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I have attached the document which has 11 discussions and i need to reply to each one of them in 150 words each with 1 reference for each reply,

SO IN TOTAL 1650 WORDS. APA FORMAT

Anil Entrepreneur replies
Rachana Pottem – Wednesday, 31 March 2021, 11:03 PM
Number of replies: 0
Hello,
Since the time of its Inception back in the 70’s, Apple Inc. is arguably the most popular
and successful company that revolutionized the way entrepreneurship is looked at and
has been a constant source of inspiration to various industries, not limited just to
Technological companies. Such success stories do not come to being without their
share of hardships and failures. This is where true leadership with a deep sense of
purpose, vision and persistence comes to the fore that helps in overcoming these
challenges and achieving the success. Steve Jobs is an epitome of these
characteristics – and more – which is why he is looked at as a perfect case study for
aspiring entrepreneurs.
Steve Jobs was born in the Silicon Valley at a time where the Technology was being
explored there like never before, in the wake of the then recent scientific breakthroughs
in the field. This provided the perfect playground to nurture his creative and out of the
ordinary thinking. His single-minded belief in the opportunities ahead and selfconfidence made him take the call to drop out of the college to pursue his dream full
time, a sign of a great entrepreneur in the making. Thereafter, he found the right people
with the right expertise needed to realize his vision and went on to produce many
trendsetting products like the iMac. There was a point in time where his lack of age and
experience to run a high profile company – like apple became to be – worked against
him and at the age of around 30, he was sacked from the company that he started. After
such a major setback, he didn’t lose heart but instead successfully reinvented himself
and his dreams by starting another company NeXT that was later bought by Apple itself
in a bid to bring back Steve Jobs as the Chief Executive Officer for the company. There
have been many such highs and lows throughout his life for Steve but the constant that
has been throughout has been his leadership traits and a never say die attitude towards
the goals he has set about for himself and his organization. He was known as a tough
task master who constantly pushes his employees to achieve the absolute perfection
that he has envisioned. Steve’s life in the way he went about realizing his dreams with
vision and persistence are the most important qualities that one would like to imbibe to
achieve success in entrepreneurship.
1. Timeline of Steve Jobs. (N.D). Retrieved from
“ https://allaboutstevejobs.com/bio/timeline”
Chandrakanth Gunreddy – Wednesday, 31 March 2021, 3:03 PM
Number of replies: 0
Entrepreneurship is defined as the ability of an individual to develop and run an
organization or enterprise. The individual must be capable to handle various
uncertainties and tasks in order to run a business towards profits. On the other hand, an
entrepreneur is the one who wants to establish a startup organization with all of his
knowledge and assets. The entrepreneur must be capable to handle various risk factors
in the initial stages of the startup organization. The entrepreneur must be aware of
market trends and procedures in order to develop his organization by acquiring new
innovative ideas and plans. Being a successful entrepreneur, the individual must have
these major characteristics and qualities in order to drive startup organizations towards
benefits and success. Curiosity is an entrepreneur will enhance the individual to look out
for new opportunities and makes the individual strong to face various challenges that
are raised from external factors (Piispanen, Paloniemi & Simonen, 2018). Curiosity
character will also make the individual discover new things in order to promote his
organizational growth. Adaptability is also one of the major characters that an
entrepreneur must carry out as this factor makes the individual adjust and get prepared
for every situation. On the other hand, the entrepreneur must be capable to evaluate a
situation before it occurs. Adaptability factor will set the individual mindset to keep
forward his business plans even after facing unplanned events. Team building is the
major factor that every entrepreneur must obtain as establishing an effective team will
strengthen the organizational functions by overcoming weakness factors. An effective
team building also helps the organization to deal up with all the shortcomings and
inspires every entrepreneur to drive his startup organization towards success. However,
balancing these characteristics will make the entrepreneur to be successful and helps to
lead his organization towards success (Zulvia & Adrian, 2018).
References
Piispanen, V. V., Paloniemi, K. J., & Simonen, J. (2018). Qualities of the growthoriented entrepreneur. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business,
34(1), 112-130.
