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After reading the chapter on disability models and watching Dr. Barnes’ presentation, write and submit a  reflection

that addresses the following 3 ideas:

Based on what you’ve read and thought about, how would you describe the concept of “disability?” In what ways do you agree/disagree with some of the scholars’ definitions?

How have you seen the various models of disability reflected in our society?  What are your thoughts and/or reactions to this?

How could models of disability affect our work in speech and hearing science?

Review of Terminology
SHS 470
Students will understand terms used to
describe aspects of speech and language and
give examples as they apply to children with
communication disorders.
2
1. Without looking it up, define these terms . . .
• Communication
• Language
• Speech
• Metalinguistic
• Paralinguistic
• Nonlinguistic
• Literacy
• Syntax
• Morphology
• Phonology
• Semantics
• Pragmatics
2. Can you draw a figure to show the relationship
between these terms? (Try it!)
3
Terminology: Communication
Communication:
• The process by which _________ is conveyed during
interactions
meaning
4
Terminology: Language
ASHA: “_______ and ________ system of _________
symbols that is used in various modes for thought and
communication” https://www.asha.org/policy/rp1982-00125/
complex
dynamic
conventional
5
Terminology: Language
Language is:
• Symbolic
• Productive
• Not stimulus-bound (aka
displacement)
Complex
Symbolic
Conventional
Dynamic
Communication
& Thinking
6
Terminology: Literacy
• The ability to read and write
â–« Global literacy: 86.3%
â–« US literacy: 99.0% (not in top 10)
https://worldpopulationreview.com/countr
y-rankings/literacy-rate-by-country
7
Terminology: Speech
â–ª Speech: voluntary neuromotor behavior
that allows humans to express language;
physical act
speech is the ______________
â–ª Involves four systems:
respiration
1. _____________
phonation
2. _____________
resonance
3. _____________
articulation
4. _____________
8
Test yourself
Communication Speech
Holding arms up to be
picked up
American Sign Language
Reading book
Dog begging
Signs at airport
Emojis
Sighing and rolling eyes
Language
Literacy
9
Extralinguistic Aspects of Communication
• Paralinguistic: _________ components of
speech that _____ meaning
â–« _________
â–« _________
â–« _________
â–« _________
melodic
modify
volume
pitch
rate
intonation
10
Extralinguistic Aspects of Communication
• Nonlinguistic: _________
communication
nonverbal
proximity
â–« _________
gestures
â–« _________
â–« Posture
â–« Eye contact
11
Extralinguistic Aspects of Communication
• Metalinguistic: ability to use
language to communicate or
talk about and _________
language
analyze
12
Components of Communication
13
5 Components of Language
Language
______:
Form
Phonology
Morphology
Syntax
_________:
syntax
phonology
morphology
Content
Semantics
______:
use
Pragmatics
pragmatics
semantics
14
Terminology
Definition
Word order and the arrangement of words to form
meaningful sentences
Study of word structure; how words are formed out of
more basic elements of language
Study of how sounds are put together to form words.
The relationship among speech sounds of a language
Study of word meanings in a language
Study of rules that govern the language use in social
situation
Term
Syntax
Morphology
Phonology
Semantics
Pragmatics
15
PHONOLOGY
Phonology: The set of rules that
distribution
occurrence
governs the _________
and _________
h
of phonemes.
• Specific to each particular language
A language’s phonology determines:
• Which phonemes occur in the
phonemic
language (the _________
inventory)
• The ____________ of a language:
the sequences of phonemes that are
allowed to occur in a language
SHS 465/565 Spring 2022 Dr. Laurel Bruce
16
MORPHOLOGY
meaning
What is a morpheme? The smallest unit of ________
•
free
______
morphemes can stand alone
