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Compare and contrast BICS and CALP. Name one point that you think teachers should know about second language acquisition.

Think about a lesson that you might teach. Briefly describe it and at least four types of sheltered instructional supports you might provide for your ELL students.

Watch the video below to see a second-grade teacher introduce the properties of matter (time: 3:11).

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Identify four contextual supports that the teacher used to help her ELL students better understand the lesson.

Identify four contextual supports the teacher can change or add to improve her lesson.

The video below—courtesy of the Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts—demonstrates ongoing research with ELLs. Identify three instructional supports used by the researchers in the video and explain why they are helpful to ELLs (time: 2:33).

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“New Light on Literacy: Story Retell,” created by the Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk, The University of Texas at Austin ©. This work is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivative 4.0 International License:

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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List at least three things teachers can do when assessing ELL students to allow them to more fully demonstrate their knowledge.

Page 1: English Language Learners
iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/ell/cresource/q1/p01
What do teachers need to know about students who are learning to
speak English?
The term English language learners (ELL), or English learners (EL), refers to students whose
first language is not English but who are learning English. Note that in some states—
California, for example—the preferred term is EL, which in the future might become more
widely adopted. The term limited English proficient (LEP) is generally considered to be
outdated, but is still used by the federal government.
Although as a group, English language learners attending schools in the United States speak
more than 400 languages, the majority of them, some eighty-five percent, are native Spanish
speakers. In fact, just five languages—Spanish, Vietnamese, Hmong, Chinese, and Korean
—account for ninety-five percent of the language variance. Because the number of ELLs
continues to increase in schools across the country, it is likely that every teacher at one time
or another will work with them.
Research Shows
Though English language learners may have good conversational English skills, they may
lack the vocabulary and academic language that is central to success in school. Because of
this, ELLs generally score lower on academic achievement tests than do their Englishspeaking peers:
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Seventy-one percent of fourth-grade English language learners scored below basic
(“Partial mastery of prerequisite knowledge and skills that are fundamental for proficient
work at each grade level”) in standardized reading assessments. This was the case for
thirty percent of their non-ELL peers.
Forty-three percent of fourth-grade English language learners scored below basic in
math, whereas sixteen percent of their non-ELL peers did so.
Seventy-four percent of eighth-grade English language learners scored below basic on
reading achievement tests and similarly on math, compared to approximately a quarter
of their non-ELL peers.(U.S. Department of Education, 2009)
In order to improve the educational outcomes for English language learners, it is important
that teachers know how to work effectively with them. To begin, teachers should avoid
making generalizations about the ability of ELLs based on their backgrounds. In fact, ELLs
are a diverse group with distinct characteristics that include their:
Familiarity with English
School experiences
Socioeconomic status
We’ll look at each of these distinctions in more detail below.
Familiarity with English
Teachers sometimes assume that all of their English language learners have similar
language needs; however, ELLs have a wide diversity of familiarity and comfort with English.
Some are recent immigrants with little or no knowledge of the English language. Others are
born in the United States yet might still be learning English. Some ELLs have a strong first
language and are learning English, and others are trying to learn both their primary language
and English at the same time. Inspect the graphic below to get a sense of some of the
language distinctions among English language learners.
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English Language Learners
Recent Immigrant
Born in U.S.
Some knowledge
of English skills
Little or no
knowledge
of English
Simultaneous bilinguals: learning two languages
at once
Sequential bilinguals: strong first language and learning English as
a second language
School Experiences
As with their familiarity with English, ELLs also have a broad range of school experiences. In
some cases, recent immigrants may have had little previous schooling. For example, they
may have spent years in a refugee camp. Others might have received a quality education in
their home country, including instruction in English, and arrived in the United States prepared
to continue their education. The graphic below depicts a few examples of the kinds of school
experiences these students might have had.
Past Schooling Experiences
No formal education
Inconsistent or sporadic education
Regularly attended one school with a consistent curriculum
Socioeconomic Status
Socioeconomic status (SES) is another factor that distinguishes students from one another
and can affect a student’s school performance. Some ELLs are from wealthy or middle-class
backgrounds, while others live in poverty. Regardless of their SES, all students have
valuable experiences that both contribute to the classroom and should be used as a basis for
their learning.
Leonard Baca, Director of the BUENO Center for Multicultural Education, summarizes the
distinctions among English language learners (time: 0:56).
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Leonard Baca, EdD
School of Education
University of Colorado at Boulder
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Transcript: Leonard Baca, EdD
English language learners are a very diverse group. First of all, we know there’s quite a few
of them, several million, and they come from many different backgrounds and languages.
Although about seventy-five percent are Spanish speakers, there are many different
language groups represented. Among them there again are many differences. Some of them
have to do with socioeconomic levels. The main difference is their proficiency in English.
They range all the way from knowing no English at all, to being fairly proficient but still
lacking in the finer points of academic language. So teachers need to keep in mind that
these kids are very diverse, and we can’t treat them as though they were all the same or that
they learn the same. They learn in different ways and in different rates. They have different
learning styles, so the teacher has to adapt quite a bit for each language learner.
For Your Information
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In addition to understanding their English language learners’ distinct backgrounds, it is
important for teachers to recognize that family support is another factor that affects ELL
students’ chances for academic success. Fostering a welcoming atmosphere in the school
and, whenever possible, communicating with parents in their native language is critical.
Doing so, teachers can develop a relationship with these families and gain an understanding
of the families’ goals and values for their children.
Activity
Adults are better at learning a second language than are young children.
feedback
Math is easy for English language learners because numbers are universal.
feedback
Immersion is the best way to learn a second language.
feedback
A student’s first language interferes with his or her ability to learn a second language.
feedback
It takes between five to seven years to become proficient enough in a second language to
succeed in an English-only classroom.
feedback
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Page 2: Second Language Acquisition
iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/ell/cresource/q1/p02
What do teachers need to know about students who are learning to
speak English?
Because English language learners are expected to acquire English proficiency—and
simultaneously learn all of the content knowledge required at their respective grade level—it
is crucial that teachers understand the basic tenets of second language acquisition. Teachers
and administrators who do not understand second language acquisition may have
inappropriate expectations that result in:
Inappropriate referrals to special education
Attempts to share information in a language that English language learners may not
comprehend
A failure to provide students with the supports necessary to acquire new content
knowledge in English
Second language proficiency develops incrementally and varies from learner to learner.
When a teacher is able to identify a student’s stage of English language proficiency, he or
she can plan instruction to meet the language needs of that student. Click on the tabs below
for more about these stages.
Stage 1 – Silent/Receptive or Preproduction
Students typically maintain a silent period.
Students observe others having conversations and listen to the ways in which words
are pronounced and put together in phrases.
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Students choose to interact by pointing, gesturing, nodding, or using yes or no
responses.
Students typically are able to understand 500 receptive words but are not comfortable
using them expressively.
Students are able to understand new words taught in an understandable and
meaningful way.
Students are allowed to remain silent until they are ready to speak.
Stage 2 – Early Production
Students are able to speak using one- or two-word phrases.
Students are able to comprehend and use expressively a vocabulary of some 1,000
words.
Students are capable of indicating their understanding of novel information by
responding to simple questions (e.g., “Who?” or “What?”).
Stage 3 – Speech Emergence
Students are able to use short phrases and simple sentences.
Students can ask questions, (e.g., “Where is the office?”) and respond to simple
questions (e.g., “My dream is to become a doctor.”).
Students have a word bank of approximately 3,000 words.
Students often have difficulty communicating their ideas because their sentences,
though longer, generally include grammar errors.
Stage 4 – Intermediate Language Proficiency
Students have a repertoire of approximately 6,000 words.
Students are beginning to formulate longer and more complex statements and as a
result offer their thoughts and opinions more confidently.
Students are able to request clarification.
Stage 5 – Advanced Language Proficiency
Students have acquired and continue to acquire content-area vocabulary.
Students are able to fully participate in grade-level activities, with additional support as
needed.
Students are able to use English much the same as their native English-speaking
peers.
Regardless of the stage of second language acquisition, a student’s oral language skills
continue to develop. Oral language proficiency refers to knowledge of or use of vocabulary,
grammar, and sentence structure, as well as strong comprehension skills. Research has
shown that students with poor oral language proficiency struggle with academic skills such
as reading fluency and reading comprehension.
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Despite this, in each of the stages of language acquisition, the student’s receptive language
(i.e., understanding) is generally better than his or her expressive language (i.e., speaking).
As students progress through the stages, they develop two types of language proficiency:
social and academic, often referred to as BICS and CALP.
Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS) refers to a student’s ability to understand
basic conversational English, sometimes called social language. At this level of proficiency,
students are able to understand face-to-face social interactions and can converse in
everyday social contexts. These social language skills—generally acquired in approximately
two years—are sufficient for early educational experiences but are inadequate for the
linguistic demands of upper elementary school and beyond. Students acquire this social
language by interacting with their peers, family members, and playmates. For example,
Maria, who has lived in the United States for only a few months, is already able to
understand her peers when they ask her in the cafeteria, “Maria, do you want to sit with us?”
