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(1) On a field trip, a student in a marine biology class collects an organism that has differentiated
organs, cell walls of cellulose, and chloroplasts with chlorophyll a. Based on this description, the
organism could be a brown alga, a red alga, a green alga, a charophyte recently washed into the
ocean from a freshwater or brackish water source, or a land plant washed into the ocean. The
presence of which of the following features would definitively identify this organism as a land
plant? (1point) What is an adaptive advantage of having this trait as a land plant? (2points)
A) sporopollenin
B) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes
C) flagellated sperm
D) embryos
(2) Describe which taxon is essentially equivalent to the “embryophytes”? (3points)
(3) Describe four (4) challenges for survival that the first land plants may have had. (2points
each; =8points)
(4) Fossil fungi date back to the origin and early evolution of plants. What combination of
environmental and morphological change is similar in the evolution of both fungi and plants?
(4points)
Use the following figure of the generalized life cycle for land plants to answer questions 5-9.
(2points each question)
(5) In the figure, which structure produces haploid gametes by mitosis?
(6) In the figure, which structure produces haploid spores by meiosis?
(7) Meiosis, as part of the alternation of generations in land plants, produces _________.
(8) What describes the product of when a zygote completes mitosis?
(9) In the figure, which processes may result in haploid structures during the generalized life
cycle for land plants?
(10) Describe which of the plant organs plays a pivotal role on dissipating heat? (3points)
(11) Suppose George Washington completely removed the bark from around the base of a cherry
tree but was stopped by his father before cutting the tree down. The leaves retained their normal
appearance for several weeks, but the tree eventually died. The tissue(s) that George left
functional was/were the __________. (3points)
(12) As a youngster, you drive a nail in the trunk of a young tree that is 3 meters tall. The nail is
about 1.5 meters from the ground. Fifteen years later, you return and discover that the tree has
grown to a height of 30 meters. About how many meters above the ground is the nail? (3points)
Figure for Questions 13 and 14.
(13) Which of the figures above represents a monocot stem. (3points)
(14) Which of the illustrations in the above figure represents a plant that is at least 3 years old.
(3points)
(15) What is the fate of a flaccid cell in pure water with zero water potential? (3points)
(16) Why does photosynthesis begin to decline when leaves wilt? (3points)
Please use the following information to answer the questions 17-20 below.
Fairy rings are circles of fungi that often appear in open meadows and in forest areas. In the soil
beneath the fungi is an ever-extending mycelium. As the mycelium spreads to seek more food, it
sometimes will produce the fungi we see above ground. The figure depicts the outline of a fairy
ring that has appeared overnight in an open meadow, as viewed from above. The ring represents
the farthest advance of this mycelium through the soil. Locations A—D are all 0.5 meters below
the soil surface.
(17) What is the most probable location of the oldest portion of this mycelium? (3points)
(18) Which location is nearest to basidiocarps? (3points)
(19) At which location should one find the lowest concentration of fungal enzymes, assuming
that the enzymes do not diffuse far from their source and that no other fungi are present in this
habitat? (3points)
(20) All four locations are 0.5 m below the surface. On a breezy day with prevailing winds
blowing from left to right, where should one expect to find the highest concentration of free
basidiospores in an air sample? (3points)
(21) Describe what could be considered an evolutionary advantage of asexual reproduction in
plants? (3points)
(22) Describe four (4) adaptations in plants to life on land. (2points each adaptation; =8points)
(23) In the process of evolution of the life cycle in plants, describe what have happened to the
size and the physiology of the gametophyte. (3points)
The ________ in the life cycle became reduced in size and completely dependent on ________
for nutrients.
(24) Under the same environmental conditions, describe how the amount of water lost through
the stomata of a leaf is regulated. (3points)
(25) Describe the form and function of the plasmodesmata. (3points)
(26) In west Texas, cotton has become an important crop in the last several decades. However, in
this hot, dry part of the country there is little rainfall, so farmers irrigate their cotton fields. They
must also regularly fertilize the cotton fields because the soil is very sandy. The figure below
shows the record of annual productivity (measured in kilograms of cotton per hectare of land)
since 1960 in a west Texas cotton field. If you were the county agriculture agent, what would be
the best advice you could give the farmer who owns the field under study. (3points)
(27) Describe a consequence of the mitotic activity by the apical meristem of a root. (3points)

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