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Watch the HHMI video on Anole Lizard Speciation

Anole Lizard Speciation Activity

1. Watch the HHMI video on Anole Lizard Speciation on blackboard. You can also

go to https://www.biointeractive.org/classroom-resources/origin-species-lizardsevolutionary-tree to download the video, which is available with captions and in

several different languages.

2. Go to https://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/lizard-evolution-virtual-lab

3. Click on the Ã¢â‚¬Å“Launch InteractiveÃ¢â‚¬Â button to enter the virtual lab.

4. Click on Module 4: Dewlap Colors.

5. YouÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ve already watched the video clip, so click continue.

6. Measure the dewlap colors of 10 anole lizards by moving the color Ã¢â‚¬Å“wheelÃ¢â‚¬Â to the

closest colors of the center and edge of the dewlaps. (10 points, as shown in

table you will download)

7. Click the Ã¢â‚¬Å“download dataÃ¢â‚¬Â button, and then Ã¢â‚¬Å“click hereÃ¢â‚¬Â to save the data to your

computer.

8. Open the data file in excel (google sheets does NOT support the graph type

needed, cloud-based excel is available to ACC students for free).

9. Watch the video for the application you are using (desktop excel or cloud-based

excel) to learn how to do the following tasks.

a. Calculate the statistics of mean, SD, SEM, 95% confidence interval, and

T-test using a spreadsheet program. (Watch the video on understanding

statistics so that you can answer the applicable questions below.) (9

points for calculations)

b. Format your table so that it shows all the pertinent information a table

needs and is ready for making a graph by:

i. Moving the species names to be directly above the measurements.

(1 point)

ii. Deleting columns C and D from the table (needed for proper

graphing, 1 point).

iii. Add a row at the top and give the table an appropriate title. Merge

and center the cells that contain the title. (2 points)

iv. Expand each column so that all text in the column can be read. (1

point)

v. Add borders to all cells with information in them. (1 point)

c. Highlight all cells with information in them and copy and paste them into a

word or google sheets document.

d. Make a box and whisker plot of the data from both species (watch

pertinent excel video for details). Make sure your graph has:

i. An appropriately positioned line showing the median. (2 points)

ii. An appropriately positioned box or whisker for each quartile. (8

points)

iii. An appropriately positioned X for the average. (2 points)

1. NOTE: No oneÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s averages, boxes, or whiskers should be

exactly the same as someone elseÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s. Make sure you are

using your own measurements from the dewlap color.

iv. An appropriate graph title. (1 point)

v. Appropriately labeled x- and y-axes. (2 points)

vi. The species labeled in a legend or on each bar. (2 points)

e. Click on the graph to make it active, and then copy and paste it into your

word processing document under your table.

10. Answer these questions on your word processing document under the graph:

a. Give 2 examples of adaptations that occur in Anole lizards based on

environment. (2 points)

b. How does Dr. Losos induce allopatric speciation pressure in his

experiment? (2 points)

c. How does Dr. Loses induce a hybrid zone on new, small islands in his

experiment? (2 points)

d. In the video, Dr. Losos mentions that there are remarkable changes in leg

length after 2, 3, and 4 generations on a new, small island. Explain how,

according to the theory of natural selection, these changes occur. (4

points)

e. What caused the females to no longer recognize the males as the same

species? (3 points)

f. What is an example of microevolution in Anole lizards? (1 point)

g. What is an example of macroevolution in Anole lizards? (1 point)

h. What type of sympatric speciation occurs within anole lizards? Use

scientific reasoning and evidence from the module/video to explain your

answers. (4 points)

i. Can a given lizard change the color of his dewlap? Explain why or why

not. (3 points)

j. Explain how anole lizards show both divergent and convergent evolution.

Use evidence presented in the video/module to support your explanation.

(10 points)

k. Is Anole lizard speciation driven primarily by prezygotic barriers or

postzygotic barriers? Explain your answer with scientific reasoning. (3

points)

l. Do you think, from the evidence presented, that Anole lizards evolve

through punctuated equilibrium or gradualism? Use scientific reasoning to

support your answer. (6 points)

m. Look at your graph and table.

i. Does your A. cristatellus box overlap a lot with your A. cooki box on

the graph? (1 point)

ii. Explain two limitations of your experiment that would affect the

amount of overlap of boxes of these two species. (2 points)

iii. If the data from Dr. Losos had been plotted in a box and whisker

plot, would you expect his boxes to have more or less overlap than

yours? Explain your reasoning using scientific principles. (4 points)

iv. Relate your T-test p value to the overlap you see in your boxes on

the box and whisker plot. (3 points)

v. Why is n=5 the absolute smallest number of animals of a given

species that can be measured when using a box and whisker plot?

(2 points)

vi. What percent of a normalized population will:

1. fall within Ã‚Â±1 standard deviation of the mean(note: plus or

minus combined) (1 point)

2. fall within Ã‚Â±1 quartile of the median (note: plus or minus

combined) (1 point)

vii. Based on your measurements (not on Dr. LososÃ¢â‚¬â„¢), can you say that

these two species are significantly different in dewlap color? Use

statistical reasoning to explain your answer. (2 points)

11. Turn in your work as a Microsoft office or pdf document to blackboard under the

Anole Lizard Assignment. If you decide to use google docs, you must export your

assignment as a pdf before turning it in.

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