Maria has learned this so quickly because her peers ask her the same question every day
and use physical gestures to help her to understand.
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Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) refers to a student’s ability to effectively
understand and use the more advanced and complex language necessary for success in
academic endeavors, sometimes referred to as academic language. Students typically
acquire CALP in five to seven years, a period during which they spend a significant amount
of time struggling with academic concepts in the classroom. A student like Maria, who has
only been in the United States for a few months, may find it difficult to understand the
content-related terms (such as “photosynthesis”) discussed during science. She may also
struggle with instruction-related terms such as “compare and contrast.” Finally, her difficulty
might be compounded by the fact that she may not have learned these concepts in her first
language.
Many teachers mistakenly believe that students can’t learn academic language until they
have become proficient in social English. It is important to understand that BICS and CALP
develop simultaneously, but the acquisition of academic language takes longer. Therefore,
teachers should begin instruction in academic language as soon as possible.
For Your Information
Below are two examples of how the lack of knowledge about BICS and CALP can be
detrimental to ELL students:
Some teachers inappropriately refer ELL students who are performing poorly to special
education.
On the other hand, some school districts’ policies prohibit special education referrals
for ELL students for five to seven years, based on CALP development.
In the first instance, students struggling because of a language issue need to receive
appropriate language support services (e.g., ESL, bilingual education), not special education
services. Conversely, in the second example, delaying special education referrals for ELL
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students who qualify could prove detrimental to their academic success. School personnel
should be knowledgeable about second language acquisition and special education and
should provide services accordingly.
Listen as Janette Klingner suggests that some social conversations can be just as cognitively
demanding as academic ones (time: 1:29).
Janette Klingner, PhD
School of Education
University of Colorado, Boulder
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Transcript: Janette Klingner, PhD
There are those who challenge the idea of social language being undemanding, that social
situations where we are talking with others are cognitively undemanding. I think, rightfully so,
that some social situations are actually very challenging and can be cognitively demanding
when students don’t have the pragmatic skills they need in order to make sense of social
cues. So I think we have to be careful not to think of all social language as being cognitively
undemanding and academic conversations or language being cognitively demanding. That
would be too simplistic of a way to think about it. Some social language situations—you can
imagine a meeting or a situation where you’re sitting around a table with a group of people
grappling with a difficult problem where the social cues that you pick up on are actually very
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important for enabling you to participate and make sense of the conversation. And you
actually have to use higher-level thinking skills. It’s not just a matter of distinguishing
between what Cummins refers to as BICS, or basic interpersonal communication skills,
which he would consider a little easier to acquire, or CALP, what we call Cognitive Academic
Language Proficiency, which is more demanding. Really, both can be.
Activity
Watch the video of an ELL student and her teacher and determine whether the student has
BICS (social language) or CALP (academic language) (time: 2:23).
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Transcript: BICS or CALP?
Teacher: Where are you from?
Student: Honduras. Where are you from?
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Teacher: I’m from California. How long have you lived here?
Student: Two years.
Teacher: Yeah?
Student: And you?
Teacher: Um, I’ve lived here for four years. Almost four years, yeah. You like it here?
Student: Yes.
Teacher: Yeah? What do you like about it?
Student: People are nice, and I have a lot a lot of friends here. I especially like the food
here.
Teacher: Oh, yeah? What kind of food?
Student: Hamburgers and pizza.
Teacher: Oh, pizza. I like pizza, too. What kind of food do you eat in Honduras?
Student: We eat a lot of food, but mostly I like the eggs and the beans and the cheese.
Teacher: Ah, do you eat that food here, too?
Student: Yeah. Sometimes my mom makes them.
Teacher: Ah, what’s the your favorite food that your mom makes?
Student: Spaghetti.
Teacher: Oh, yeah, I love spaghetti. Do you like to cook? Do you help your mom in the
kitchen?
Student: Yes.
Teacher: Yeah? What do you do when you help her?
Student: I just sometimes…she goes to the store with me and buys some of the things that
she’s going to do for the food.
Teacher: Oh, so you help her with the groceries?
Student: Yes.
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Teacher: We’ve been learning about where plants get their energy from, so how are the
roots important to a plant?
Student: The roots are where a plant takes in the water of the plant. They help the plants
grow more if they’re from the sun.
Teacher: Okay, and how are stems important to a plant?
Student: They’re important to plants so they can get sun, water, and some other things.
Teacher: How do the green leaves of the plant make sugar?
Student: When the water falls into the leaves, in the…what’s it called? When the water falls
into the leaves, in the…in the leaves.
Which of the below best describes the student’s language proficiency?
BICS
CALP
The student has BICS (social language). For example, she can:
Participate in social conversations on familiar topics with her teacher.
Ask and answer questions with her teacher.
Make herself understood by using consistent standard English grammatical forms.
The student does not have CALP (academic language). For example, she is unable to
Provide complete information about grade-level content previously presented (e.g.,
how green leaves make sugar).
Recall the content-related vocabulary that she has been taught.
Demonstrate an advanced level of language development.
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Page 3: Programs and Personnel
iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/ell/cresource/q1/p03
What do teachers need to know about students who are learning to
speak English?
Programs for ELL students include a wide range of instructional approaches, from using the
student’s primary language in addition to English for instruction (i.e., bilingual), to teaching
exclusively in English (i.e., immersion). Exactly which of these programs is used in a given
school is a decision based on factors such as state and local educational policies, the size of
the student population, and the nature and availability of resources. In some cases, a school
might offer more than one type of program.
Research indicates that bilingual programs support students in achieving better outcomes in
school. However, not all schools are able to offer these types of programs due to factors
such as an insufficient number of students to justify a given program or a lack of qualified
ESL or bilingual teachers. Although bilingual programming is ideal, if it is not available ELL
students can still be successful through the implementation of effective instructional
supports. The boxes below outline several of the program models implemented in today’s
schools.
Two-Way Immersion
Developmental Bilingual
Education
Summary: Instruction is provided to all
students in two languages (e.g., Spanish
and English)
Objective: Bilingualism
Duration: Instruction usually begins in
kindergarten or first grade and continues
through elementary school
Also referred to as: Dual language
immersion
Click here for more.
Summary: Academic content is
provided to ELLs in their native
language
Objective: Bilingualism
Duration: Typically lasts five or
six years or more
Also referred to as: Late-exit
bilingual program or
maintenance bilingual program
Click here for more.
Two-Way Immersion
Instruction:
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Native-English speakers and English learners are placed together in the program
and receive instruction in both languages (e.g., English and Spanish). Teachers may
provide:
Equal amounts of instruction in both languages
Spanish instruction ninety percent of the time (for content instruction); English
instruction is used only ten percent of the time to develop English proficiency.
Gradually, the instruction shifts so that both languages are used equally.
Benefits:
Research indicates that ELLs have greater academic success when content
instruction is provided in the student’s home language for several years, while their
English language proficiency gradually increases over time.
The student’s first language is allowed to become firmly established.
A bilingual environment is created in which all students interact socially and
academically with both same- and other-language-speaking peers.
Opportunities are created for all students to learn different languages, cultures, and
customs.
Concerns:
Schools have difficulty maintaining a balanced ratio of students who speak each
language.
Support from the parents of native English speakers may diminish over time if they
fear their child is not learning content being taught in another language.
More English instruction to accommodate the English-speaking students might
occur, something that might be detrimental to the ELLs in the class.
(Close this panel)
Developmental Bilingual Education
Instruction:
All students are English learners who share the same home language. They are
taught primarily in their home language by a bilingual instructor; as their English
language proficiency increases, instruction in the home language decreases. These
students:
Generally begin this program in kindergarten or first grade
Receive the majority of their instruction in a separate classroom
Bilingual instructors work collaboratively with school personnel to integrate ELL
students with native-English speaking students into programs where English is
spoken.
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Bilingual teachers provide instruction in the home language for a minimum of five to
six years––even when the student develops basic English language proficiency––to
ensure academic success.
Benefits:
The program produces better academic outcomes than do transitional bilingual
education or ESL programs.
Students develop content knowledge in two languages and exit the program on
grade level in both languages.
The program increases parental involvement; parents can communicate with the
teacher and volunteer in the classroom in their home language.
Students acquire a strong self-identity and comfort level about being bilingual and
about their cultural heritage.
The program closes the achievement gap when scores are compared to those of
native-English speakers.
Concerns:
Students may have limited opportunities to interact with the entire school population.
Program effectiveness may be compromised for those students who:
Enter the program late
Are highly transient
Exit the program early
(Close this panel)
Transitional Bilingual Education
Summary: Academic content instruction is
provided in the student’s native language
Objective: English proficiency
Duration: Typically lasts from two to three
years but may be concluded sooner in
order to transition students into Englishonly instruction more quickly
Also referred to as: Early-exit programs
Click here for more.
English as a Second Language
Summary: English instruction
may be provided in English only
or may be delivered in the
student’s home language
Objective: English proficiency
Duration: Varies based on
student’s English proficiency
and school resources
Also referred to as: English for
speakers of other languages
(ESOL)
Click here for more.