•
______ morphemes must be joined to another morpheme
bound
SYNTAX
orgnized
Syntax: rules governing how words are ________
into
order
sentences. Word ________
is language specific.
17
SEMANTICS
meaning
Semantics is the study of ________,
often lexical (word)
meaning
________.
PRAGMATICS
Pragmatics: the rules
that govern how language
social context
is used in a ___________
18
Which
component of
language are you
using???
Semantics
How many correct labels can
you think of for this picture?
19
Which
component of
language are you
using???
Pragmatics
What words would you use to describe these
two babies?
20
Which
component of
language are you
using???
Morphology
form
How many words can you make
with this root word?
formed – formation
21
Which
component of
language are you
using???
1. shap
2. mrompt
3. tidolee
4. sficlow
5. zlow
Which could be words in English?
6. skrw
Phonology
22
Which
component of
language are you
using???
• The dog bit the girl.
• The girl bit the dog.
Syntax
• The girl was bitten by the dog.
Does word order matter?
23
Which component of language is the child
struggling with???
Definition
The cup falled.
There’s a bowl.
I see a “tup.”
That’s cup my.
Give me the cup, now!
Component
Morphology
Semantics
Phonology
Syntax
Pragmatics
24
Language Form Content and Use
COMMUNICATION
syntax
phonology
pragmatics
morphology
semantics
25
Which are aspects of language form?
COMMUNICATION
syntax
phonology
pragmatics
morphology
semantics
26
Which are aspects of language content?
COMMUNICATION
syntax
phonology
pragmatics
morphology
semantics
27
Which are aspects of language use?
COMMUNICATION
syntax
phonology
pragmatics
morphology
semantics
28
5 Components of Language
Language
_____:
Phonology
Morphology
Syntax
________:
syntax
phonology
morphology
Semantics
_____:
Pragmatics
Bloom & Lahey, 1978.
pragmatics
semantics
29
More Terminology
• Comprehension
• Receptive Language
• Hearing/Listening
• INPUT
• Production
• Expressive Language
• Speech/Talking
• OUTPUT
Considering
the Concept
of “Disability”
SHS 470
Dr. Bruce
The concept of disability rests on our
idea of what it means to be human.
“The truth is that persons are embodied beings, with all the
natural limits and great gifts this entails. We experience our
world, ourselves, and one another as living (and dying)
bodies. Because we are bodies, vulnerability, mutual
dependence, and natural limits are inextricable features of
our lived human reality. And, for reasons that will be
explored below, our embodiment situates us in a particular
relationship to one another, from which emerge obligations
to come to the aid of vulnerable others, including especially
the disabled, elderly, and children.”
O. Carter Snead: “What It Means to Be Human: The Case for the Body in Public
Bioethics”
2
The concept of disability rests on our
idea of what it means to be human.
3
What is “disability?”
Discuss at your tables:
-When you hear the
term “disability,” what
do you think of?
4
Categories of
Disability
Physical
Cognitive
5
Psychosocial
Categories of
Disability
DEVELOPMENTAL
Acquired
6
Disability Models
Key questions:
• What is disability?
1. What causes it?
reside
2. Where does it _____?
3. How do we address
disability?
7
Disability Models
From: “Disability in Higher Education”
by Evans et al., 2017 Ch 2
Established Models:
• Moral Model
• Medical Model:
o Rehabilitation Model
• Social Model:
o Sociopolitical Model
Critical
__________
Approaches:
• Social Justice Model
• Critical Disability Theory
8
Moral Model: Disability is a _____ defect or product of evil
moral
• Caused by sin or moral failing of
the individual/family OR
evil/spiritual forces
• Disability is the responsibility of
the individual, family, or God/fate
• Disability is addressed by
individual, family, spiritual
authority, or community/charity
• Idea that living with disability may
endow one with _______________
9
Domenico Maggiotto, 1700s

