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The topic of your essay needs to be a global societal problem from the following list:

Climate change

Pollution

Religious conflict and violence

Rise of artificial intelligence

Lack of education

Unemployment and lack of economic opportunity

Government accountability and corruption

Food and water security

International drug trafficking

Poverty and income inequality

Reflect:

Based on the topic that you have chosen, you will need to use critical thinking skills to thoroughly understand how this topic can be a global societal problem and determine some logical solutions to the problem.

Write:

This

Final

Paper, an argumentative essay, will present research relating the critical thinker to the modern, globalized world. In this

assignment

, you need to address the items below in separate sections with new headings for each.

In your paper,

Identify the global societal problem within the introductory paragraph.

Conclude with a

thesis

statement that states your proposed solutions to the problem. (For guidance on how to construct a good introduction paragraph, please review the

Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.)

from the

University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center (Links to an external site.)

.)

Describe background information on how that problem developed or came into existence.

Show why this is a societal problem.

Provide perspectives from multiple disciplines or populations so that you fully represent what different parts of society have to say about this issue.

Construct an argument supporting your proposed solutions, considering multiple disciplines or populations so that your solution shows that multiple parts of society will benefit from this solution.

Provide evidence from multiple scholarly

sources

as evidence that your proposed solution is viable.

Interpret statistical data from at least three peer-reviewed scholarly

sources

within your argument.

Discuss the validity, reliability, and any biases.

Identify the strengths and weaknesses of these

sources

, pointing out limitations of current research and attempting to indicate areas for future research. (You may even use visual representations such as graphs or charts to explain statistics from

sources

.)

Evaluate the ethical outcomes that result from your solution.

Provide at least one positive ethical outcome as well as at least one negative ethical outcome that could result from your solution.

Explain at least two ethical issues related to each of those outcomes. (It is important to consider all of society.)

