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Pathophysiology
Chapter 20: Neoplasms and Cancer
Study Guide/Review Questions
Name:
As you read through Chapter 20, answer the following questions and reupload
this answered worksheet to the drop box.
1. Tell me the term to the following Definition.
Term
Answer
Neoplasm
or tumor
Benign
malignant
carcinoma
sarcoma
anaplasia
Definition
A. ____ is a tumor, cellular growth that is no longer
responding to normal body controls.
B. ____ is a tumor of differentiated cells that reproduce at
higher-than-normal rate but do not spread.
C. ____ is a tumor of undifferentiated, nonfunctional cells
that reproduce rapidly, infiltrate surrounding areas, and
may spread by metastases to other organs and tissues.
D. ____ is a malignant tumor of epithelial tissue.
E. ____ is a malignant tumor of connective tissue.
F. ____is a growth of undifferentiated cells of varying size
and shape
2. Name 3 specific pathophysiologic changes that occur in the formation of
malignant tumors.
Answer:
1
2
3
3. Identify the correct nomenclature for both benign and malignant tumors
in the following tissues/organs
Answer:
Tissues / Organs
Benign Tumor
Malignant Tumor
a. Pancreas
b. Fat
c. Bone
d. Liver
e. Cartilage
f. Skin
4. Compare and contrast benign and malignant tumors using the following
chart:
Answer:
Benign Tumor
Malignant Tumor
a. Cells
b. Growth
c. Spread
d. Systemic
effects
e. General
prognosis
5. Identify the warning signs of cancer.
Answer:
6. A tumor is a space-occupying mass that produces predictable local
effects as it enlarges. Describe the consequences that could result from
the following effects:
Answer:
Effects
Consequences
1 Compression of Blood
Vessels
2 Compression or
obstruction of a tube or
duct
3 Compression of nerves
4 Erosion of blood vessels
and other structures
5 Invasion and replacement
of normal tissue
7. Malignant tumors also have generalized systemic effects. Outline the
factors that contribute to the development of the following systemic
manifestations.
Answer:
Systemic manifestations
Factors that contribute to the
development of the following systemic
manifestations:
1 Weight loss and cachexia:
2
3
4
Anemia:
Systemic Infections:
Bleeding
8. Define and describe paraneoplastic syndrome.
Answer:
9. Explain how the following diagnostic tools can assist in the detection and
diagnosis of cancer:
Answer:
Diagnostic Tools
How?
1 Blood Tests
2
Tumor markers
3
X-Ray, ultrasound, MRI,
and CT or CAT scan:
Biopsy and histologic
and cytologic
examinations:
4
10. Describe how malignant cells spread from the original tumor to distant
sites in the body. What is this called?
Answer:
11. Distinguish between the grading and staging of neoplasms.
Answer:
12. Differentiate between an initiating factor and a promoter in relation to
carcinogenesis.
Answer:
13. Identify 8 risk factors for developing cancer and include at least one
example of each.
Answer:
Risk Factor
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
14. Explain why individuals who have incompetent immune systems are at a
higher risk for developing malignancies.
Answer:
15. Identify the 4 conventional treatment measures employed in the
treatment of cancer.
Answer:
Conventional Treatment measure employed in the treatment of
cancer:
1
2
3
4
16. Treatment for cancer may be curative, palliative, or prophylactic.
Explain the circumstances when each of these treatments may be used.
Answer:
Treatment Circumstances when this treatment may be used.
1
Curative
2
Palliative
3 Prophylactic
17. Explain how radiotherapy is effective in treating some types of cancer.
Answer:
18. Identify the mechanisms of action of antineoplastic medications.
Answer:
19. Identify adverse effects that commonly occur during both radio therapy
and chemotherapy and explain why they happen.
Answer:
20. What is a biologic response modifier? How are these agents useful in
the treatment of some types of cancer?