Transitional Bilingual Education
Instruction:
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As in the case of developmental bilingual education, students are taught primarily in
their home language by a bilingual instructor; as English language proficiency
increases, instruction in the home language decreases. Transitional bilingual
education:
Expects students to participate in English-only instruction by the third or fourth
grade (unlike developmental bilingual education, where the expectation is for
students to become bilingual)
Includes language and academic objectives
Benefits:
Students learn information in the language in which they are more proficient.
Student motivation and confidence in academic learning increases.
Concerns:
It is possible to view the program as a segregated one.
Students are expected to acquire academic English proficiency in a shorter amount
of time than is outlined in the stages of language acquisition.
(Close this panel)
English as a Second Language (ESL)
Instruction:
The instruction that English learners receive may be:
Grammar-based—English-language structure, pronunciation, and vocabulary
Communication-based—the skillful use of English in meaningful contexts
Content-based—the development of language skills to support students’
acquisition of grade-level material
The instructional program is designed to be a short-term method for learning
English:
Students in elementary school are pulled out of the general education
classroom for sessions that may range from 30–45 minutes. These sessions
may occur daily, once a week, or several times a week, depending on
resources.
Students in middle and high school receive ESL instruction during a regular
class period and in high school can receive course credit for this instruction.
English language proficiency tests may be used to determine which students qualify
for the program and which students should exit the program because their English
skills meet the established criteria.
Benefits:
Content-based ESL instruction––including academic objectives in addition to
language objectives––leads to better academic outcomes than do either grammarbased or communication-based ESL instruction.
Such instruction can accommodate students with many different language
backgrounds within a school.
ESL teachers do not need to be fluent in the students’ home language.
Concerns
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Instruction does not typically support students’ cognitive and academic language
proficiency needs.
Pull-out programming often results in:
Students missing important classroom instruction
Fewer language supports for students during the remainder of the school day
Because variability of instruction exists, students who transfer from one school to
another may not receive the same type of ESL instruction. For example, a student
may receive content-based ESL instruction at one school and later transfer to a
school that offers grammar-based ESL instruction.
ESL teachers face challenges such as scheduling and having students from varying
grade levels attend class at the same time.
(Close this panel)
Although a range of programs exists for providing instruction to ELLs, all programs should
strive to include:
Parental involvement and coordinated communication between parents and school
personnel
Instructional personnel who can implement specific instructional strategies and
techniques
Strong and knowledgeable leadership among classroom, school, and district personnel
Professional development for teachers in these programs and for general education
teachers who work with English language learners
Developmentally appropriate curriculum and instructional materials
High standards with respect to both language acquisition and academic achievement
Regardless of the program, ELL students should receive some type of ESL instruction (or
English language development).
Research Shows
Two-Way Immersion
Developmental Bilingual Education, Plus ESL
Taught Using Academic Content
Transitional Bilingual Education, Plus ESL Taught
Using Academic Content
Transitional Bilingual Education, Plus ESL Taught
Using Grammar-Based Instruction
ESL: Taught Using Academic Content
ESL: Taught Using Grammar-Based Instruction
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Average Performance of Native English-speakers
A seminal study examining the performance of over
42,000 ELL students across five school districts
showed that those in two-way immersion programs
made the greatest gains on standardized reading
assessments.
All students:
Began school
as
kindergarteners
in the United
States
Had no English
proficiency
when they
started school
Were eligible
for free and
reduced price
meals
Were enrolled
in only one
type of
program model
throughout
their
elementary
school years
(Permission granted by the National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education)
Personnel
Depending on school resources, ELL students might be enrolled in one or more of the
programs previously mentioned, which are designed to meet these students’ educational
needs. Depending on the programs offered, specially trained teachers provide instruction.
Ideally, general education teachers may work with one or more of these professionals:
Bilingual teacher – fluent in and provides instruction in more than one language
Click here for more.
Bilingual teacher certification requirements vary by state. The list below includes some
of the criteria that might be required for a bilingual certificate or endorsement:
Completion of bilingual teaching experience (100 hours)
A passing score on an examination in the non-English language in which the
teacher will teach
Completion of eighteen semester hours in bilingual methods and materials
instruction, and assessment courses
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ESL teacher – provides instruction in English but does not need to be fluent in a
second language
Click here for more.
ESL teachers are also sometimes referred to as Teachers of English to Speakers of
Other Languages (TESOL). In addition to possessing a bachelor’s degree from an
accredited college or university, ESL licensure candidates must also meet the testing
guidelines (e.g., Praxis II) outlined by their individual states.
ESL/ bilingual paraprofessional – provides instruction or support under the supervision
of an ESL or bilingual teacher
Click here for more.
Under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), requirements for
paraprofessionals include:
A secondary school diploma or GED and either
Forty-eight units of study at an institution of higher education
An associate’s degree or higher
An ability to assist in reading, writing, and mathematics instruction as
demonstrated by the successful completion of a rigorous local assessment
Bilingual and ESL teachers can work with general education teachers to better address the
needs of their students. For example, bilingual and ESL teachers can:
Share specific instructional strategies and techniques for working with ELLs
Discuss ways in which teachers can enhance the methods of communication
Provide support in planning lessons
Make classroom observations so teachers can identify areas in which they can provide
more support and structure to their students (e.g., modeling tasks for students)
Coordinate content standards with language standards to create appropriate contentarea and language objectives
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Bilingual paraprofessionals can be of particular value when ESL teachers do not speak a
second language. These paraprofessionals can:
Translate letters to parents and share information during school meetings
Use the student’s primary language to translate instruction and to provide clarification
Explain unfamiliar terminology
Assist and orient students who are new to the school
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Page 4: Sheltered Instruction
iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/ell/cresource/q1/p04
What do teachers need to know about students who are learning to
speak English?
It is important to remember that language instruction for ELLs should not be restricted to
language arts or English as a second language classes. Rather, language instruction should
be integrated into all of their content-areas classes. Teachers need to plan language
objectives (e.g., learning content-specific vocabulary such as caucus and census) in addition
to content-area objectives.
Sheltered instruction was designed to help English language learners to learn English as well
as academic content. It can be used:
By ESL and bilingual teachers in all of the programs outlined on Perspectives &
Resources page 3
By general education teachers
With students of various levels of English proficiency
Sheltered content instruction utilizes distinct instructional techniques to provide support to
help English learners understand demanding lesson content. Not only do teachers plan for
objectives that correspond to grade-level standards but they also provide the language
objectives necessary for their English learners to express their ideas. Teachers need to be
cognizant of their students’ language levels and plan the language objectives accordingly.
Science Objective
English Language Objective
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Understand the
process of
photosynthesis.
Advanced Proficiency: Use complete sentences to orally
describe the process of photosynthesis.
Intermediate Proficiency: Use identified vocabulary terms to
describe the process of photosynthesis.
Beginning Proficiency: Using a diagram, indicate which part of
the photosynthesis process the teacher has described.
For Your Information
The Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol (SIOP) was developed because no explicit
model existed for delivering sheltered instruction, resulting in inconsistent implementation.
SIOP, a research-validated framework, provides a standardized approach for delivering
sheltered lessons. Rather than selecting random features of sheltered instruction, SIOP
requires teachers to systematically and consistently deliver critical features of sheltered
instruction. SIOP professional development provides training on lesson planning and
instructional delivery and covers eight components of instruction: preparation, building
background knowledge, comprehensible input, strategies, interaction, practice and
application, lesson delivery, and review and assessment. Greater academic outcomes for EL
students are reported when teachers are trained to use the SIOP Model.
Note: For more information about the SIOP model see the Additional Resources and
Information section of this module.
Comprehensible Input
Within sheltered instruction, teachers offer comprehensible input—teaching at a level that is
just beyond the students’ current level of language competence—while also providing the
scaffolded supports necessary to understand the information. For example, when a teacher
is teaching a vocabulary lesson to his English language learners, he may use diagrams or
other visual supports to help his students learn the new terms. Teachers who provide
comprehensible input know how to recognize areas of potential linguistic difficulty and
subsequently:
Monitor their speech
Model what they want the student to do
Use a variety of modalities in their instruction
Leonard Baca, Director of the BUENO Center for Multicultural Education, talks about the
interconnection between comprehensible input and various aspects of language (time: 1:07).
2/10
Leonard Baca, EdD
School of Education
University of Colorado at Boulder
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Transcript: Leonard Baca, EdD
Various aspects of language are all interconnected. So whether it’s listening, speaking,
reading, and writing, they’re all part of the whole-language development process. In working
with English language learners, the teacher has to keep in mind that each of them has to
have emphasis, and that each of them depend on the other for optimal development. So the
more practice students have with all of these aspects…but especially the oral language
piece, because the oral language obviously is what they hear first and what they begin to
understand. The big point that many authors, especially Steven Krashen, make as well as
Vygotsky, is the idea of the zone of proximal development. When you’re looking at English
language development, that same principle applies. Krashen emphasizes the importance of
comprehensible input in the English language. And that applies not only to the oral aspects
but to the reading as well as the writing parts of it.
The table below describes some ways teachers can support ELL students’ comprehension.
