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1. State your problem and key statistics or obstacles and cite (this usually comes from the mathematical).

2. State what you examined in the scientific study (no need to give results here) and cite (Author, Year).

3. State what you examined in the ethical study (no need to give results here) and cite (Author, Year).

4. State what you examined in the cultural study (no need to give results here) and cite (Author, Year).

5. State two solutions as a conclusion.

Health Effects of Vaping
Health Effects of Vaping
The use of vaping in the United States has increased significantly through the years. There are
numerous legal, regulations, and cultural issues surrounding vaping. Regulations by the federal and state
government have been made to combat the use of smoking vape by restricting the younger generation
from buying the product. This is due to the extensive amount of vape users in young adults. This can be
the leading cause of addiction and can harm cognitive development in teens. Other effects include the
risk in developing respiratory illness, heart diseases, and hypertension.
Campus et al. (2019)
E-cigarettes have been abused globally even though their long-term effects and effectiveness
compared to tobacco smoking are unknown. Campus et al. (2019) state numerous challenges faced by
the government in an attempt to regulate the use of vaping. The current regulations are based on health
protection, and the regulations that need to be imposed include prohibition, regulation of the use of
tobacco products, and a ban. The journal by Campus et al. (2019) is a credible source of references as it
contains numerous elements, including the author, the publisher, and references for the information
provided. The information on the regulation of vaping is crucial as it will help the government regulate
its use, especially among the youth.
Sindelar (2020)
According to Sindelar (2020), the government to combat the increased use of vaping has
enacted numerous policies. Sindelar (2020) states that vaping was legalized to help chronic
smokers to move away from harmful combustible cigarettes. This product has been legalized in
many states in the United States. However, most states are working towards reducing the use of
vaping among children, such as restricting the age allowed to buy vaping products to 18 or 19.
The journal by Sindelar (2020) is a credible source of references as it contains numerous
elements, including the author, the publisher, and references for the information provided, which
is current. The information on the legal issues affecting vaping helps bar young people from
purchasing vaping products before the legal age.
Wang et al. (2019)
Wang et al., 2019 investigate the relationship between acculturation and e-cigarette use
among immigrants using the 2016-2017 National Health Interview Survey. Wang et al. (2019)
explain that high proficiency increases the odds of ever using e-cigarettes among immigrants.
Numerous cultures promote the intake of vaping, while others are against it. The journal by
Sindelar (2020) is a credible source of references as it contains numerous elements, including the
author, the publisher, and references for the information provided, which is current. The
information on the cultural issues that affect vaping is crucial as it provides an understanding of
different cultures and their perspective on vaping.
Vaping has numerous health effects on the human body. Although the long-term effects
are unknown, the short-term effects have proven that vaping can be detrimental to people’s
health. The government should strengthen the laws that protect people, especially young
individuals, from the use of vaping, including the ban on vaping. The Tobacco 21 legislation in
2019 requires that individuals be twenty-one years and above to be allowed to purchase tobacco
products, including e-cigarettes. This is crucial, as it will limit the accessibility of vaping
products to young people.
Campus, B., Fafard, P., St. Pierre, J., & Hoffman, S. J. (2021). Comparing the regulation and
incentivization of e-cigarettes across 97 countries. Social Science & Medicine, 291,
114187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114187
Sindelar, J. L. (2020). Regulating vaping — Policies, possibilities, and perils. New England
Journal of Medicine, 382(20), e54. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmp1917065
Wang, Y., Laestadius, L., Stimpson, J. P., & Wilson, F. A. (2019). Association between Ecigarette use and acculturation among adult immigrants in the United States. Substance
Abuse: Research and Treatment, 13,
117822181985508. https://doi.org/10.1177/1178221819855086
Health Effects of Vaping
Health Effects of Vaping
What are the anatomical, physiological, pathological, or epidemiological issues?
Vaping is a behavior that numerous people have adopted. This is because the companies that
produce them market them as the safer alternatives to tobacco making (Ebersole et al., 2020).
They argue that vaping helps in the cessation of tobacco smoking and has a better appearance
than flavored products making it look more attractive. Other reasons people like vaping are
that it is seen as a social activity, the feeling after the vaping, an addiction, and an attempt to
