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Pathophysiology

Chapter 20: Neoplasms and Cancer

Study Guide/Review Questions

Name:

As you read through Chapter 20, answer the following questions and reupload

this answered worksheet to the drop box.

1. Tell me the term to the following Definition.

Term

Answer

Neoplasm

or tumor

Benign

malignant

carcinoma

sarcoma

anaplasia

Definition

A. ____ is a tumor, cellular growth that is no longer

responding to normal body controls.

B. ____ is a tumor of differentiated cells that reproduce at

higher-than-normal rate but do not spread.

C. ____ is a tumor of undifferentiated, nonfunctional cells

that reproduce rapidly, infiltrate surrounding areas, and

may spread by metastases to other organs and tissues.

D. ____ is a malignant tumor of epithelial tissue.

E. ____ is a malignant tumor of connective tissue.

F. ____is a growth of undifferentiated cells of varying size

and shape

2. Name 3 specific pathophysiologic changes that occur in the formation of

malignant tumors.

Answer:

1

2

3

3. Identify the correct nomenclature for both benign and malignant tumors

in the following tissues/organs

Answer:

Tissues / Organs

Benign Tumor

Malignant Tumor

a. Pancreas

b. Fat

c. Bone

d. Liver

e. Cartilage

f. Skin

4. Compare and contrast benign and malignant tumors using the following

chart:

Answer:

Benign Tumor

Malignant Tumor

a. Cells

b. Growth

c. Spread

d. Systemic

effects

e. General

prognosis

5. Identify the warning signs of cancer.

Answer:

6. A tumor is a space-occupying mass that produces predictable local

effects as it enlarges. Describe the consequences that could result from

the following effects:

Answer:

Effects

Consequences

1 Compression of Blood

Vessels

2 Compression or

obstruction of a tube or

duct

3 Compression of nerves

4 Erosion of blood vessels

and other structures

5 Invasion and replacement

of normal tissue

7. Malignant tumors also have generalized systemic effects. Outline the

factors that contribute to the development of the following systemic

manifestations.

Answer:

Systemic manifestations

Factors that contribute to the

development of the following systemic

manifestations:

1 Weight loss and cachexia:

2

3

4

Anemia:

Systemic Infections:

Bleeding

8. Define and describe paraneoplastic syndrome.

Answer:

9. Explain how the following diagnostic tools can assist in the detection and

diagnosis of cancer:

Answer:

Diagnostic Tools

How?

1 Blood Tests

2

Tumor markers

3

X-Ray, ultrasound, MRI,

and CT or CAT scan:

Biopsy and histologic

and cytologic

examinations:

4

10. Describe how malignant cells spread from the original tumor to distant

sites in the body. What is this called?

Answer:

11. Distinguish between the grading and staging of neoplasms.

Answer:

12. Differentiate between an initiating factor and a promoter in relation to

carcinogenesis.

Answer:

13. Identify 8 risk factors for developing cancer and include at least one

example of each.

Answer:

Risk Factor

Example

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

14. Explain why individuals who have incompetent immune systems are at a

higher risk for developing malignancies.

Answer:

15. Identify the 4 conventional treatment measures employed in the

treatment of cancer.

Answer:

Conventional Treatment measure employed in the treatment of

cancer:

1

2

3

4

16. Treatment for cancer may be curative, palliative, or prophylactic.

Explain the circumstances when each of these treatments may be used.

Answer:

Treatment Circumstances when this treatment may be used.

1

Curative

2

Palliative

3 Prophylactic

17. Explain how radiotherapy is effective in treating some types of cancer.

Answer:

18. Identify the mechanisms of action of antineoplastic medications.

Answer:

19. Identify adverse effects that commonly occur during both radio therapy

and chemotherapy and explain why they happen.

Answer:

20. What is a biologic response modifier? How are these agents useful in

the treatment of some types of cancer?