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Supports for Comprehensible Input
x
syntax
The grammatical arrangement of words in a sentence.
Speak more
slowly
Speak clearly
Monitor
vocabulary
Use multimodal
techniques
Simplify
syntax
Use longer
pauses
between
sentences and
ideas.
Limit the use of
contractions or fused
forms (e.g., use want
to rather than
wanna).
Use highfrequency
words.
Use objects,
pictures, labeled
diagrams, and
videos.
Keep
sentences
short.
Use a natural
pace rather
than a slow,
exaggerated
one.
Stress key words to
support meaning.
Explain
unfamiliar
terms.
Use cognates.
Infuse
demonstration
throughout
lessons.
Limit the use of
idioms, slang,
pronouns, and
vague referents.
Use gestures,
body language
movement, and
role playing.
Keep
clauses
short.
x
cognates
Words that sound similar in two languages and have the same meaning (e.g., fantastic in
English and fantástico in Spanish).
Students might already know what comunidad means in Spanish, so that the teacher only
needs to point out that comunidad is a cognate for the word community. On the other hand,
students might not know what democracia means in Spanish, so that merely pointing out that
democracia is a cognate for democracy would not be sufficient. Students need to learn what
democracy means.
4/10
Note: Be aware of false cognates––words that look similar in two languages but actually
have different meanings. For example, embarazada in Spanish means pregnant and does
not mean embarrassed, as one might think.
x
idioms
Words and phrases that have meanings different from the literal one. For example, skinny
minute and raining cats and dogs.
x
referents
Words that are used to represent other words. For example, “Bring me the thing (i.e., the
book) that is on the desk.”
Keep in Mind
To support skill development, new vocabulary can be previewed in the home language,
taught in English, and reviewed again in the student’s home language.
View the following video to see a teacher providing a lesson without using sheltered
instruction (time: 1:33).
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Transcript: Lesson Not Using Sheltered Instruction
Teacher: Okay, class, today we are going to be talking about making healthy food choices
for a healthy lifestyle. This poster shows a picture of a plate. It is called My Plate, and it is a
guide that shows people how to eat in healthy ways. MyPlate shows that healthy foods are
categorized into five different groups. Each food group is represented by a different color.
Grains are in the orange group. Vegetables are in the green group. Fruits are in the red
group. Dairy is represented by the blue group. And, last, we have protein, which is the purple
group. We should eat foods from all of the five groups every day. The sections in the plate
are different sizes. The bigger the section, the more of that food group we should eat. The
green section for vegetables, for example, is bigger than the protein section. That means you
should eat more vegetables than protein in a day. It’s important to vary your vegetables. You
can eat them raw or cooked, canned or frozen. So who in here had vegetables with their
dinner last night? Yeah?
Now watch the video to see the teacher providing the same lesson but this time using
sheltered instruction (time: 2:38).
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Transcript: Lesson Using Sheltered Instruction
Teacher: Okay, class, today we are going to talk about making food choices for a healthy
lifestyle. This poster shows a picture of a plate. MyPlate. Mi Plato. It’s a guide that shows
people how to eat in a healthy way. Mi Plato shows that healthy foods are categorized into
five different groups Five different groups. Each food group is represented by a different
color.
We have the grains group, which is the orange group:
Grains
Granos
Grains
Granos
Next, we have the green group, which is the vegetable group:
Vegetables
Vegetales
Vegetables
Vegetales
The vegetable group.
Next, we have the fruit group, which is represented in red:
Fruit
Fruta
Fruit
Fruta
The blue group is the dairy group:
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productos lacteos
The dairy group.
And, finally, we have the protein group, which is represented in purple:
Protein
Proteina
Protein
Proteina
We should eat foods from all of the five food groups every day. The sections of the plate are
different sizes. The bigger the section, the more food from that section we should eat each
day. For example, the green group, the vegetables group, is bigger than the protein group,
the purple group, so that means we should eat more vegetables in a day than protein. It’s
important to vary your vegetables. You can eat them raw or cooked, canned or frozen. So
who in here had vegetables with their dinner last night?
Activity
1. Having watched the demonstration of sheltered instruction above, can you identify some
of the instructional supports used by the teacher?
Click here for feedback.
Used some of the vocabulary words in Spanish.
Wrote vocabulary in English and Spanish on index cards.
Used real objects to help students to learn vocabulary terms.
Provided multiple pictures to illustrate information taught in the lesson.
2. What other instructional supports could the teacher have used during her lesson? Select
the link to find out what additional supports the teacher used after collaborating with the
school’s bilingual educator.
Click here for feedback.
Brings in sample foods familiar to ELL students (e.g., tortillas, beans).
Uses free, interactive computer activities available on food pyramid Websites that help
students categorize foods into groups.
Displays a mini poster of the MyPyramid in Spanish
Sends home a worksheet in both English and Spanish about ways families can eat
healthy and stay physically active.
Keeps data on a chart to help students track how their food choices match up to dietary
recommendations.
Checks out library books about healthy eating that are published in Spanish.
8/10
Culturally Responsive Instruction
In addition to sheltered instruction, teachers should provide instruction in a culturally
responsive way. When doing so, teachers access their students’ cultural knowledge, prior
experiences (e.g., personal, cultural, academic), and interests during lessons. When
providing culturally responsive instruction, teachers accept, acknowledge, and value their
students’ differences, thereby increasing their students’ success in the classroom. Look at
the list below to see some of the things a teacher can do to promote culturally responsive
instruction. Select from the drop-down menu to learn more about each.
Communicates High Expectations
Studies show that students generally rise or fall to the level of
teacher expectations. When teachers believe in their students, students believe in
themselves. Teachers who hold high expectations for their English language students
generally offer exciting instruction and explicit explanations about concepts. They call on
students often and allow them adequate time to respond, and they provide frequent and
informative feedback and praise.
Promotes Learning Within the Context of Culture
By practicing culturally responsive instruction, teachers make
academic information relevant to their students. There are a number of ways to go about
this. Teachers could utilize a network of people from various background and cultural
experiences (e.g., families, business people, community members) to act as guest speakers
to help motivate and support student learning. Teachers should also vary their instructional
techniques to better reflect their students’ cultural practices. For example, rather than
requiring all students to participate in an individually based competitive activity––a form of
interaction that is not valued in some cultures––a teacher might instead allow students to
work in collaborative groups, thus reinforcing the community-centered focus of some
cultures.
Uses Culturally Mediated Instruction
9/10
In culturally mediated instruction, teachers help their students
understand that there are multiple ways to interpret information (e.g., statements, events,
actions). Teachers should encourage their students to be active participants in learning by
sharing viewpoints based on their cultural backgrounds. In this way, students learn to
recognize the value of different and differing opinions. Teachers should also challenge their
students to question their own beliefs and actions. During culturally mediated instruction, it is
important for teachers not to dismiss students’ contributions, even when they seem off-topic.
Facilitates Learning
Teachers should facilitate learning by helping their students to do
more than simply repeat factual information. Teachers can support student learning by
allowing them multiple opportunities to participate in classroom discussion and by
encouraging them to explore and share their own perspectives. Teachers can facilitate
learning, not by monopolizing the communicative exchanges with their students or
dominating lessons, but instead by playing the part of guides, mentors, and consultants.
Uses Student-Centered Instruction
During student-centered instruction, teachers should encourage a
learning atmosphere that is cooperative, collaborative, and community oriented. In some
cases, students direct their own learning by selecting topics they are interested in, including
culturally and socially relevant subjects. Instruction that is student-centered helps students to
become self-confident and more likely to express their ideas.
Teachers can optimize their culturally responsive instruction by critiquing their own thoughts
and instructional practices to ensure they do not reflect prejudicial attitudes. They can
counter traditional teaching practices that reflect middle-class, European-American cultural
values by incorporating instruction that infuses a wider range of cultural influences.
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Page 5: Contextual Supports
iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/ell/cresource/q1/p05
What do teachers need to know about students who are learning to
speak English?
As we discussed above, it is important for teachers to know their students’ unique
experiences, as well as to understand the basic tenets of second language acquisition,
sheltered instruction, and culturally responsive teaching. Teachers can further meet their
ELLs’ learning needs by applying a model developed by Jim Cummins, a professor at the
Centre for Educational Research on Languages and Literacies from the University of
Toronto.
In the movie below, Janette Klingner talks about how this framework demonstrates a range
of contextual supports for teaching ELLs (time: 2:24).
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1/5
View Transcript | View Transcript with Images (PDF)
Transcript: Contextual Supports for Teaching ELLs
What we have are two continua. We have the x-axis on the left-hand side, contextembedded, and on the-right hand side context-reduced. When there’s a lot of context, there
are visuals to help students understand the task that they are being asked to do. At the other
end of the continuum, there’s very little context. Now, on the y-axis, we also have a
continuum. At the top, we have cognitively undemanding, so that would be an easier type of
task that doesn’t require a lot of higher-level thinking. At the bottom of the y-axis is
cognitively demanding.
What I think is important for teachers to think about is what they can do to both provide more
context for students to help with their learning and what they can do to take a difficult task
that requires higher-level thinking skills and make it less cognitively demanding for students.