Zulvia, Y., & Adrian, A. (2018, July). The Role of Core Value, Character and
Entrepreneur Leadership towards Successful Entrepreneur. In First Padang
International Conference On Economics Education, Economics, Business and
Management, Accounting and Entrepreneurship (PICEEBA 2018) (pp. 676-683).
Atlantis Press.
Anil MC replies
Sujitha Patil – Sunday, 28 March 2021, 11:26 PM
Number of replies: 1
According to the article, if the employees have lack of flexibility, sensitivity and lack of
self-awareness then the barriers to interpersonal communication will occur and such
kind of behavior weakens the team work. The barriers to interpersonal communication
will occur if the employees speak different language because when the receiver and
sender speaks the different language the possibility of understanding the situation in
different way than expected. To overcome this kind of barrier the employer will
understand the meaning of the information sent and also understand the cultural
differences and will get rid of the stereotypical beliefs. Another barrier for the
interpersonal communication is lacking the skill in communicating with the different
people with different background. To overcome this barrier every employee will
participate in the diversity training given by the company that will help the employees to
communicate more effectively with the people who has different background
experiences. The barriers to interpersonal communications may also happen if there is
gender discrimination in the company and if the dissimilar standards are help in the
company. To overcome this barrier, in the company everyone will be treated equally. To
overcome the any interpersonal communications, always use the simple words to send
the message and always simplify the language for the better interpersonal
communication and should be better if everybody learns the art of listening. It is always
better to have the composure while communicating with the people and in the work
place it will be better to provide the constructive criticism rather than the destructive
criticism (Krishnaveni, R., & Thamaraiselvi, R., 2018).
References:
Krishnaveni, R., & Thamaraiselvi, R. (2018). Interpersonal Skills of Professional
Women: A Psychological Approach. ICFAI Journal of Soft Skills, 2(1), 29–38.
Poojitha Reddy Mallu – Saturday, 27 March 2021, 12:21 AM
Number of replies: 2
Interpersonal Barriers for communication
Lack of participation: It’s impossible to communicate with someone who doesn’t want
to. People can appear unwilling to communicate when they don’t speak up when they
should, dodge direct questions, or use defensive body language.
Lack of open-mindedness: It’s tough to communicate with someone who refuses to
explore different points of view, opinions, or ideas about the world. Communication must
be able to get along with people of different viewpoints to function even at a basic level
with other people.
Poor self-esteem: It is difficult for people to feel comfortable opening up to others,
which hurts their ability to communicate feelings accurately to others as well as their
ability to interpret others.
Psychological barriers, for example someone with social anxiety and/or low selfesteem may be too distracted about how they are perceived when talking with a
superior.
Overcoming Interpersonal Barriers
Use simple language. When communications have difficulty connecting, overly
complex words and ideas might be the things standing in the way .Break down of
conversation into its simplest parts and try again. If all come with our own biases,
backgrounds, and interpretations of the world, and it’s easy for two people to have
entirely different views of the conversation at hand. Leave as little up to interpretation as
possible, and stick to the facts (Morales Nia, et al 2020).
Practice active listening. When parties involved are struggling to communicate, it is
often better spend too much time focusing on our own words, and not enough time
listening and responding. Next time to find out mistakes and rectifying in a conflict with
another, instead of finding new and different ways to restate the opinions or ‘win’ the
argument, try asking questions and actively listening to the answer. Don’t cut off the
speaker, and ask follow up questions. By listening is half of communication.
Stay calm. The hardest part of working through a communication barrier is keeping the
frustrations in check. It is not going to get right point across any clearer by seeming
annoyed. Stay calm, and most importantly be patient. Give the conversation that time it
needs.
Provide feedback. If the parties involved could all learn a lot about our communication
styles and skills and get more feedback from others. To be free to share constructive
criticism when it would genuinely help the other person communicate more productively
with others.
References
Morales Nia, O’Connell Kari Bisbee, McNulty Stacy, Berkowitz Alan, Bowser Gillian,
Giamellaro Michael, & Miriti Maria N. (2020). Promoting inclusion in ecological field
experiences : Examining and overcoming barriers to a professional rite of
passage. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 101(4), 1–10.
