods, results, conclusions, and recommendations.
After you have finished rereading your report, write a draft without looking back at
your report.
Step 2
Consider the main parts of the abstract listed in step #1.
Do not copy key sentences from your report as you will put in too much or too little
information.
Do not summarize information in a new way.
Remember the abstract MUST be written in your own words.
Step 3
Revise your draft to:
A- Correct weaknesses in organization and coherence,
B- Eliminate any wordy phrases or any unnecessary information,
C- Add important information originally left out,
D- Correct errors in grammar and mechanics./ spelling/ punctuation
Step 4
Carefully proofread your final copy.

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