If you think about what’s most difficult for students, that would be the tasks that are in the
lower right-hand quadrant of the framework; in other words, tasks that are context-reduced
and cognitively demanding. We want teachers to be able to shift those further to the left on
the continuum so that they end up in the lower left-hand quadrant, still perhaps cognitively
demanding but with a lot more context that enables students to be more successful with the
task.
A misconception is that English language learners who are not yet fully proficient in English
can only do cognitively undemanding tasks. Even students who are at beginning levels of
English proficiency are very capable of doing more cognitively demanding tasks. It’s a
mistake to think that we have to hold students back or keep them from doing tasks like that
until they have higher levels of English proficiency. We just need to provide them with the
context and support to do that.
The movie emphasizes the idea of contextually supporting students. Typically, as students
grow older and progress through the grade levels, the context in which academic tasks is
presented is reduced. For example, as students advance in grade levels, they are expected
to obtain new information from reading a textbook with fewer visual supports like pictures
and diagrams. Students are required to gain new knowledge from classroom lectures and
note-taking as opposed to learning with multiple modalities (e.g., pictures, graphs, charts,
graphic organizers, word walls, gestures). Likewise, as students get older, the information
they are expected to learn becomes more cognitively demanding.
Activity
Based on Cummins’ framework, do you think the lesson taught in the Challenge is
cognitively demanding or undemanding? Is context embedded or reduced? Explain your
answers.
2/5
The Challenge video is included below to refer to if needed.
Description
This graphic illustrates a range of activities based on the extent to which they are cognitively
demanding and the amount of context they provide. The illustration is divided into four
quadrants by vertical and horizontal lines through its middle, each end terminating in an
arrowhead. The top of the graphic is labeled “Cognitively Undemanding,” while the bottom
reads “Cognitively Demanding.” The left side of the graphic is labeled “Context Embedded”
and the right side “Context Reduced.” Each quadrant contains examples of that type of
activity. The “Cognitively Undemanding/Context Embedded” quadrant contains “Engaging in
conversation.” “Participating in art class,” and “Playing sports in PE.” The “Cognitively
Demanding/Context Embedded” quadrant is illustrated with “Conducting science
experiments,” “Reading a textbook with graphics,” and “Using math manipulatives.” The
“Cognitively Undemanding/Context Reduced” quadrant contains the examples “Talking on
the phone,” “Writing a list,” and “Estimating the number of candies in a jar.” Finally, the
“Cognitively Demanding/Context Reduced” quadrant is illustrated with “Reading textbook
without graphics,” “Working complex computations,” and “Taking standardized tests.”
(time: 4:00)
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View Transcript | View Transcript with Images (PDF)
Transcript: Challenge
Narrator: In this simulation, you’ve recently moved with your family to a new place, and you
are attending a new elementary school. Pay attention to the lesson and be prepared to write
down five things the teacher talked about.
Teacher: Speaking in Portuguese.
Narrator: Now it’s time to write down five things your teacher talked about. Be sure to
include at least one of the many safety tips. How many of the five items were you able to list?
What made this lesson difficult to understand? The simulation represented an experience
that could happen to a student who does not speak the language of the classroom.
Here’s Your Challenge:
What do teachers need to know about students who are learning to speak English?
4/5
What are some general instructional practices that can be beneficial to students who are
learning to speak English?
What should teachers consider when testing students who are learning to speak English?
Click here for feedback
Though the lesson in the Challenge is a cognitively demanding one—that is, the teacher
introduces difficult content requiring higher-order thinking skills—her students are forced to
rely on language to understand their teacher and what she expects them to do. Note that few
meaningful clues are given. The teacher refers to a small poster on the chalkboard and to
the household items she will use in her demonstration, but the lesson lacks significant
contextual clues and is therefore presented in a contextually reduced way. Because the ELL
students have to rely on language alone, the lesson is more challenging for them than their
peers. It is likely that they do not fully comprehend the lesson and will be unable to
participate fully in future discussions pertaining to it. By contrast, if the teacher were to
present the lesson by providing additional supports (e.g., demonstration, graphics, cue
cards), she would help her ELL students better understand the content they are required to
learn.
5/5
Page 9: Differentiate Instruction
iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/ell/cresource/q2/p09
What are some general instructional practices that can be beneficial
to students who are learning to speak English?
Another way to support English language
learners is to differentiate instruction. Rather than expect students to adjust to the curriculum,
teachers should adjust their instruction to meet the individual language and learning needs of
their students. This requires teachers to provide options in the ways they:
Present information or allow students to access information.
Example: During a science lesson about the solar system, the teacher uses visuals,
hands-on materials, and kinesthetic activities to explain concepts such as rotation and
revolution. The teacher also has books and videos in Spanish that the students can
access, if needed.
Encourage students to make sense of the information.
Example: To help students process information about the solar system, the teacher
sets up a learning center. There, some students focus on that main learning goal (e.g.,
learning the names of the planets), while students who quickly master the main
learning goal are able to engage in high-order learning activities (e.g., learning about
the key features of the planets). Some students may work with their peers and practice
the learning goal while using their home language.
Allow students to demonstrate their learning.
Example: To demonstrate their learning, students have the option of creating a model
of the planets, making a poster, or writing a report.
1/5
Teachers can differentiate instruction by being flexible in the ways in which they:
Present information or allow students to access information:
Provide a range of choices to access the content (e.g., books, audio, and video in
student’s home language and in English.
Make instruction more concrete by using pictures, charts, realia, demonstrations,
graphic organizers, or timelines.
Model lab procedures and include visual references about concepts.
Provide texts at different reading levels.
x
realia
Any concrete item or device used in the classroom to teach vocabulary or aid in
comprehension.
Encourage students to make sense of the information:
Provide a range of choices for student to practice what they are learning.
Use flexible grouping.
Use hands-on activities
Set up classrooms with learning centers (e.g., make available audiotapes and CDs to
assist students with their reading).
Provide materials in different languages.
x
flexible grouping
Grouping students into smaller groups or pairs, homogeneously (e.g., by ability, interest,
learning preferences, or language needs) or heterogeneously. The benefits of flexible
grouping include:
2/5
Interacting with peers who speak English and who are good language models
Helping to translate material for students who may be less proficient in English
Giving ELLs a feeling of empowerment when they discuss their assigned tasks
Allowing students to experience interethnic group interactions
Increasing friendships
Gaining higher levels of confidence
Receiving additional instruction
Allowing opportunities to practice academic language
Research has found that across ethnic, gender, and ability groups, students have shown
gains in academic outcomes when working in collaborative small groups—in part because
collaborative problem solving may be highly valued at home, and in part because students
are validated by their peers when speaking either Spanish or English.
Allow students to demonstrate their learning:
Offer a range of choices to express understanding (i.e., create a slide presentation,
write a song or poem, stage a performance ).
Permit the option to work independently or in a group to complete an assignment.
Example: Ms. Westerman collaborates with the bilingual teacher about her upcoming lesson
on rocks and minerals. In this way, the bilingual teacher can pre-teach some of the
vocabulary terms by using pictures, charts and graphic organizers for the students who
receive bilingual education. Later during whole-group instruction, Ms. Westerman displays
3/5
images used by the bilingual education teacher. Every rock or mineral vocabulary term that
appears on the screen is labeled in both English and Spanish. Later, the students work in
small groups to complete a hands-on activity to better understand what has been presented.
Listen as Janette Klingner talks about the benefit of grouping for ELLs (time: 0:35).
Janette Klingner, PhD
School of Education
University of Colorado, Boulder
Audio Player
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Transcript: Janette Klingner, PhD
In their small groups, they are supporting one another because they’re working in a lessthreatening situation in a small group with their peers that is going to reduce how demanding
the task is. Students are able to get support from one another and talk about what they’re
learning, work through some of the challenging aspects of a text they’re reading together.
That can help teachers reduce the cognitive load and provide more context for students so
they can be successful.
4/5
5/5
Page 10: Provide Opportunities for Students To Practice
iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/ell/cresource/q2/p10
What are some general instructional practices that can be beneficial
to students who are learning to speak English?
Teachers can support ELLs by providing opportunities to practice not only their academic
skills but also their use of the English language. Before students practice a task, teachers
should ensure that they understand its demands, both linguistic and academic. In addition to
creating ample opportunities for practice, teachers should provide corrective feedback,
constructive comments on the student’s performance.
When providing opportunities for ELLs to practice skills or concepts, teachers should:
Allow ELLs to use instructional supports such as translated word lists. As students’
language proficiency increases, the level of support is reduced.
Allow ELLs to work in pairs or in small groups.
Encourage students to discuss what they are learning. As often as possible, these
conversations should be student-led and interactive.
Focus on and provide feedback on the content of ELLs’ responses in English, rather
than on their pronunciation or grammar. It is normal—and not a sign of confusion—for
them to draw from their first language.
Example: Ms. Westerman knows that her students have a basic understanding of the
differences between plant and animal cells. She allows them to practice categorizing and
discussing these differences in small groups.