Answer:

21. Explain the 3 potential goals of gene therapy in the treatment of cancer.

Answer:

3 Potential goals of gene therapy in the treatment of cancer.

1

2

3

22. Identify 2 other types of drugs that may be used in the treatment of

cancer, including the rational for each.

Answer:

Treatment

Rationale

1

2

23. What is the most common form of skin cancer?

Answer:

Pathophysiology

Chapter 21: Congenital and Genetic Disorders

Study Guide/Review Questions

Name:

As you read through Chapter 21, answer the following questions and reupload

this answered worksheet to the drop box.

1. Define Congenital Defects/abnormalities.

2. Outline the etiology of chromosomal disorders.

3. Define teratogenic agents.

4. Differentiate between an inherited disorder and a chromosomal

disorder.

5. Name and briefly describe single-gene disorders.

6. Define monosomy.

7. Define Trisomy.

8. Explain what is meant by a multifactorial disorder. Identify several

examples.

9. Explain how maternal substance abuse might cause developmental

disorders, and identify the most critical time of embryonic development

for such efforts.

10. Explain how a congenital disorder might occur as a result of factors

during labor and delivery.

11. What is a significant risk factor for chromosomal disorders?

12. Explain the difference between the carrier of an infectious disease such

as hepatitis B and the carrier of genetic disorder.

13. In what type of inherited disorders is there a carrier state?

14. Is the genotype of a carrier heterozygous or homozygous? Does a

carrier of a genetic disorder usually become symptomatic?

15. Let â€œHâ€ represent an autosomal dominant disorder. Complete the

following Punnett square, and then answer the accompanying questions.

Father

H

h

h

Mother

h

i.

ii.

iii.

Which parent is affected by this

disorder? Father or Mother?

What is the probability that this

couple will produce a child with the

disorder?

What is the probability that this

couple will produce a child who is a

carrier of the disease? Explain?

i)

ii)

iii)

16. Let â€œHâ€ represent an autosomal dominant disorder. Complete the

following Punnett square, and then answer the accompanying questions.

Father

H

h

H

Mother

h

i.

ii.

Which parent is affected by this

disorder? Father or Mother?

What is the probability that this

couple will produce a child with the

disease?

i)

ii)

17. Let â€œtâ€ represent an autosomal recessive disorder. Complete the

following Punnett square, and then answer the accompanying questions.

Father

T

T

T

Mother

t

i.

ii.

iii.

Which parent is affected by this

disorder? Father or Mother?

Which parent is a carrier of this

disorder?

Which parent is asymptomatic in

relation to this disorder?

i)

ii)

iii)

iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

What is the probability that this

couple will produce a child with the

disorder?

What is the probability that this

couple will produce a child who is a

carrier of the disorder?

What is the probability that this

couple will produce a child who is

phenotypically normal?

What is the probability that this

couple will produce a child who is

not a carrier?

iv)

v)

vi)

vii)

18. Let â€œtâ€ represent an autosomal recessive disorder. Complete the

following Punnett square, and then answer the accompanying questions.

Father

T

t

T

Mother

t

A. Which parent is affected by this

disorder? Father or Mother?

B. Which parent is a carrier of this

disorder?

C. Which parent is asymptomatic in

relation to this disorder?

D. What is the probability that this couple

will produce a child with the disorder?

E. What is the probability that this couple

will produce a child who is a carrier of

the disorder?

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

F. What is the probability that this couple

will produce a child who is

phenotypically normal?

G. What is the probability that this couple

will produce a child who is not a

carrier?

f.

g.

19. Let â€œtâ€ represent an autosomal recessive disorder. Complete the

following Punnett square, and then answer the accompanying questions.

Father

t

t

T

Mother

t

A. Which parent is affected by this

disorder? Father or Mother?

B. Which parent is a carrier of this

disorder?

C. Which parent is asymptomatic in

relation to this disorder?

D. What is the probability that this couple

will produce a child with the disorder?

E. What is the probability that this couple

will produce a child who is a carrier of

the disorder?

F. What is the probability that this couple

will produce a child who is

phenotypically normal?