Answer:
21. Explain the 3 potential goals of gene therapy in the treatment of cancer.
Answer:
3 Potential goals of gene therapy in the treatment of cancer.
1
2
3
22. Identify 2 other types of drugs that may be used in the treatment of
cancer, including the rational for each.
Answer:
Treatment
Rationale
1
2
23. What is the most common form of skin cancer?
Answer:
Pathophysiology
Chapter 21: Congenital and Genetic Disorders
Study Guide/Review Questions
Name:
As you read through Chapter 21, answer the following questions and reupload
this answered worksheet to the drop box.
1. Define Congenital Defects/abnormalities.
2. Outline the etiology of chromosomal disorders.
3. Define teratogenic agents.
4. Differentiate between an inherited disorder and a chromosomal
disorder.
5. Name and briefly describe single-gene disorders.
6. Define monosomy.
7. Define Trisomy.
8. Explain what is meant by a multifactorial disorder. Identify several
examples.
9. Explain how maternal substance abuse might cause developmental
disorders, and identify the most critical time of embryonic development
for such efforts.
10. Explain how a congenital disorder might occur as a result of factors
during labor and delivery.
11. What is a significant risk factor for chromosomal disorders?
12. Explain the difference between the carrier of an infectious disease such
as hepatitis B and the carrier of genetic disorder.
13. In what type of inherited disorders is there a carrier state?
14. Is the genotype of a carrier heterozygous or homozygous? Does a
carrier of a genetic disorder usually become symptomatic?
15. Let “H” represent an autosomal dominant disorder. Complete the
following Punnett square, and then answer the accompanying questions.
Father
H
h
h
Mother
h
i.
ii.
iii.
Which parent is affected by this
disorder? Father or Mother?
What is the probability that this
couple will produce a child with the
disorder?
What is the probability that this
couple will produce a child who is a
carrier of the disease? Explain?
i)
ii)
iii)
16. Let “H” represent an autosomal dominant disorder. Complete the
following Punnett square, and then answer the accompanying questions.
Father
H
h
H
Mother
h
i.
ii.
Which parent is affected by this
disorder? Father or Mother?
What is the probability that this
couple will produce a child with the
disease?
i)
ii)
17. Let “t” represent an autosomal recessive disorder. Complete the
following Punnett square, and then answer the accompanying questions.
Father
T
T
T
Mother
t
i.
ii.
iii.
Which parent is affected by this
disorder? Father or Mother?
Which parent is a carrier of this
disorder?
Which parent is asymptomatic in
relation to this disorder?
i)
ii)
iii)
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
What is the probability that this
couple will produce a child with the
disorder?
What is the probability that this
couple will produce a child who is a
carrier of the disorder?
What is the probability that this
couple will produce a child who is
phenotypically normal?
What is the probability that this
couple will produce a child who is
not a carrier?
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
18. Let “t” represent an autosomal recessive disorder. Complete the
following Punnett square, and then answer the accompanying questions.
Father
T
t
T
Mother
t
A. Which parent is affected by this
disorder? Father or Mother?
B. Which parent is a carrier of this
disorder?
C. Which parent is asymptomatic in
relation to this disorder?
D. What is the probability that this couple
will produce a child with the disorder?
E. What is the probability that this couple
will produce a child who is a carrier of
the disorder?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
F. What is the probability that this couple
will produce a child who is
phenotypically normal?
G. What is the probability that this couple
will produce a child who is not a
carrier?
f.
g.
19. Let “t” represent an autosomal recessive disorder. Complete the
following Punnett square, and then answer the accompanying questions.
Father
t
t
T
Mother
t
A. Which parent is affected by this
disorder? Father or Mother?
B. Which parent is a carrier of this
disorder?
C. Which parent is asymptomatic in
relation to this disorder?
D. What is the probability that this couple
will produce a child with the disorder?
E. What is the probability that this couple
will produce a child who is a carrier of
the disorder?
F. What is the probability that this couple
will produce a child who is
phenotypically normal?