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Poverty and Income Inequality
Jennifer Simpson
Gen499
Kassandra Bahr
June 26,2022
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Poverty and Income Inequality
The World Bank defines poverty as deprivation in well-being. Income inequality refers to
disparities and discrepancies in income (Dong et al., 2022). There are patterns of poverty and
income inequalities globally. Poverty and income inequalities are related. The people with low
incomes cannot enjoy their rights, status, and dignity. Indeed, people with low incomes are
regarded as poor. Poverty and income inequality are at a global level since it is present in every
country. Approximately 689 million people in the world live in extreme poverty. The level of
poverty and income inequality is different across countries. 10.5% of the U.S. population lives in
poverty. In some countries, more people live in poverty (Khan et al., 2022). Still, some countries
have less population living in poverty. Unfairness in the distribution of resources and
opportunities is the primary cause of poverty and income inequality. The secondary reasons are
many. Poverty has implications on an individual’s health and quality of life. Poor people have
low access to healthcare, housing, and education. Unfortunately, some countries are recording
economic growth, yet income inequality is broadening (Kibriya et al., 2019). More so, the
population of people living in poverty continues to increase. Poverty is a severe problem in many
countries, including the United States. Fair allocation of resources and unemployment reduction
programs are practical solutions that will eradicate poverty and income inequality in the U.S. and
other countries.
Background Information
Poverty is a common concern in all countries. It reduces the well-being of citizens.
Globally, poverty is measured based on the material resources that individuals have.
Nonetheless, the section of people regarded as poor is relative. The people considered poor in
one country may not fit the poor category of another country. To this end, poverty is measured
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using the poverty line. The poverty line was developed in 1963 by Mollie Orshansky. The U.S.
government used it to measure poverty. It was then adopted in other countries. The people below
the poverty line are the ones considered poor people. The poverty line is not fixed. It is adjusted
from time to time as the cost of living and inflation change. Countries have national poverty
lines. Some countries have separate lines for urban and rural areas (Tsaurai, 2021). These lines
are used to determine the poverty population in respective countries. In addition, there are
international poverty lines. These lines are used to produce global poverty estimates.
International poverty lines help to make international comparisons of poverty. The World Bank
uses these lines to compare the poverty levels of different countries (Kibriya et al., 2019). With
this, it is possible to determine the countries with the highest poverty rates and those with the
lowest poverty rates. Initially, the African region was stereotyped as poverty. Because of this,
food and many other aids were taken to Africa. They are taken there even today. Indeed, poverty
is not an African problem. It is a global problem. Rich regions like America and the EU have
many poor people.
Income inequality involves different revenue streams like wages, dividends, interest, and
profits. Globally, revenue streams are unevenly allocated. Across all countries, income inequality
has been widening. This widens the gap between the poor and rich. Today, this gap is at its
highest. A small group of people is high-income earners (Tsaurai, 2021). These people earn two
times more than what the low earners make. In this regard, these individuals are ultra-rich. The
majority of people are low-income earners. When the income inequality decreases, the number
of top earners increases while the number of low-earners reduces. However, when it increases,
the low earners increase, and the top earners decrease. Reducing income inequality has been
central to policy discussions and presidential candidate promises (Khan et al., 2022). These
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candidates promise to address income inequality once they are elected. Income inequality is
determined using the Gini coefficient measure. In this measure, the income or consumption
levels of people are considered. The people with the lowest personal income are regarded as
having low GNI (Dong et al., 2022).
Addressing Poverty and Income Inequality
Countries have implemented various policy interventions to address poverty and income
inequality. Some policies have successfully helped to tackle this issue, and some have been
unsuccessful. The countries where these policies have been successful have got into fairer
development pathways. The most practical solutions for tackling poverty and income inequalities
address the specific causes of poverty and inequality (Shah & Khan, 2015). The first solution is a
fair allocation of resources. How the government has been allocating resources has contributed to
poverty and income inequalities. The resources include various public services like education,
health, and security. Some people have higher access to these resources than others. The
disadvantaged ones become poor. Because some people do not access these essential services,
they live in poor physical environments. There are significant healthcare, education, and security
disparities across all countries (Tsouli, 2022). To tackle the issue, the government should ensure
that these resources are distributed fairly. No person or community should be left behind. The
government should ignore the various barriers preventing fair access to resources like race and
gender. Implementing this solution is efficient since the government needs to change its resource
allocation formula (Shah & Khan, 2015). Affirmative action should be implemented as part of
this solution targeting the disadvantaged communities.
Another practical solution is unemployment reduction programs. Unemployment is one
of the causes of poverty and income inequality in the U.S. Some people in the country have no
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jobs, while others have poor-quality jobs (Sawyer, 2015). Indeed, people who don’t have jobs
lack the money needed to ensure individual wellbeing. They cannot access essential commodities
of life. Poverty is measured in terms of money. Most of the people below the poverty line have
no jobs. Government should implement various programs that seek to increase employment. This
includes investment in education and skills. These are some barriers to getting employment
(Shah & Khan, 2015). By investing in these areas, the government has improved the
employability of many jobless people. The unemployment reduction programs will reduce the
unemployment rate in a country. The poverty rate will reduce since most people will be getting
money. The agenda will also ensure that most people access highly-paid jobs (Sawyer, 2015).
So, income inequality will reduce. The new jobs created due to these programs are in both the
private and public sectors. Supporting start-ups is another unemployment reduction program.
The governments should fund start-ups. These ventures create more new jobs. Another program
is supporting talents. Talents are super employers (Khan et al., 2022). Once people with different
talents are supported, unemployment reduces. Addressing discrimination in employment is
another aspect of unemployment reduction programs. Discrimination is a significant barrier to
employment. It contributes to the unemployment of many people.
Conclusion
Poverty and income inequality are global issues because of their global prevalence. No
country in the world has any poverty. This is a challenge for advanced and developing countries.
Although the levels of poverty and income inequalities are different across all countries, standard
measures will help address them. Policies that increase people’s access to resources and money
will help address this problem. Uneven distribution of resources contributes to both poverty and
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income inequality. Unemployment is another driver. Policies that seek to change how resources
are distributed and increase employment are practical solutions to poverty and unemployment.
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References
Dong, K., Dou, Y., & Jiang, Q. (2022). Income inequality, energy poverty, and efficiency: Who
causes who and how? Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 179.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2022.121622
Khan, I.,Khan, I., Sayal, A. U., & Khan, M. Z. (2022). Does financial inclusion induce poverty,
income inequality, and financial stability: Empirical evidence from the 54 African
countries? Journal of Economic Studies (Bradford), 49(2), 303–314.
https://doi.org/10.1108/JES-07-2020-0317
Kibriya, S., Bessler, D., & Price, E. (2019). Linkages between poverty and income inequality of
urban-rural sector: A time series analysis of India’s urban-based aspirations from 1951 to
1994. Applied Economics Letters, 26(6), 446–453.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2018.1486973
Sawyer, M. (2015). Confronting inequality: A review article on Thomas Piketty on “Capital in
the 2nd Century.” International Review of Applied Economics, 29(6), 878–889.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02692171.2015.1065227
Shah, A., & Khan, K. (2015). Can We Solve the Issue of Poverty Without Solving the Issue of
Conventional Economic Paradigm: A Critical Review. Pakistan Development Review,
54(4), 671–681. https://doi.org/10.30541/v54i4I-IIpp.671-683
Tsaurai, K. (2021). What does the data tell us about mining, poverty, and income inequality in
Central and Eastern European countries? Comparative Economic Research. Central and
Eastern Europe, 24(3), 7–25. https://doi.org/10.18778/1508-2008.24.19
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Tsouli, D. (2022). Financial inclusion, poverty, and income inequality: Evidence from European
countries. Ekonomika – Vilniaus Universitetas, 101(1), 37–61.
https://doi.org/10.15388/Ekon.2022.101.1.3

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