Raymond Pinnick – Wednesday, 24 March 2021, 1:39 AM
Number of replies: 0
Barriers to interpersonal communication according to work chronicle consist
of language differences, cultural differences, personality differences, and generational
differences. Language differences can be tricky because it can be literate literally and
figuratively this is pretty much being on the same page as the person you were
communicating with. This can lead to a lot of mistakes and miscommunication between
employees in the workplace. We can get over this difference by using technology such
as Google translate or allowing somebody who speaks the same language as the other
person to translate. Cultural differences can also lead to bad communication because it
can lead to bias and stereotypes in the workplace. Gender difference can fall under
cultural difference because of the different ways men and women are treated in the
workplace which can lead to conflict. This is why to solve this problem companies
offered diversity trainings To help understand their counterparts and not to offend each
other. Personality difference affect the way individuals communicate with their
coworkers force airport introvert and extrovert go about work in two different ways which
may cause lack of self-awareness, sensitivity and flexibility. This is why companies must
create a standard for which the employees must live up to no matter what so they’re all
on the same page. Generational difference will occur in the way employees dress,
values, priorities, and preferences. It is not uncommon for younger workers to go about
work in a different way than their older coworkers. To break the barrier companies must
use meetings and more interactions to get on the same page (Bosworth, 2017).
References
Bosworth, K. (2017, November 21). Workplace communication & hostile work
environment. Retrieved March 24, 2021, from https://work.chron.com/workplacecommunication-hostile-work-environment-16999.html
Mounika MF replies
Aaron Damara – Monday, March 29, 2021, 9:32 AM
Number of replies: 2
Discussion 2
With regards to considerations within cash flow within a business operation, we see that
within certain time periods, the flow is extensive within a shorter-term basis. In
consideration of the particular parties in which it is obtained, we are needed to consider
the Implications in which the cash flow is involved, such that clientele as vendors.
Allusion to cash flow, we consider this to be an imperative implication with regards to
understanding how operations are in allusion to the expense basis. Within operations,
the imperative nature of reporting obligations towards the operation create an
opportunity for the investment such that external organizations are able to create
opportunities as a result of set strategy. For example, considerable banking institutions
are considered to be one of the considerations as to whether a particular operation is
seen as viable and as to whether it continued financial support by these bigger
conglomerates is seen as perspective. In order to continue operations, it is imperative to
obligate to different Avenues, such as adding to the operation if circumstances are dire
(Lewellen,2016). Individuals are able to consider that technological applications are
consistently becoming as a result a part of analyzing data sets and creating conclusive
implications as to how the operation can create a more viable cash flow analysis. the
organization we need to understand Trends and datasets as to understanding where
they’re able to increase their margin of growth, as well as to consider what are the
parameters as to whether how we want to continue with clientele and what are the steps
in order to do so. In order to consider some of these applications, we can address some
of the elements that allude semicolon: Cost with retrospect to time and combination;
Cost as a result of production implication; cost that does not create higher risk for the
organization; costs that are imperative for Accounting applications; Lastly, costs in
external implications to sustain operations (Rochet,2018).
Allusion to my industry, hospitality, cash flow is an imperative application as to whether
the operation is going to be functional in future periods. By putting a flagship or brand
associated with the structure, we are not only adding value to the particular physical
location but we are also continuing to sustain business operations that would benefit
other entities as well such that of local state and domestic governments, as well as
vendors. Cashflow is analyzed such that its technology basis An allusion to PMS
programs that are able to track data in accordance to Accounting Principles
(Ralinska,2019)..
References
Lewellen, J., & Lewellen, K. (2016). Investment and Cash Flow: New Evidence.
JOURNAL OF FINANCIAL AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS, 51(4), 1135–1164.
Moreno-Bromberg, S., & Rochet, J. C. (2018). Continuous-Time Models in Corporate
Finance, Banking, and Insurance: A User’s Guide. Princeton University Press.