MEDICINE

jesus-uses-spit-to-heal/christ-healingdeafdumb/
Medical Model: Disability is a __________ departure
biological
normal
from “________”
• Founded on the idea of the “typical”
or “normal,” and abnormalities need
correction
individual and
• Disability resides in the ______
is caused by disruption to the
physical
__________
body or its processes
• Problem addressed attempting to
return the individual to a state of
“normal” through treatment
• Disabled individuals don’t have the
obligations
same social ______________
10
From: https://www.inclusionlondon.org.uk/disability-in-london/socialmodel/the-social-model-of-disability-and-the-cultural-model-of-deafness/
Rehabilitation Model: Disability is a deficiency
overcome
that can be ____________
• A variation of the medical model
that grew in response to the need to
treat WWI veterans.
• Two main types of rehab:
Social
o _________
rehab: helping
individual adapt to society
Medical
o _________
rehab: interventions
to correct impairments
• The goal is not to “cure” but rather
daily living
supporting “activities of _________”
using rehab and accommodations
11
https://www.utoronto.ca/news/rehabilitating
-veterans-u-t-s-ongoing-commitment
Social Model: Disability is a loss of opportunity to
community
participate in _____________
• Developed in the UK & views disability
socially
as ___________
constructed.
• Disability resides in the social
environment
_____________
rather than the
physical body.
impairment
• Differentiate “___________”
from
“disability” (p. 63 of reading)
• Seek to change environment and
remove barriers that limit accessibility
• Focus on access and inclusion for
disabled individuals
12
From: https://www.inclusionlondon.org.uk/disability-in-london/socialmodel/the-social-model-of-disability-and-the-cultural-model-of-deafness/
Sociopolitical Model: Disability is “the product of the
interaction
_________
between individuals and the environment” (Hahn, 1991)
• A variation of the social model.
• Grew out of the need to include
individuals with disabilities in policy
decisions that affect their lives
burden
• Goal to transfer “________
of
disability” from the disabled to society
attitude
• Societal ________
are the most crucial
factor affecting public policy, which led
to the growth of disability activism
https://time.com/5870468/americans
-with-disabilities-act-coronavirus/
13
Social Justice Model: Disability is the result
culture
of an oppressive ableist _________
• Overlaps with other social justice
movements in the US during the 1960s and
70s (e.g., Civil Rights, Feminism)
• Focus on privilege of “ableism” and
evaluating oppression of individuals with
disabilities.
• Goals focus on:
•
•
•
•
14
Educating
_____________
the culture to eliminate ableism
Redefining “normal”
Equity
diversity
Positive disability identity & considering _______
of experiences
https://rewirenewsgroup.com/article/2
019/06/19/disabled-people-have-hadthe-legal-right-to-live-in-theircommunities-for-20-years-but-thats-stillnot-the-reality-for-many/
Critical Disability Theory: The concept of
Changing
disability is always ____________
• A framework that emerged from critiques
of existing disability models.
• Critiques the idea of a collective “disabled
indentity
_________”
• Consists of 4 core components:
o
o
o
o
15
fluid
The definition of “disability” is _______
Focus on lived experiences & local knowledge
Focus on human rights & social justice
Physical impairment & social environment are
both important and both ________ (e.g., in
some contexts, impairment matters more and
in others environment matters more)
The concept of disability rests on our
idea of what it means to be human.
Physical
Spiritual
Social
Political
16
Discuss:
Discuss at your tables:
-How does the concept of
disability relate to our work in
speech & hearing science?
17
Disability
Policies
US Disability Education
• Before EHA was passed in 1975
many children with disabilities
were excluded from education in
the US
• Only ___ in 5 children with
disabilities were educated in US
schools
(https://sites.ed.gov/idea/IDEAHistory)
19
Section 504 of
Rehabilitation Act, 1973
https://www.dol.gov/agencies/oasam/centers-offices/civilrights-center/statutes/section-504-rehabilitation-act-of-1973
• Protects individuals from _____________
based on disability; applies to all
programs receiving federal funds:
o Employment
o Federal programs & services
[EDUCATION!]
• Under 504, individuals with disabilities
are defined as: “persons with a physical
or mental impairment which substantially
limits one or more _____________.”
• Set the stage for the ADA…
20
PL 94-142, 1975
https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/STATU
TE-89/pdf/STATUTE-89-Pg773.pdf
• Education for All Handicapped Children
Act (EHA)
• Provided _____ ____________ public
education (FAPE) for all children with
“handicaps”
• Provided ____________ rights to parents
• Provided federal money to states to
provide education to school-aged
children
21
PL 99-457, 1986
https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/STATU
TE-100/pdf/STATUTE-100-Pg1145.pdf
• Amended PL 94-142
• Provided funding for education of
_________ children with disabilities
• Assisted states in program
development for ___________and
__________
• All states must service children from
birth to ______
22
Americans with
Disabilities Act, 1990
https://www.ada.gov/
• Prohibited discrimination
against individuals with
disabilities “in all areas of
_________”
o Employment, education,
transportation,
communication, public
services
23
Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act (IDEA), 1990

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
-1990 reauthorized and expanded services for children with disabilities; added
PL 94-142
________ and ________ to list of special education categories
• Reauthorization in 1997:
•
•
•
•
•
Encouraged parent involvement
Emphasized access to general curriculum
Included special needs students in district testing
Required assessment to be based on a variety of assessment tools
Required services in __________________________ (LRE)
• Reauthorization 2004:
• Added highest qualified special education teacher provision
• Established National Center for Special Education
• Included efforts to reduce amount of paperwork
• New regulations for IDEA in 2013 to align with NCLB
24
IDEA
No Child Left Behind (NCLB), 2001
https://www2.ed.gov/nclb/landing.jhtml
• Goal: each child should meet the highest standard
possible
• _____________ and yearly progress to be reported
by states (AYP: Adequate Yearly Progress)
• Use teaching and intervention based upon
scientific research (_________-based practice)
• No longer the law…
25
Every Student Succeeds Act, 2015
https://www.ed.gov/essa?src=rn
• Holds students to high academic standards that prepare them for
success in college and careers
• Ensures accountability, with focus on very lowest-performing schools
• Empowers states to develop their own strong systems for school
improvement
• Provides more children access to high-quality preschool
• Replaced __________
26
Disability Policies: A Timeline
504
1973
PL 94-147
1975
27
PL 99-457
1986
ADA
1990
IDEA
1990
NCLB
2001
ESSA
2015

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