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Instructions: You are going to peer-review two rough drafts I have attached down below as PDFs.

Your peer-reviews should consider paper organization (logical sections/paragraphs, similar ideas concentrated to proper sections and not scattered throughout the paper, etc.), coverage of the topic (does paper stay focused on key issues), quality of analysis (are insights, conclusions, recommendations, opinions supported with source contents (stuff that should be cited), and so on.

Market manipulation rough draft
Topic of essay- Capitalism in it’s entirety, was not created to benefit everyone. It was created to
benefit those with expendable capital, resources and power. With the gamestop short squeeze, the
democratization of financial instruments, and a rise of industry ceo’s as influencers (different
from warren buffet’s class of investor influencer) we are seeing a small shift in power towards
the individual. But in order for us to beat an unequal system, we must seize the means of
production by investing in companies that we care for and want to grow, rather than out of spite
towards the financial markets. We should not perpetuate the vices of older markets and unfair
systems to benefit- rather we must redefine what benefit is.
Point number 1: there has never been such a thing as a free market. It is a myth- historical
evidence shows that capitalism was born out of imperialism/settler colonialism and the stripping
of resources from the new world. Corporations used government contracts and funding to expand
into territories with violence and war, set up governing structures which solidified monopolies of
trade routes, and extracted gold, silver, spices, tobacco, cotton, and coffee from the new world.
They used that money to create factory system in the mother country, and only survived due to
monopoly systems of trade that forced all imperial territories to buy and sell only their goods.
This led to a surge in industry which benefited the rich business class investors
Point number 2- Small-time investors have a very important benefit from the age of information,
and the largely democratized version of investing created by apps like Robinhood. regular
people now have the ability to use their Collective power in order to manipulate markets towards
their benefit rather than that of the hedge funds. but what has happened with the short squeeze
created on Reddit and the subsequent rise of people like Elon Musk encouraging people to buy
certain stocks, is that this type of investment is happening just to make money. we are human
beings; we do not live in a vacuum and our actions have a social toll that we must pay. “the
consumer is not solely a consumer, they are also a member of their society so may well be impacted
by the competition in more than one way (i.e. they might benefit from a price cut as a consumer, but
lose their job as a result of the bigger corporation pushing their employer out of the market).” by
using strategies like the short squeeze to invest in companies that people do not care to build up,
we are actually playing in 2 strategy Big Time investors to Stamp Out competition by making
markets volatile. when markets become volatile the price of goods drops and Big Time investors
can shift into cheaper Investments that will make them more money. You must invest in things
that will benefit Society in the community as a whole. Take the case study of supermarkets“The facts bear this theory out. With the rise in ‘free market’ policies of the Thatcher and Reagan
governments in 1980’s US and UK, perhaps we would see a dramatic rise in competition? Surely
this new, free market would end monopolies and usher in a new era of dynamic, consumer
responsive businesses vying for attention.
Let us use food as a case study. In 1990, only 10-20 percent of global food retail was delivered by
supermarkets. Today, that figure has soared to 50-60 percent. That is, over half of all food sold in the
world, is sold through supermarkets.
The UK has lost 90% of its specialists food retailers – that is butchers, bakers and fisheries – since
the 1950’s. In Britain today, 97% of food purchased, is bought in supermarkets, with only four
corporations making up 76% of those sales. In the US, 72% of food is purchased in supermarkets.
As these figures continue an upward trend, we can see that monopolies are being created in food
production.
If we take a look and test the theory that the consumer would benefit from this process of corporate
battle, proponents of the idea point to the drop in the proportion of household budgets in developed
countries spent on food.
During the rise of the supermarket since the 1950s, the percentage of the US household budget
spent on food dropped from 32% to 7%. In the UK the proportion spent on food has dropped from
33% to 15%.
But, with supermarkets making record profits, and household food budgets down, who is paying the
price for our food?