Ralinska, E. P. (2019). Modeling the Sources of Value in Banks and Valuation through
theDiscounted Cash Flow Method. Economic Archive / Narodnostopanski Arhiv,
Aravind Bandla – Wednesday, March 24, 2021, 10:55 PM
Number of replies: 3
Financial Analysis
Part 1: Importance of Cash
Cash generation bears a lot of importance when looked at from the perspective of
businesses and the way they operate. Cash flow is essential, and its determination
takes place in a bi-directional approach where cash is analyzed based on the way it
comes in and goes out. This is a factor that most companies use when determining
whether they are making profits or losses. A company experiences a positive cash flow
as long as the cash flowing towards it is more than whatever is going out. Cash
generation is also important because it acts as a store of value in an organization.
Faking of an organization’s assets is difficult when using cash flow. Various companies
have engaged in the inflation of profits in order to show that the assets they own are of
a high value. This practice cannot happen when focusing on the cash flow as all records
are put in place they appear.
Cash generation is different from the concept of Profits and losses. Cash generation is
the cash flow that a corporation gets aside from the capital expenditures in a given
financial year. The cash generation is shown in a cash flow statement during the
balancing of accounts. On the other hand, the profit and losses concept shows
whatever is left after all expenses have been deducted. The balance can either be
positive or negative, depending on how the company is operating (Duţescu, 2019). For
instance, if a company spends more than it gets in a transaction, then it will end making
losses. The vice versa is true as long as what the company is getting is higher than
what it has invested.
A company manages its cash flow by focusing on how money is moving in and out of
business at a given time. For example, a company that sells shoes will always make
sure that it has a positive cash flow. This happens by selling more shoes and making
sure the capital spent on them is less than whatever it is getting in the long run.
Part 2: Application of Concepts/Financial Analysis
The analysis of financial statements is essential in a business whose main focus is to
grow and succeed from the current position. One major reason for financial analysis is
to identify the strengths and weaknesses of a company. The analysis also helps in
understanding the types of assets in a business enterprise as well as the liabilities in a
profound way (Duţescu, 2019). The financial performance of a firm depends on the rate
of growth and the assets owned at a given time.
The financial performance of a firm depends on its operational efficiency, which has to
be in line with managerial effectiveness. A financial analysis, therefore, makes sure that
the organization is able to find the gaps and therefore put in place measures to bridge
them. Understanding the financial performance of a firm also depends on its cash
position. The cash position is identified after doing a profound financial analysis. This is
where one is able to understand what the firm is holding in terms of debts and also
equity. All the debtors held by the company are also well understood after doing
financial analysis.
For example, a company such as Coca-Cola has been in operation for many years
distributing soft drinks and other beverages. The company cannot operate solely without
being in connection with suppliers and delivery organizations. For the transitions to take
place, the company has to take debts in order to offset the stagnant deliveries. A
manager who is new in the company might end up being liable for all the debts if at all
they do not study the current financial analysis. Therefore, a financial analysis would be
essential when bringing in new management that needs to have more information on
the state of debts.
Individuals in an organization also need to be appraised based on their performance.
The performance of such persons can be assessed by doing financial analysis. A
financial analysis that shows the cash flow is high and that profits are more than losses
is an indication that the employees are doing well (Lessambo, 2018). This also goes
deeper into identifying departments that have outperformance the others and therefore
call for an appraisal. Appraising employees give them the morale to work even harder or
have an improvement in their productivity. In addition, there is the likelihood of achieving
an internal control after identifying all the areas that need improvements from financial
analysis.
References
Duţescu, A. (2019). Closing Procedures, Financial Statements and Financial Analysis.
In Financial Accounting (pp. 261-293). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Lessambo, F. I. (2018). Overview of Financial Statements. In Financial Statements (pp.
3-22). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
FNU Mohammed Mohsin Uddin – Monday, March 22, 2021, 11:30 AM
Number of replies: 1
Part 1:
Cash flow is defined as the inflow and outflow of money in a business.it is required to
pay employees, operating costs, taxes and other necessary operations of the business.