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
Cytoplasm
+
+
Nucleus
+
+
1/2
Chloroplast
—
+
Cell Wall
—
+
Shape
Roundish
Rectangular
2/2
Page 11: Measure Performance
iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/ell/cresource/q3/p11
What should teachers consider when testing students who are
learning to speak English?
Just as they do for all students, teachers should regularly monitor English language learners’
skills. Teachers may use both classroom and standardized assessments to measure student
performance.
Keep in Mind
ELL students often understand more than they are able to convey in English. When students
are allowed to communicate in a variety of ways—such as using their first language, using
gestures, or drawing a picture—they are better able to express what they know.
Classroom Assessment
Teachers can use informal assessments to monitor students’ comprehension of the material.
Informal assessments provide teachers with ongoing data about a student’s learning
progress and help them to address knowledge any gaps their students might display. One
way of informally assessing student understanding is called semantic mapping. In order to
create a semantic map, the students:
Brainstorm words associated with a key concept—the students provide the words while
the teacher determines which are most important.
Determine categories or sub-headings and group the words accordingly.
Develop a graphic to represent the relationship between the key concepts and the
categories.
1/4
After the teacher has repeatedly modeled how to create the maps, he or she should allow
students to work with partners or individually. Students should then be asked to compare
their map with others to see the different ways in which concepts can be analyzed.
Teachers should exercise caution when administering unit or chapter tests to ELL students.
These tests may require more complex test-taking abilities, which can be challenging for
these students, depending on their level of language proficiency. If a student performs poorly
on a test, it may be difficult for teachers to determine whether it was due to a difficulty with
the subject content or a difficulty with the language. It is important that teachers recognize
that any test in English is first and foremost a test of English. For example, using essay
questions requires that student demonstrate various language skills, in addition to
responding to the content in question. Students have to retrieve their thoughts and organize
and structure them in a way that effectively answers the question. Multiple-choice questions
that have subtle differences in the answer options, or questions that combine option choices
(e.g., a test that has an answer option like “A and B”) may cause confusion among English
language learners. Even math tests often include English vocabulary terms (e.g., quotient,
numerator, denominator, compound interest).
Standardized Assessments
Standardized assessments are commercially published tests (e.g., Iowa Test of Basic Skills
[ITBS], SAT, ACT) given to students with strict administration and scoring guidelines.
Individual students’ scores are compared to those achieved by a national sample of
students, or norm. Many of the standardized tests created and used in the schools were
normed on monolingual English-speaking students and not students learning English and,
therefore, may not yield accurate scores. Another consideration is that many ELLs may not
score well on timed-tests because they generally require more time to process both
language information and content information.
Teachers should find ways to assess ELLs’ content knowledge that is separate from their
English language knowledge. Below are some suggestions for constructing and
administering tests for ELL students:
Create test questions that incorporate aspects of the student’s background knowledge,
when applicable.
Make sure the student understands how to respond to various test formats (e.g., short
answer, multiple choice, true/ false).
2/4
Preview the test with the student to ensure they understand the terminology in the
instructions and test questions and key vocabulary (e.g., “Explain how the principles
outlined in the Preamble to the Constitution correlate to the ideals of a democracy.”).
Permit students to use a bilingual dictionary.
Allow students to take the test with a bilingual teacher or paraprofessional who can
offer translation supports, or an ESL teacher who can help explain words students do
not understand.
Allow extra time for students to complete the test.
Example: As an informal assessment of their learning, Ms. Westerman asks her students to
create a semantic map about types of rocks.
Description
The central hub of the map reads “Three Types of Rocks.” From there, the map branches out
in three separate directions: “Igneous,” “Sedimentary,” and “Metamorphic.” Each of these
categories, in turn, branch into further detail, including “Formed By,” “Example,” and
“Characteristics.”
3/4
For example, under “Sedimentary,” the example is “Limestone.” “Formed by” reads “particles
of sand, shells, pebbles, and other materials fuse together.” The “Characteristics” of
limestone include “can see the sand, pebbles, and stones in the rock,” “can contain fossils,”
and “soft, breaks apart, crumbles.”
Prior to administering the unit test, she makes sure her ELL students understand:
How to respond to short answer and multiple choice questions
The vocabulary and terminology
Because the bilingual teacher is not at school on the test day, Ms. Westerman lets her ELL
students use a bilingual dictionary and to ask her for clarification about terms they do not
understand. In addition, her ELL students are allowed extra time to complete their test.
4/4
Page 12: References & Additional Resources
iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/ell/cresource/resources/p12
Resources
To cite this module, please use the following:
The IRIS Center. (2011). Teaching English language learners: Effective instructional
practices. Retrieved from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/ell/
References
August, D. (2008). Building oral language into content area instruction. PowerPoint
presentation. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://www.schoolsmovingup.net/cs/smu/view/rs/14168
August, D. (2007). Findings from the national literacy panel on language minority children
and youth (research from CREATE). Webinar retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://www.schoolsmovingup.net/cs/smu/view/e/1574
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report
of the national literacy panel on language-minority children and youth. Mahwah, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (2008). Developing reading and writing in second-language
learners: Lessons from the report of the National Literacy Panel on language -minority
children and youth. New York, NY: Routledge.
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (2010). Effective English literacy instruction for English learners.
Proceedings of the SchoolsMovingUp@WestEd Webinar. Retrieved on April 8, 2011,from
http://www.schoolsmovingup.net/cs/smu/view/e/4603
Ballantyne, K. G., Sanderman, A. R., & Levy, J. (2008). Educating English language
learners: Building teacher capacity. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for English
Language Acquisition. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
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Burnette, J. (1999, November). Critical behaviors and strategies for teaching culturally
diverse students. ERIC/ OSEP Digest E584. ED435147. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://www.eric.ed.gov:80/PDFS/ED435147.pdf
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Calderon, M. (2007). Teaching reading to English language learners, grades 6–12: A
framework for improving achievement in the content areas. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
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The Center for Public Education. (2006). Preparing English language learners for academic
success. Retrieved on April 20, 2011, from http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/…micsuccess.html
Cox, C., & Boyd-Batstone, P. S. (2009). Engaging English learners: Exploring literature,
developing literacy, and differentiating instruction. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Crawford, J., & Krashen, S. (2007). English learners in American classrooms: 101 questions,
101 answers. New York: Scholastic.
Cuellar, D. (2009). Cultural responsiveness: Working with Mexican immigrant families in early
education. Accelerate! The Quarterly Newsletter of the National Clearinghouse for English
Language Acquisition, 1(2). Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/files/uploads/17/Accellerate_1_2.pdf
Diaz-Rico, L. T. (2008). Strategies for teaching English learners. Boston, MA: Pearson
Education, Inc.
Echevarria, J., & Graves, A. (2011). Sheltered content instruction: Teaching English learners
with diverse abilities. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Editorial Projects in Education. (2004). English-language learners. Retrieved on April 8,
2011, from http://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/english-language-learners
The Education Alliance at Brown University. (2006). Teaching diverse learners: Culturally
responsive teaching. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/tlstrategies/crt-principles-prt.shtml
The Education Alliance at Brown University. (n.d.). The practice: Active teaching methods—
Instruction is designed to promote student engagement by requiring that students play an
active role in crafting curriculum and developing learning activities. Retrieved on April 8,
2011, from http://www.knowledgeloom.org/practice_basedoc.jsp?
t=1&bpid=1122&aspect..ation=2&parentid=1110&bpinterid=1110&testflag=yes
The Education Alliance at Brown University. (n.d.). The practice: Communication of high
expectations—There are consistent messages, from both the teacher and the whole school,
that students will succeed, based upon genuine respect for students and belief in student
capability. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://www.knowledgeloom.org/practice_basedoc.jsp?t=1&bpid=1121&
aspect..ation=2&parentid=1110&bpinterid=1110&spotlightid=1110&testflag=yes
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The Education Alliance at Brown University. (n.d.). The practice: Culturally mediated
instruction—Instruction is characterized by the use of culturally mediated cognition, culturally
appropriate social situations for learning, and culturally valued knowledge in curriculum
content. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://www.knowledgeloom.org/practice_basedoc.jsp?t=1&bpid=1128&
aspect..ation=2&parentid=1110&bpinterid=1110&spotlightid=1110&testflag=yes
The Education Alliance at Brown University. (n.d.). The practice: Cultural sensitivity—To
maximize learning opportunities, teachers gain knowledge of the cultures represented in their
classrooms and translate this knowledge into instructional practice. Retrieved on April 8,
2011, from http://www.knowledgeloom.org/practice_basedoc.jsp?t=1&bpid=1125&
aspect..ation=2&parentid=1110&bpinterid=1110&spotlightid=1110&testflag=yes
The Education Alliance at Brown University. (n.d.). The practice: Positive perspectives on
parents and families of culturally and linguistically diverse students—There is an ongoing
participation in dialog with students, parents, and community members on issues important
to them, along with the inclusion of these individuals and issues in classroom curriculum and
activities. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://www.knowledgeloom.org/practice_basedoc.jsp?t=1&bpid=1124&
aspect..ation=2&parentid=1110&bpinterid=1110&spotlightid=1110&testflag=yes
The Education Alliance at Brown University. (n.d.). The practice: Reshaping the curriculum—
A reshaped curriculum is culturally responsive to the background of students. Retrieved on
April 8, 2011, from
http://www.knowledgeloom.org/practice_basedoc.jsp?t=1&bpid=1127&aspect…
ation=2&parentid=1110&bpinterid=1110&spotlightid=1110&testflag=yes
The Education Alliance at Brown University. (n.d.). The practice: Student-controlled
classroom discourse—Students are given the opportunity to control some portion of the
lesson, providing teachers with insight into the ways that speech and negotiation are used in
the home and community. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://www.knowledgeloom.org/practice_basedoc.jsp?t=1&bpid=1129&
aspect..ation=2&parentid=1110&bpinterid=1110&spotlightid=1110&testflag=yes
The Education Alliance at Brown University. (n.d.). The practice: Small group instruction and
academically-related discourse—Instruction is organized around low-pressure, studentcontrolled learning groups that can assist in the development of academic language.
Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from http://www.knowledgeloom.org/practice_basedoc.jsp?
t=1&bpid=1130&
aspect..ation=2&parentid=1110&bpinterid=1110&spotlightid=1110&testflag=yes
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The Education Alliance at Brown University. (n.d.). The practice: Teacher as facilitator—
Within an active teaching environment, the teacher’s role is one of guide, mediator, and
knowledgeable consultant, as well as instructor. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://www.knowledgeloom.org/practice_basedoc.jsp?
t=1&bpid=1123&aspect..ation=2&parentid=1110&bpinterid=1110&spotlightid=1110&testflag=y
es
Garcia, G. G. (2003). English learners: Reaching the highest level of English literacy.
Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: theory, research, & practice. New York:
Teachers College Press.
Genesee, F. (Ed.). (1999). Program alternatives for linguistically diverse students. Santa
Cruz: University of California, Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence.
Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from http://www.eric.ed.gov:80/PDFS/ED428569.pdf
Gitomer, D. H., Andal, J., & Davison, D. (2005, December). Using data to understand the
academic performance of English language learners. Policy Issues, 21. Retrieved on April 8,
2011, from http://www.ncrel.org/policy/pubs/pdfs/pivol21.pdf
Herrera, S. G., & Murry, K. G. (2005). Mastering ESL and bilingual methods: Differentiated
instruction for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students. Boston, MA: Pearson
Education, Inc.
Hoover, J. J. (2009). Differentiating learning differences from disabilities: Meeting diverse
needs through multi-tiered response to intervention. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Education, Inc.
Klingner, J. K., Hoover, J. J., & Baca, L. M. (Eds.). (2008). Why do English language learners
struggle with reading?: Distinguishing language acquisition from learning disabilities.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Lumsden, L. (1997, July). Expectations for students. ERIC Digest, 116. Retrieved on April 8,
2011, from http://eric.uoregon.edu/publications/digests/digest116.html
McGraner, K. L., & Saenz, L. (2009, September). Preparing teachers of English language
learners. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://www.tqsource.org/publications/issuepaper_preparingELLteachers.pdf
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (2007). The NAEP reading
achievement levels. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/reading/achieve.asp
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The National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt). (2008).
Academy 2: Culturally responsive literacy instruction – What does it look like in the
classroom. Module 5: Culturally responsive literacy. Facilitator’s Manual.
National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. (2009, September). Certification and
licensure for teachers of English language learners, by state. Retrieved on April 8, 2011,
from http://www.tqsource.org/pdfs/CertificationandLicensureforTeachersofELLs.pdf
National Council of Teachers of English. (2008). English language learners: A policy
research brief produced by the national council of teachers of English. Retrieved on April 8,
2011, from
http://www.ncte.org/library/NCTEFiles/Resources/PolicyResearch/ELLResearchBrief.pdf
Olsen, L. (2010). Reparable harm: Fulfilling the unkept promise of educational opportunity for
long term English learners. Long Beach, CA: Californians Together. Retrieved on April 8,
2011, from http://www.calfund.org/pub_documents/reparable_harm_full_final_lo.pdf
Ong, F. (Ed.). (2010). Improving education for English learners: Research-based
approaches. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.
Pelayo, I., & Pachon, H. P. (2010). Closing achievement gaps: Improving educational
outcomes for Hispanic children. Los Angeles, CA: The Tomas Rivera Policy Institute.
Reiss, J. (2008). 102 content strategies for English language learners: Teaching for
academic success in grades 3–12. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Rothenberg, C., & Fisher, D. (2007). Teaching English language learners: A differentiated
approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
San Diego Unified School District. (2010). No Child Left Behind factsheet. Retrieved on April
8, 2011, from http://www.sandi.net/NCLB
Saunders, W., & Goldenburg, C. (2010). Research to guide English language development
instruction. In California Department of Education (Ed.), Research on English Language
Learners. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education Press.
Schmidt, P. R. (2005). Culturally responsive instruction: Promoting literacy in secondary
content areas. Naperville, IL: Learning Point. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://www.learningpt.org/literacy/adolescent/cri.pdf
Slavin, R. E., & Cheung, A. (2005). A synthesis of research on language of reading
instruction for English language learners. Review of Educational Research, 75(2), 247–284.
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Tellez, K., & Waxman, H. C. (2005). The laboratory for student success: Quality teachers for
English language learners. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory at Temple
University Center for Research in Human Development and Education. Retrieved on April 8,
2011, from http://www.eric.ed.gov.proxy.lib.wayne.edu/PDFS/ED508447.pdf
Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V. (1997, December). School effectiveness for language minority
students. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://ncela.gwu.edu/files/rcd/BE020890/school_effectiveness_for_langu.pdf
U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for
Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (2009).The
nation’s report card: Mathematics, grade 8 national results. Retrieved on Dec. 7, 2010 from
http://nationsreportcard.gov/math_2009/gr8_national.asp?
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Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (2009). The
nation’s report card: Mathematics, grade 4 national results. Retrieved on Dec. 7, 2010 from
http://nationsreportcard.gov/math_2009/gr4_national.asp?
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Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (2009). The
nation’s report card: Reading, grade 8 national results. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2009/nat_g8.asp?
subtab_id=Tab_7&tab_id=tab2#tabsContainer
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Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (2009). The
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http://nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2009/nat_g4.asp?
subtab_id=Tab_7&tab_id=tab2#tabsContainer
Whelan Ariza, E. (2010). Not for ESOL teachers: What every classroom teacher needs to
know about the linguistically, culturally, and ethnically diverse student. Boston, MA: Pearson
Education, Inc.
Zhang, H., & Kortner, N. A. (1995). Oral language development across the curriculum, K–12.
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2: Culturally responsive pedagogy and practice. The National Center for Culturally
Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt) Module.
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Additional Resources
Articles
Butvilofsky, S., Escamilla, M., Geisler, D., Hopewell, S., & Ruiz, O. A. (2010). Transition to
biliteracy: literacy squared. Informally published manuscript.
School of Education, University of Colorado, Boulder.
This useful and informative resource grew out of a meeting of educators and experts at a
2004 National Association for Bilingual Education Conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico,
where the focus was on transitions among ELLs. This work, as its title suggests, examines
the available research having to do with “transitions to biliteracy” and describes in detail the
creation and implementation of the Literacy Squared intervention framework.
Goldenberg, C. (2008). Teaching English language learners: What the research does—and
does not—say. American Educator, 32(2), 8–23, 42–44.
This article reviews the research done by the National Literacy Panel (NPL) and the Center
for Research on Diversity, Education, and Excellence (CREDE) pertaining to the education of
English learners. Instructional modifications, critical questions, and two classroom views are
all on hand.
Miller, R. D. (2016). Contextualizing instruction for English language learners with learning
disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(1), 58–65.
The author of this article overviews a detailed plan for contextualizing English instruction for
ELL students with learning disabilities. Steps include building vocabulary and building
background knowledge. A discussion and some final thoughts are included.
Rolstad, K., Mahoney, K., & Glass, G. V. (2005). The Big Picture: A Meta-Analysis of
Program Effectiveness Research on English Language Learners. Educational Policy, 19
(4), 572–594.
This article presents a meta-analysis of bilingual education programs, including
developmental and transitional programs. Recommendations for educational policy are
provided.
The National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. (2010). AccELLerate! The
quarterly newsletter of the National Clearinghouse for English Language
Acquisition,2(2), 1–20.
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Topics covered in this issue include, but are not limited to, quality teacher preparation for
ELLs, the national professional development program, and math ACCESS: building
mathematical proficiency in linguistically diverse schools.
The National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. (2010). AccELLerate! The
quarterly newsletter of the National Clearinghouse for English Language
Acquisition, 2(4), 1–20.
Topics covered in this issue include, but are not limited to, formative assessment, what
makes a “good” assessment for ELLs?, and validity and fairness of assessments for ELLs.
Pickett, A. L. (1998). A core curriculum and training program to prepare paraeducators to
work with learners who have limited English proficiency. NRCP.
This training series targets paraeducators who work with students with limited English
proficiency in inclusive classrooms. The training provides several resources, including
handouts and transparencies with references accompanying each module.