The answer is the farmer and the environment. In Brazil, more than 75,000 farmers have been
delisted by the big supermarkets. Thailand’s top supermarket chain has carved its supplier list from
250 to just ten. The tiny country of Lesotho has actually all but killed off its domestic farming industry
with 99% ofits food purchased through supermarkets utilising foreign agri-business.”
(https://climateandcapitalism.com/2013/02/28/like-unicorns-the-free-market-is-a-myth/)
Point number 3- the stock market is the modern version of the earlier investment structure which
benefits from the same rules as the ones setup from its incipiency- to benefit those with
expendable capital while short changing everyone else. The game stop phenomenon is an age old
battle to pit normal people against those with unimaginable wealth and regulatory power. .
While this short market pump and dump happened, and small time investors won the battle,
ultimately, the war is still on going and will continue to become harder as hedge funds are able to
use their access to financial instruments, their years in the industry, and their close personal ties
with industry heads and government officials to create gains for themselves over the backs of
others.
We must band together and invest on principle, rather than profits to strengthen public good and
encourage small and midsized businesses to thrive.
Additional ideas/details
In many ways, the British East India Company (just The Company) pioneered capitalist
economics and modern corporate structures. Following the model of the Dutch East India
company, who financed their expeditions using Spanish silver from the Americas, plunged
themselves into the Indian ocean economy for spices from Southeast Asia. The plan was
inherently mercantilist; buy goods at cheap prices from Asia to sell at higher prices in the home
country while maintaining levels of precious metals for bartering. A triangular system was setup
where precious metals would finance investments that bought the spices, textiles, tea, or coffee.
Mercantilist strategy involved creating easy lanes of trade for their benefit; achieved through
monopolies and tariffs, both East India companies used the power of the state to secure
advantages.
The Dutch colonized the Spice Islands and controlled trade in the Indian Ocean through naval
superiority. Like the Dutch, the English created a joint-stock venture armed to the teeth to ensure
domination and safe trade. The British East India Company followed the Dutch by forcefully
capturing centers of trade in India, regulating armies, and establishing predatory market/trade
monopolies. This allowed for capital to flow into the hands of a new class of people to become
wealthy, converting many middle class folks into wealthy businessmen. The focus of the British
economy changed during the reign of the Company as their riches brought much political power,
forcing the enclosure movement to occur. The newly rich investors of the Company levied
parliament to privatize land, pushing peasants off pastures and subsistence farming and towards
wage labor in factories in urban centers. The bourgeoisie also had the chance to improve certain
technologies stolen from other places, like textile machines from India, and the ottoman
invention of the steam turbine from 1551, allowing for mechanization and the industrial
revolution to take place in England.
Today, these monopolies are created by the revolving doors of government power, the expansion
of private industry in government services, the rigging of tax laws with loopholes, and corporate
welfare. The market has always been dominated by certain industries and created negative social
impacts in pursuit of said profits. – so corporations are entities created for the sole purpose of
seeking profits. Inorder to maximize profits, they stamp out competition. Right now, hedge funds
are trying to stifle said competition.
Works Cited
Barrow, Ian, The East India Company, 1600-1858: A Short History with Documents (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing
Company, Inc., 2017). ISBN: 978-1-62466-596-7
Beckles, Hilary, McD, “Capitalism, Slavery and Caribbean Modernity,” Callaloo 20, no. 4 (Autumn 1997): 777-789.
Beckert, Sven, Empire of Cotton: A Global History (New York: Knopf, 2014). ISBN: 978-0-375-41414-5
Humphries, Jane, “Enclosures, Common Rights, and Women: The Proletarianization of Families in the Late Eighteenth
and Early Nineteenth Centuries,” The Journal of Economic History 50, no. 1 (1990): 17-42.
