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Directions: (Be sure to review Guidelines for writing a scientific paper)

1. In the Cardiac Physiology section of your Study Guide, access the article ”

Ch 1. Cardiovascular System

“.

2. Download the above link. This is a worksheet that accompanies the Cardiovascular System article.

3. As you read the article, complete the worksheet.

Use correct spelling, grammar, sentence structure

Accurate, thorough discussion of answers.

Use accurate physiology terms.

ONLY the article in completing answers.

Pay particular attention to answering 4b in accurately and thoroughly answering this question.

Put your name and lab day on the worksheet

4. Save your worksheeet as a doc, docx or pdf. No screenshots.

5. Upload your saved worksheet file.

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
READING ASSIGNMENT AND WORKSHEET
DIRECTIONS:
For homework, read the article entitled Chapter 1. The Cardiovascular System. To serve as a guide for
identifying key concepts in this article, complete the questions on this worksheet. Some of these
questions will be on the Cardiovascular Lecture Exam.
1. ANATOMICAL OVERVIEW
a. What happens during Systole?
b. What happens during Diastole?
2. HEART FAILURE
Overview:
a. What does a decrease in forward blood flow in Left heart failure cause?
b. What does an increase backup of blood flow in Left heart failure cause?
c. What does right heart failure cause?
3. LEFT HEART FAILURE:
a. What does “congestion” of congestive heart failure refer to?
b. What signs and symptoms of CHF would be found on physical exam?
1
4. RIGHT HEART FAILURE
a. What is pulmonary hypertension?
b. Describe how Left heart failure causes pulmonary hypertension and subsequent right heart failure.
BE SURE TO INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING IN YOUR DISCUSSION:
• Afterload: what is causing an increase in afterload and why this is causing left heart failure?
• Preload: what is causing an increase in preload?
• What is causing an increase in hydrostatic pressure across the respiratory membrane?
• Which Starling Forces are increasing Filtration?
• How is Left heart failure causing right heart failure
c. In Right heart failure, blood backs up into the superior and inferior ________________ causing an
elevated ______________________________. It also backs up into liver, abdomen and causes
__________________________________________________________________
5. SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF HEART FAILURE
a. List some symptoms and signs caused by poor forward blood flow in a patient with heart failure.
b. Describe etiology and symptoms of Orthopnea?
c. Describe etiology and symptoms of Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea?
6. PRELOAD AND AFTERLOAD
a. What is preload?
b. What is Afterload?
2
7. TREATMENT OF HEART FAILURE
Treatment is based on the etiology of heart failure. Heart failure is due to a decrease in forward blood
flow and an increase in backflow of blood. Therefore the goal of treatment is to increase forward flow
by increasing cardiac output and decrease backflow of blood by decreasing how hard the heart works.
a. Medications would be given to increase forward flow by increasing cardiac output
(NOTE: cardiac output = Heart rate x Stroke volume)
•
Decrease heart rate to increasing filling time with
________________________________________________________________________
•
Increase stroke volume or the force of ventricular contraction (stroke volume is the volume of
blood pumped/beat) with
_______________________________________________________________________________
b. Medications would also be given to decrease backflow by decreasing hearts work. The heart has to
pump preload against an afterload. To make this job easier, decrease preload and decrease afterload.
•
Which medications decrease preload? Discuss how these medications decrease preload.
•
Which medications decrease afterload? Discuss how these medications decrease afterload.
8. THE KIDNEYS IN HEART FAILURE
Weak heart decreases kidney perfusion which stimulates the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
(RAAS) A weak heart also decreases blood volume which stimulates the release of Antidiuretic
Hormone. How does the RAAS and ADH make the weak heart work HARDER?
3
Discuss the mechanism of action of the following medications:
a. ACE inhibitors
b. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBS)
c. Aldosterone receptor blocker such as spironolactone.
9. FOUR COMPONENTS OF HEART AND THEIR DISEASES
What are the four components of the heart that, if impeded, will cause heart failure?
10. DISEASES OF HEART MUSCLE
a.
What is Cardiac hypertrophy?
b. What is diastolic dysfunction and how does it affect the heart muscle?
c. How does hypertension cause left ventricular hypertrophy?
d. How does pulmonary hypertension and/or pulmonary semilunar valve cause right ventricular
hypertrophy?
4
e. What is cor pulmonale?
f. Discuss the etiology of ischemia?
g. Discuss the treatment for diastolic dysfunction?
h. Define cardiac dilatation.
i. Define systolic dysfunction.
j. How does cardiac dilatation cause systolic dysfunction?
k. List several causes of cardiac dilatation:
l. The treatment for systolic dysfunction is to increase forward flow and decrease backup. Which
medications would you give to meet these goals?
5
Heart Failure Worksheet
Criteria
Ratings
Pts
COMPLETION
Followed directions in
completing and submitting
assignment
1 pts
Full Marks
Uploaded typed file submitted on time
O pts
No Marks
Failed to upload file, type assignment and/or meet deadline
1 pts
WRITING &
ORGANIZATION
Clear organization and
discussion of answers.
Accurate spelling, grammar
and physiologic
terminology
2 pts
Full Marks
Writing & Organization: All answers are clearly organized and
discussed using accurate spelling, grammar and physiologic
terminology. All answers are clear and understandable
O pts
Needs Work
Writing & Organization: some answers are poorly organized with unclear discussion making it
difficult to assess understanding of material. Some spelling or grammar mistakes. Failure to use or
inaccurate use of appropriate physiology terminology.
2 pts
17 pts
APPLICATION &
ACCURACY
Demonstrates solid
understanding of the major
concepts of the reading
assignment
Uses critical thinking to
accurately and thoroughly
answer questions.
Uses information from
reading assignment (Not
outside reference) in
answering questions
Full Marks
Accuracy & Application: Demonstrates solid understanding of material using critical thinking to
accurately and thoroughly answer questions. Uses Information from reading assignment (Not
outside reference) in answering questions. Answers are thorough, accurate (Especially Question
4b) and are in reference to material in the reading assignment (not outside references)All questions
are answers are accurate and based on information presented in the Heart Failure Article
15 pts
Reduced Points
Accuracy & Application: Less than 3
inaccurate and/or unclear answers.
Question 4b thoroughly and
accurately answered. Answers are
based on information presented in the
Heart Failure Article
8 pts
Needs Work
Application & Accuracy: 4 or
more questions are incorrect
OR Answer to 4b is incorrect
OR Does not use Heart
Failure article in answering
questions
17 pts
Answers are thorough,
accurate (Especially
Question 4b) and are in
reference to material in the
reading assignment (not
outside references)
Total Points: 20

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