G. What is the probability that this couple
will produce a child who is not a
carrier?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
20. A newborn is diagnosed with PKU (phenylketonuria) an autosomal
recessive disorder. Neither of his parents have this disease. Answer the
following questions.
A. What is the baby’s genotype?
B. Which parent is a carrier of PKU?
C. If this couple has a second child, what
is the probability that he or she will
also have PKU?
D. What is the probability that any of the
baby’s siblings will be carriers of PKU?
a.
b.
c.
d.
21. Let “t” represent an autosomal recessive disorder. Complete the
following Punnett square, and then answer the accompanying questions.
Father
t
t
t
Mother
t
C. Which parent is affected by this
disorder? Father or Mother?
D. Which parent is a carrier of this
disorder?
H. Which parent is asymptomatic in
relation to this disorder?
I. What is the probability that this couple
will produce a child with the disorder?
J. What is the probability that this couple
will produce a child who is a carrier of
the disorder?
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
K. What is the probability that this couple
will produce a child who is
phenotypically normal?
L. What is the probability that this couple
will produce a child who is not a
carrier?
m.
n.
22. How could a female individual have a sex-linked disorder?
23. A boy is diagnosed with Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy, a sex-linked
disorder. Neither of his parents have this disease. Answer the following
questions:
A. What is the child’s genotype?
B. Which parent is the carrier?
C. If this couple has a 2nd child what is the
probability that he or she will also have
cystic fibrosis?
D. If the child does have a sibling with
muscular dystrophy, will it be a brother
or sister?
E. What is the probability that any of the
child’s siblings will be carriers of cystic
fibrosis? Will the carriers be male or
female?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
24. List the following genetic disorders under the appropriate classification.
a. Fragile X syndrome
d. Familial
hypercholesterolemia
g. Sickle cell anemia
j. Phenylketonuria
m. Schizophrenia
b. Cystic
fibrosis
e. Duchenne
muscular
dystrophy
h. Hemophilia A
k. Huntington
Disease
n. Cleft lip and
palate
c. Adult polycystic
kidney disease.
f. Duchenne
muscular
dystrophy
i. Klinefelter
syndrome
l. Tay-Sachs disease
o. Turner syndrome
Put the letter below in the right category:
Chromosomal Autosomal Autosomal x-linked
X-linked Multifactorial
dominant recessive dominant recessive
25. What type of disorder is Down Syndrome?
26. How can Down Syndrome be diagnosed prenatally?
27. What is the karyotype of an individual with Down Syndrome?
28. Outline the abnormalities or problems associated with Down
Syndrome?
29. Describe the characteristic appearance of an individual with Down
Syndrome.
Pathophysiology
Chapter 24: Complications of Aging
Study Guide/Review Questions
Name:
As you read through Chapter 24, answer the following questions and reupload
this answered worksheet to the drop box.
1. Several different theories of aging are discussed in the literature, and
most likely many factors contribute to the aging process. Name 3
theories/ factors discussed in the text.
Answer:
2. Describe the effects of aging on the following body systems:
Term Answer
A. Endocrine
B. Reproductive
(male and
female)
C. Skin and
Mucosa
D. Cardiovascular
E. Musculoskeletal
F. Respiratory
G. Nervous
H. Gastrointestinal
Definition
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
I. Urinary
i.
3. Explain why elderly individuals are at a higher risk for both infections
and cancer than are younger individuals.
Answer:
4. Match the following definitions with the correct terms:
Answer:
1. Inability to control
urination
2. Farsightedness
3. Predetermined cell death
4. Excessive urination at
night.
5. Opacity of the ocular lens
6. Deposition of fat in
arterial walls.
7. Dry mouth
8. Increased intraocular
pressure.
a. Atherosclerosis
b. Cataract
c. Apoptosis
d. glaucoma
e. incontinence
f. nocturia
g. presbyopia
h. xerostomia

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