quit regular cigarettes (Ebersole et al., 2020). Numerous anatomical, physiological,
pathological, or epidemiological issues are associated with the use of vaping. There is statics
that is provided with the use of vaping, and the statics include age, location, and the state.
Research has shown that vaping has a bigger impact on teenagers compared to adults.
The anatomical organs that are affected by the use of vaping include the brain, skin,
nose, eyes and the, throat, lungs, heart, kidneys, and liver. Vaping affects the brain’s normal
functioning, leading to mental health issues (Marques et al., 2021). It affects the synapses and
changes the way they are formed. In normal cases, when the action potential is fired on the
neuron, the presynaptic membrane releases the neurotransmitter that acts on the postsynaptic
membrane. Once the action potential is over, the neurotransmitter is reabsorbed back to the
presynaptic membrane (Marques et al., 2021). Vaping causes the chemical components to
bind to the receptors of the neurotransmitters, increasing their concentration at the synaptic
cleft, which stimulates the postsynaptic receptors for a longer time.
There are numerous pathological issues associated with vaping. They include both
short-term and long-term effects. Vaping affects numerous body systems, including the
circulatory system, integumentary system, respiratory system, endocrine system, and nervous
system (Seiler-Ramadas et al., 2020). The brain continues to grow from childhood up to the
age of twenty-five. Vaping in teenagehood and early adulthood permanently damages the
brain that controls essential the brain that controls attention, learning, mood, and impulse
control. In the respiratory system, nicotine affects the lungs, and the flavoring components in
the vape, such as diacetyl, permanently cause lung injury. The cells of the lungs are also
damaged by vaping, which increases lung inflammation. The epithelial cells can also be
affected by the chemical products from the vape leading to alteration in the structure and
functions of some organs. Exposure to formaldehyde over a long time can cause lung cancer
(Seiler-Ramadas et al., 2020). The breathing in of the ultrafine vapor particles can lead to
asthma attacks which may cause symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty
breathing. In the circulatory system, the build, up of chemicals in the heart can damage the
heart. It also affects the blood cells known as the neutrophils. This makes the individuals that
vape susceptible to increased severity of infections.
In the nervous system, the build-up of chemicals in the lungs can cause damage to the
brain, which can cause severe headaches and hallucinations. The neural stem cells are further
affected by vaping, and the stem cells are critical in the brain. (Seiler-Ramadas et al., 2020).
In the endocrine system at the cellular level, the components contained in the vape damage
the vital immune cells. In the integumentary system, the exploding batteries have caused
serious burns and even death. Other systems that are affected include the nose, mouth, and
throat. Some of the volatile compounds contained in the vape can cause eye, nose, and throat
irritation. Formaldehyde also irritates the eyes, nose, and throat (Seiler-Ramadas et al., 2020).
Vaping is associated with health conditions that include high blood pressure, pulmonary
diseases, asthma, and atherosclerosis. It can affect the DNA leading to cancer. At the DNA
level, vaping causes a change in the DNA which can lead to diseases and cancers in the lungs
and other parts of the body.
It is estimated that there are high numbers of individuals who vape, and the epidemiological
data shows five million middle and high school vaped last year. There is an increase in the
popularity of vaping every year, which is disturbing as most of the vape population includes
teens, adolescents, and young adults (Jerzyński e al., 2021).
Which statistical processes used to study the issue provide the best explanation or
According to static data, it has been estimated that one in twenty Americans vape one out of
three vapes daily. In one week, 8% of Americans report having used vaping products. There
is a decrease in tobacco use by about 68% among adults (Jerzyński e al., 2021). Numerous
individuals can be found puffing on the street and with clouds of flavored vapor. In 2018, 9%
of American adults agreed to occasionally or regularly vape. In the united states, 27.5% of the
high school students admitted to using a vape. According to a study by the United States
Food and Drug Administration conducted in 2019, about five million middle and high school
students have used e-cigarettes in the last thirty years (Jerzyński e al., 2021). The same study
concluded that about one million youth use e-cigarettes daily, and more than 1.6 million
youth use the products more than twenty times a week.
According to the world health organization, the number of people using e-cigarettes in 2011
was seven million; by 2018, the number had increased to forty-one million. An estimation
was made for the year 2021 the number had increased to fifty-five million users. The sales of
vaping products worldwide increased to 15.7 billion U.S dollars in 2018, and there is an