Marks, Robert B., The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Environmental Narrative from the Fifteenth to the
Twenty-First Century, 3rd ed. (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2015). ISBN:978-1-4422-1240-4
Vaping and Kids Nicotine Addiction
Teens now a days have adopted to the cessation tool known has e-cigarette as a form of activity
they believe is cool. E-cigarette also known as vaping, is a major concern not only in young
adults but also to everyone that consumes it. Nicotine can be so addictive even to those who have
never even smoked once in their lifetime. People that are heavily smokers for months even years
soon are diagnose with health problems concerning their respiratory system. Many smokers
believe that vaping could be an escape route for them because vaping is introduced as flavored
products with less nicotine than regular cigarettes. These flavor products are not only attractive
to adults, but to teens who are not ready to make right decisions on their own. Worldwide teens
are more addicted to vaping because they are unaware of the associated health dangers that
comes with smoking nicotine.
To address adolescents on vaping they need to know the danger of smoking nicotine which
effects the development of the brain. Their brains are not fully developed and yet advertisement
of vapes don’t inform the major risk of how dangerous nicotine really is. In the article
(Kozlowski) says e-cigarettes attract children who never would have become smokers, perhaps
because they view e-cigarettes as potentially fun. How would smoking be fun when teens should
know how dangerous nicotine is. The addiction of smoking is unreal and how accessible it has
become to young adults. Nicotine is so strong which is why teens should not be allowed to have
access to e-cigarettes and vaporizers.
Within the United States vaping has increased dramatically over the past decade and according to
the American Heart Association (AHA) they have released a statement calling on the federal
drug administration to take immediate action to strengthen its campaign against e-cigarettes.
Teens seems to be lured into vaping because they offer a variety of different flavored aerosols.
The marketing industry have made it appealing to young adults and easy for them to purchase.
Although they should be aware that there’s side effects with smoking. These side effects include
blood pressure, respiratory rate, and heart rate problems. Continuing use of nicotine effects the
development of the brain. However, some researchers have determined that e-cigarettes could
potentially be less harmful than regular tobacco products.
Nicotine is highly addictive and that is something adult smoker are well aware about. To attract
new customers nicotine have develop different kinds of flavors. They introduce different flavor
because teens believe they are just inhaling harmless flavor steam. However, flavor vaping also
has nicotine that can be addictive on the very first puff. Vaping is significantly a public health
concern that escalated more towards adolescent and young adults. The reason why young adult is
using vapes is because they are being utilized by smoke tricks. In the article Teen vaping time to
clear the air states that there is the potential risk of using tobacco.
How does addiction of nicotine occurred in our brains, well it is like a built-in reward system
when you do anything enjoyable. The brain releases a natural chemical called dopamine.
Nicotine takes advantage and releases an amount of dopamine which teens just love that feeling.
However, in the article how nicotine affects the teen brain states that they have found
conventional cigarettes and most vaping devices, nicotine to be highly addictive drug with many
health risks for teens. In long-term effects one may experience cravings, depression, anxiety, and
even problems focusing with sleep. Excessive amount of dopamine from nicotine can change
how the brain reacts. When this happens, a person may find the amount of dopamine given is
less and less which then might wonder why am I not feeling the same pleasure. Another thing
that nicotine can affect is self- control which might lead to learning difficulties.
Nicotine is something that everyone should be aware about because it is as addictive as alcohol.
To teens they believe it is something fun to do and probably think they are doing something cool.
In fact, vaping is the opposite, e-cigarettes not only harm the user but also harms the family
relationship with the user. On the bright side of this there are ways to avoid vaping teens can
always find hobbies to keep them entertain and avoid ever smoking in the first place. Overall, at
the end teens need to be inform of the side effects of smoking nicotine because maybe then
would they think twice before even smoking in the first place.
References
1. How Nicotine Affects the Brain. (2020). Science World, 77(4), 18–19.
2. Drug and alcohol dependence, 2017, Vol.174, p.209-214
3. Douglass, Brenda L ; Solecki, Susan
Contemporary pediatrics (Montvale, N.J.), 2017-08-01, Vol.34 (8), p.24
4. Allen, Sarah
Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2020-02-16
5. Beal, Judy A
MCN, the American journal of maternal child nursing, 2019-07, Vol.44 (4), p.235-235

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