G. What is the probability that this couple

will produce a child who is not a

carrier?

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

20. A newborn is diagnosed with PKU (phenylketonuria) an autosomal

recessive disorder. Neither of his parents have this disease. Answer the

following questions.

A. What is the babyâ€™s genotype?

B. Which parent is a carrier of PKU?

C. If this couple has a second child, what

is the probability that he or she will

also have PKU?

D. What is the probability that any of the

babyâ€™s siblings will be carriers of PKU?

a.

b.

c.

d.

21. Let â€œtâ€ represent an autosomal recessive disorder. Complete the

following Punnett square, and then answer the accompanying questions.

Father

t

t

t

Mother

t

C. Which parent is affected by this

disorder? Father or Mother?

D. Which parent is a carrier of this

disorder?

H. Which parent is asymptomatic in

relation to this disorder?

I. What is the probability that this couple

will produce a child with the disorder?

J. What is the probability that this couple

will produce a child who is a carrier of

the disorder?

h.

i.

j.

k.

l.

K. What is the probability that this couple

will produce a child who is

phenotypically normal?

L. What is the probability that this couple

will produce a child who is not a

carrier?

m.

n.

22. How could a female individual have a sex-linked disorder?

23. A boy is diagnosed with Duchenneâ€™s muscular dystrophy, a sex-linked

disorder. Neither of his parents have this disease. Answer the following

questions:

A. What is the childâ€™s genotype?

B. Which parent is the carrier?

C. If this couple has a 2nd child what is the

probability that he or she will also have

cystic fibrosis?

D. If the child does have a sibling with

muscular dystrophy, will it be a brother

or sister?

E. What is the probability that any of the

childâ€™s siblings will be carriers of cystic

fibrosis? Will the carriers be male or

female?

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

24. List the following genetic disorders under the appropriate classification.

a. Fragile X syndrome

d. Familial

hypercholesterolemia

g. Sickle cell anemia

j. Phenylketonuria

m. Schizophrenia

b. Cystic

fibrosis

e. Duchenne

muscular

dystrophy

h. Hemophilia A

k. Huntington

Disease

n. Cleft lip and

palate

c. Adult polycystic

kidney disease.

f. Duchenne

muscular

dystrophy

i. Klinefelter

syndrome

l. Tay-Sachs disease

o. Turner syndrome

Put the letter below in the right category:

Chromosomal Autosomal Autosomal x-linked

X-linked Multifactorial

dominant recessive dominant recessive

25. What type of disorder is Down Syndrome?

26. How can Down Syndrome be diagnosed prenatally?

27. What is the karyotype of an individual with Down Syndrome?

28. Outline the abnormalities or problems associated with Down

Syndrome?

29. Describe the characteristic appearance of an individual with Down

Syndrome.

Pathophysiology

Chapter 24: Complications of Aging

Study Guide/Review Questions

Name:

As you read through Chapter 24, answer the following questions and reupload

this answered worksheet to the drop box.

1. Several different theories of aging are discussed in the literature, and

most likely many factors contribute to the aging process. Name 3

theories/ factors discussed in the text.

Answer:

2. Describe the effects of aging on the following body systems:

Term Answer

A. Endocrine

B. Reproductive

(male and

female)

C. Skin and

Mucosa

D. Cardiovascular

E. Musculoskeletal

F. Respiratory

G. Nervous

H. Gastrointestinal

Definition

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

I. Urinary

i.

3. Explain why elderly individuals are at a higher risk for both infections

and cancer than are younger individuals.

Answer:

4. Match the following definitions with the correct terms:

Answer:

1. Inability to control

urination

2. Farsightedness

3. Predetermined cell death

4. Excessive urination at

night.

5. Opacity of the ocular lens

6. Deposition of fat in

arterial walls.

7. Dry mouth

8. Increased intraocular

pressure.

a. Atherosclerosis

b. Cataract

c. Apoptosis

d. glaucoma

e. incontinence

f. nocturia

g. presbyopia

h. xerostomia

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