A good cash flow implies increased liquid assets. An unhealthy cash flow implies
decreased liquid assets in accompany. Cash flow helps settle debts, return money to
shareholders, pay expenses and reinvest in business.
After the deduction of overall expenses from the revenue, the amount that
remains is called profit. Cash flow and profit are both important in a business. A
business owner must understand how both interact with each other in accounting rather
than taking either one as a basic single metric to determine the correct business
strategy. (Jury, 2012).
Revenue growth, operating margins and capital efficiency are the three
strategies to improve cash flow. These are again categorized by volume, prices, cost of
goods, SG&A, property plant and equipment and inventory management.
Part 2:
The performance of a company is determined by the budgets, projects and other
financial transactions. These are periodically evaluated. This process if called financial
analysis. A financial analyst will look up income statement, cash flow statement and
balance sheet in order to examine the economic trends, policies and projects for
investment (AREAS, B2018). Ratios are calculated from the data acquired from
financial statement of the company, which is then compared to the ratios acquired from
previous financial statements. To evaluate profit or efficiency of a company, a common
ratio is used, which is called as return on assets (ROA).
Internally a company may conduct analysis by ratios such as net present value
(NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR). This is done by the accounting department of
the company. The management takes these values to improve decision making.
Another aspect of financial analysis is risk evaluation. Risk analysis is the study
of uncertainty in cash flow, stocks, probability of success or failure of a project and
future economic status. It minimizes the negative effects of unforeseen future. Risk
analysis has two types quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative analysis uses
mathematical values while qualitative analysis uses a person’s judgment skill.
Probability could be defined as the chance of happening or not happening of an
event. It helps to take decisions under uncertain conditions of a company. When
counting becomes difficult permutations and combinations are statistical values which
come into role play.
References:
AREAS, B. (2018). Financial analysis. growth, 30, 10.
Jury, T. (2012). Cash flow analysis and forecasting: the definitive guide to
understanding and using published cash flow data (Vol. 653). John Wiley & Sons.
Mounika ME replies
Abhishek Kandala – Saturday, March 27, 2021, 4:49 AM
Number of replies: 2
Fuel prices change in a predictable way and an open book on manipulating the
structure of energy market prices is a critical issue for the trading firms. If not done
carefully, it is likely that the pattern of movements in energy prices will be exploited for
profit by the trading firms. In recent times, it was also revealed that some traders have
gained a competitive advantage by creating fictitious trading combinations, or hedging
their positions to some extent. This phenomenon has not been limited to the United
States however. For instance, Japanese banks have been accused of using fictitious
trading combinations or hedges in an attempt to prop up their balance sheets. This
practice has been detected by regulators in various countries, but has largely gone
unreported to the public. While it is true that market risks are relatively easier to
measure than financial risks, there is a major debate within the industry about the
relative usefulness of using a standardized approach to measuring market risk (Sisodia,
G. S., Soares, I., Banerji, S., & Van den Poel, D. 2015). One of the main arguments is
that standardized approaches give more information about the nature of risk and,
consequently, should provide more useful insights into the actual risks the banks face.
In other words, risk is the expected loss, after tax, in a given year, given a confidence
level. The objective of such a model, like a statistical one, is to find a probability
distribution that minimizes absolute costs, such as those generated by a business
decision. It should show how economic activity changes as prices go up or down and as
supply or demand changes. A model that finds this distribution and uses it in business
decision making is called an econometric model (Sen, B. 2012). However, like the
statistical model it is based on, the econometric model is a probability distribution.
References:
Sisodia, G. S., Soares, I., Banerji, S., & Van den Poel, D. (2015). The status of energy
price modelling and its relevance to marketing in emerging economies. Energy
Procedia, 79, 500-505.
Sen, B. (2012). Is There an Association Between Gasoline Prices and Physical Activity?
Evidence from A merican Time Use Data. Journal of Policy Analysis and
Management, 31(2), 338-366.
Jayanth Venkatesh – Saturday, March 27, 2021, 11:32 PM
Number of replies: 2
Article 1: Five Reasons Gas Price Rice.