Snow, C. E. (2010). Academic language and the challenge of reading for learning about
science. Science, 328(5977), 450–452, Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/328/5977/450.full
This article breaks down some of the reasons for student difficulty in reading and
comprehending science material in the school curriculum.
Wanzek, J., Swanson, E., Vaughn, S., Robers, G., & Fall, A-M. (2016). English learner and
non-English learner students with disabilities: Content acquisition and comprehension.
Exceptional Children, 82(4), 428–442.
Here the authors overview the effectiveness of Promoting Adolescent Comprehension
Through Text (PACT), a group of instructional practices designed for middle and high school
social studies classes. Their findings indicate that PACT’s six components did in fact lead to
better comprehension and thus better outcomes for both ELLs and native English speakers
alike..
Books
Ariza, E. N. W. (2010). Not for ESOL teachers: What every classroom teacher needs to know
about the linguistically, culturally, and ethnically diverse student.
Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
This book includes examples, for the general educator, of ways to modify content for English
learners. Examples of behaviors exhibited in the classroom by English language learners are
provided, as are assessment concerns and strategies.
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Hadaway, N. L., Vardell, S. M., & Young, T. A. (2009). What every teacher should know about
English language learners. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
This book offers background information about English language learners to suggest a basis
for classroom organization. Practical classroom strategies are included.
Herrera, S., Perez, D. R., & Escamilla, K. (2009). Teaching reading to English language
learners: Differentiated literacies. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
This book stresses that meaning and relevance are the basis of all instructional activities and
strategies used with culturally and linguistically diverse students in the areas of reading and
writing instruction. Videos of strategies in action, student samples, and teacher voices are
provided.
Hoover, J., Klingner, J. K., Baca, L., & Patton, J. (2007). Methods for teaching culturally and
linguistically diverse exceptional learners. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Merrill/ Prentice Hall.
This book differentiates between learning differences and learning disabilities in the culturally
and linguistically diverse population of students, and suggests instructional methods to meet
each group’s needs.
Klingner, J. K., Hoover, J., & Baca, L. (2008). Why do English language learners struggle
with reading? Distinguishing language acquisition from learning disabilities.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
This book is a resource to help decipher whether an English language learner’s reading
difficulties are attributed to language acquisition difficulties or to learning disabilities.
Assessment techniques, instructional tips, and practical strategies are provided.
Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., & Boardman, A. (2007). Teaching reading comprehension to
students with learning difficulties. New York: Guilford.
This book servers as a resource for all grade level teachers to aid students in the area of
comprehension. Reproducible lesson plans and instructional materials are included.
Linan-Thompson, L., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Research-based methods of reading instruction
for English language learners: Grades k–4. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
This book includes reading instruction methods for English language learners based on
research done in the area of reading instruction. A list of helpful Websites is also on hand.
Online Resources
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Bank Street’s College’s Guide to Literacy for Volunteers and Tutors: English Language
Learner http://www.bankstreet.edu/literacyguide/
This Website provides information about literacy development and English language learners
targeted for volunteers and tutors that work with this population of students. Sample lesson
plans, games, reading strategies, and book suggestions are all here.
Center for Applied Linguistics http://www.cal.org/
This Website is dedicated to improving English communication for all persons, regardless of
language or cultural differences. Resources include topics such as information about dialects
and refugee integration.
Center for Research on the Educational Achievement and Teaching English Language
Learners (CREATE) http://www.cal.org/create/
This Website includes information about the research and teaching of English language
learners with a primary focus on grades 4–8.
Center on Instruction http://www.centeroninstruction.org/topic.cfm?k=ELL
This site offers a compilation of free, scientifically based resources for state, districts, and
local educators to enhance instruction. The information on hand here is broken down into the
areas of literacy, mathematics, science, ELL, special education, RTI, eLearning, and federal
priorities.
Colorín Colorado. (2007). Reading comprehension strategies for content learning. Retrieved
on April 8, 2011, from http://www.colorincolorado.org/educators/content/comprehension
This Web resource—available in both English and Spanish—offers a wealth of information
on and suggestions about how to teach reading comprehension skills.
Echevarria, J., Short, D., & Linquanti, R. (2011, January 19). Programs and practices for
effective sheltered content instruction [Webinar 12]. Retrieved April 8,
2011, from http://www.schoolsmovingup.net/cs/smu/view/e/4686
This Webinar offers an overview of effective sheltered content instruction, featuring the SIOP
model. Note that archived Webinars require registration to access.
Gulack, J., & Silverstein, S. (n.d.). Techniques, strategies, and suggestions for teachers of
LEP and former LEP students [TASSI: SDAIE Handbook]. (Online
informational booklet), Retrieved on October 1, 2010 from http://www.suhsd.k12.ca.us/suh/—
suhionline/sdaie/sdaiehandbook.html#paragraph
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This online booklet focuses on supporting students transitioning from an ESL or sheltered
class into the regular classroom. Explanations and strategies are provided for general
educators.
National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE) http://www.nabe.org/
This professional organization is dedicated to representing bilingual educators and English
language learners. NABE provides professional development, fights for the interest of
language minority students, lobbies to ensure adequate funding is available, mobilizes
parents and communities, and educates the public about bilingual education.
National Association for Multicultural Education (NAME) http://nameorg.org/
NAME is a volunteer organization of persons advocating for educational equity and social
justice. Information is given about a yearly conference.
Reading Rockets: http://www.readingrockets.org/
This Website for persons teaching children to read includes a wealth of information for
parents, teachers, principals, librarians, school psychologists, school counselors, and speech
pathologists. Information is also available in Spanish.
Spycher, P. (2008). English learners and the language arts (ELLA): Supporting teachers to
provide rigorous literacy instruction to all students. Proceedings of the WestEd
Webinar. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from http://www.wested.org/cs/we/view/serv/125
This WestEd Webinar touched on topics related to ELLs in the language arts. Specific
subjects addressed included the role of ELLA professional development, the ways in which
ELLA offers multiple layers of support to schools and districts, and ELLA’s logistics and
costs, among numerous others.
Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts http://www.meadowscenter.org/vgc
This center located at the University of Texas at Austin strives to improve the educational
outcomes for English language learners and students with special needs in the areas of
reading and language arts. Professional development information and materials are available
at the Website.
Texas Comprehensive Center. (2010). What can a mathematics teacher do for the English
language learner? Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://txcc.sedl.org/resources/ell_materials/mell/beginner.html
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This easy-to-read bulleted list of typical characteristics and suggested strategies is targeted
at beginning language learners.
The University of Texas at Austin, College of Education. (2001). Essential reading strategies
for the struggling reader: Activities for an accelerated reading program,
expanded edition. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from
http://www.meadowscenter.org/vgc/downloads/primary/booklets/Essential_Strategies.pdf
This manual includes activities to supplement the regular reading curriculum for students
who are struggling. The four areas addressed are fluency, phonological awareness,
instructional reading with comprehension, and word analysis and spelling. Sample lesson
plans and modified sample lesson plans are included.
U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (IES). (2007). Effective
literacy and English language instruction for English learners in the elementary grades.
Retrieved on April 8, 2011, fromhttps://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practiceguides/20074011.pdf
This practice guide was developed for use by a broad spectrum of school practitioners and
contains specific and coherent evidenced-based recommendations pertaining to literacy
instruction for English language learners in the elementary grades.
U.S. Department of Education. (2007). Best practices for ELLs: Small-group interventions.
Retrieved on June 6, 2011, from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/28881
This report from the U.S. Department of Education—based on four studies conducted with
ELLs—includes a summary of the recommendation, as well as a number of detailed tips on
effective implementation and thoughts about possible pitfalls that instructors and school
leaders should be on guard against.
U.S. Department of Education. (2007). Best practices for ELLs: Vocabulary instruction.
Retrieved on June 6, 2011, from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/28882
This report from the U.S. Department of Education—based on three studies conducted with
ELLs—includes a summary of the recommendation, as well as useful tips on effective
implementation and thoughts about possible stumbling blocks along the way.
U.S. Department of Education. (2015). English learner tool kit. Retrieved on December 15,
2015, from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/oela/english-learner-toolkit/index.html
This online resource is designed to help state and local education agencies to fulfill their
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legal obligations to English language learners in their classrooms. Included are links to
information on staffing and supporting ELL programs, assessment and evaluation of those
programs, and creating inclusive environments for all learners, among much else.
Wilen, D. K. (2004). English language learners: An introductory guide for educators.
Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
This handout for families and educators offers an overview of English language learners and
some of the interventions that educators can implement in the classroom to support them.
Videos
EDPro. (2007, March 27). Starting points: Working with young English language learners.
Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=aMD38A2u9wE&feature=related
This video is an advertisement for the Starting Points series produced by Edpro. A sample
video clip from the series is shown.
Pearson Education. (2009). New instructional model helps English learners succeed.
Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ty3n07UaFUU
This video gives names and faces to the ever-increasing population of students in the
classroom who are learning English as a second language. Brief data are given about the
effectiveness and efficiency of using the SIOP model of teaching to improve outcomes for
these students in the classroom.
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