estimation that the sales with an increase to forty billion by 2023 (Jerzyński e al., 2021). The
major markets for vaping products include the United States, Japan, and the United Kingdom.
In the United States, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Nevada, Ohio, and Kentucky have more
individuals using e-cigarettes. The states with lower e-cigarette usage numbers include South
Dakota, Maryland, California, and Vermont (Jerzyński e al., 2021).
In accordance with age, 20% of the Americans aged between 18-19 use vape products which
is a higher number compared to those aged between 30 to 64, which is at 16%, and a lot
lower than those aged above 65, which is at 0.5%, according to the New English Journal of
Medicine of 2019. From 2017 to 2019, the number of people who vape in 12th grade
increased from 11% to 25%, those in 10th grade increased from 8% to 20%, and 8th grade
from 4% to 9% (Jerzyński e al., 2021). When vaping is compared to smoking, the statistics
show that more than 30% of teens of young teens who use e-cigarettes start by smoking
tobacco products within their first six months. Statics also shows that only 15% of U.S ecigarette do not use tobacco (Jerzyński e al., 2021). There is a likelihood that young people
are likely to try cigarettes four times and three times more likely to use vaping products. 70%
of the high schoolers who smoke use vape products.
The statistics show that there is increased usage of vaping products across the globe because
people consider it a healthy alternative to smoking (Jerzyński e al., 2021). There are serious
consequences that are associated with the use of vaping. The products contain nicotine, which
is a highly addictive product. Many people have been hospitalized with lung injuries due to
the use of vaping products. Studies in the mice show that continuous exposure to e-cigarettes
leads to adenocarcinomas (Seiler-Ramadas et al., 2020). Another consequence of vaping,
apart from the health effects, is that vaping is expensive. The other costs incurred from
vaping are the health repercussions that are associated with vaping, including respiratory
failure, coronary heart disease, respiratory insufficiency, pneumonia, and coronary heart
diseases (Seiler-Ramadas et al., 2020).
How Does vaping affect teenagers compared to adults?
Vaping majorly affects teenagers compared to adults as they are more susceptible to
addiction than adults. Vaping is a lot more addictive due to the high levels of nicotine
(Martinelli, 2018). Due to teens’ still-developing brains, they are highly likely to habituate
vaping into their daily lives. Also, compared to adults, teenagers, in particular, are prone to
overestimate the dangers they may face. According to the CDC, many teens use vapes
because they believe they are less risky than regular cigarettes (CDC, 2019). Also, teens are
easily influenced by friends, which means they are easily lured to vaping by the different
flavors. Teenagers often vape due to curiosity and the need to do tricks they have seen other
family and friends do.
In addition, since the appearance of e-cigarettes has changed so much in recent years, it has
become easier for kids to vape. Because they resemble a USB flash drive and look like
electronic gadgets, vapes are easy to conceal (Thomas, 2020). Also, the increasing number of
teenagers who use e-cigarettes will increase the number of teenagers who use e-cigarettes.
This subtle peer pressure is based on a child’s belief in the prevalence of the vape.
In conclusion, numerous anatomical, physiological, pathological, or epidemiological issues
are associated with the use of vaping. There is statics that is provided with the use of vaping,
which include age, location, and state. Also, vaping majorly affects teenagers as compared to
CDC. (2019). Tobacco Product Use and Associated Factors Among Middle and High School
Students—United States, 2019. CDC.GOV.
Ebersole, J., Samburova, V., Son, Y., Cappelli, D., Demopoulos, C., Capurro, A., Pinto, A.,
Chrzan, B., Kingsley, K., Howard, K., Clark, N., & Khlystov, A. (2020). Harmful
chemicals emitted from electronic cigarettes and potential deleterious effects in the
oral cavity. Tobacco Induced Diseases, 18(May). https://doi.org/10.18332/tid/116988
Jerzyński, T., Stimson, G. V., Shapiro, H., & Król, G. (2021). Estimation of the global
number of E-cigarEttE users in 2020. Harm Reduction
Journal, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12954-021-00556-7
Marques, P., Piqueras, L., & Sanz, M. (2021). An updated overview of E-cigarEttE impact
on human health. Respiratory Research, 22(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12931-02101737-5
Martinelli, K. (2018, November 1). Teen Vaping: What You Need to Know. Child Mind
Institute; Child Mind Institute. https://childmind.org/article/teen-vaping-what-youneed-to-know/
Seiler-Ramadas, R., Sandner, I., Haider, S., Grabovac, I., & Dorner, T. E. (2020). Health
effects of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use on organ systems and its implications
for public health. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 133(19-20), 10201027. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00508-020-01711-z
Thomas, J. (2020, April 24). Why Do So Many Teens Vape? Rally Health.

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