Motavalli wrote this article in 2012 when the gasoline prices had risen by 29 cents to $4
per gallon in Alaska and California. He attributes this increase with the former president
Barrack Obama’s regime citing that the prices have doubled since he took office in 2004
(Motavalli, 2012). He identifies five reasons why fuel or gas prices have been climbing
that fast. One of the reasons is the increase in gas demand. More people are driving
and working, especially internationally, making it hard for gas suppliers to meet the
increasing demand. This eventually affects all countries equally regardless of whether
the country has significantly reduced its vehicle miles travel (Motavalli, 2012).
The second reason is speculation, where every million barrels of oil held for speculation
increases the regular fuel prices by approximately ten cents. The third reason is that
fuel prices are affected by seasons. Prices tend to increase during summer and spring
but reduce during winter when most people are indoors and travel less (Motavalli,
2012). The fourth reason is global politics, especially in supplier countries leading to
panic buying in Asia and Europe hence inflating oil prices to other countries (Motavalli,
2012). Finally, the introduction of fuel-efficient cars reduces the level of taxes collected
by federal and local governments. This can force the governments to increase the
prices to get enough money to carry out their responsibilities (Motavalli, 2012).
Article 2: Why do gas prices rise and fall? 5 driving factors.
Gilmour states that oil prices rise and fall expectedly and unexpectedly within different
periods in a year. This is caused by various factors, where some are state-specific,
seasonal, or global. Others are unpredictable, as some natural disasters. One of the
significant factors listed is the volatility of oil as a commodity. Gas prices fluctuate
depending on the current crude oil’s selling price (Gilmour, 2014). Gilmour’s second
reason is the summer premium, a summer blend gas that is usually more expensive
than winter blend gas. Gas stations do so to maximize sales during summer when more
people are driving.
The third reason or factor is the weather that interrupts the driving pattern. Unfavorable
weather and environmental disasters lower the demand for gas hence reducing its price
and vice versa (Gilmour, 2014). The fourth factor is geography, where the prices in the
different states in the United States. Apart from the geography factor, gas price
differences between states are also determined by the tax rates imposed on fuel
(Gilmour, 2014). The final factor is the regular closure of refineries for maintenance and
upgrade, hence interrupting gas supply in the market (Gilmour, 2014).
References
Gilmour, J. (2014). Why do gas prices rise and fall? 5 driving factors. Retrieved
from https://www.csmonitor.com/Environment/2014/1031/Why-do-gas-prices-rise-andfall-5-driving-factors/Oil-A-volatile-commodity
Motavalli, J.(2012). Five Reasons Gas Price Rice. Retrieved
from https://www.forbes.com/sites/eco-nomics/2012/03/05/five-reasons-gas-pricesrise/?sh=4954614f1e02
Nagender Kasina – Saturday, March 27, 2021, 10:48 AM
Number of replies: 2
We can observe that oil is one of those commodities which is being highly used by
various people across the nations. As this is one of the rare natural resources, we often
come across many fluctuations in its prices. Fuel prices also get impacted due to major
factors like supply and demand, as they also determine the fuel prices to a major extent.
When comparing with bonds and other equity instruments it is observed that the fuel
prices are more volatile than other stabilized instruments. For having proper control over
the oil prices, oil producers try to take control over the supply of oil in the market
(Dewenter et al, 2017).
The prices of oil and other fuels are also highly impacted by Self sufficient countries,
private organizations producing oil privately, and OPEC countries. One can witness
increased fuel prices when there is a reduced supply of oil. The oil prices also get
fluctuated due to natural disasters due to which the oil producers cannot produce the oil
as per the market demands and this results in a price increase in the market (Dewenter
et al, 2017).
The oil prices also get highly impacted due to the taxation systems across the countries
and political unrest in some countries across the world. Prices of fuel are correlated with
the interest rates to a larger extent. However the correlation between them is not so
stronger, but these both are impacted by various factors and change in any one factor
can create an impact over the other factor. People tend to use more fuel when the
interest rates are decreased and this results in increased fuel prices. It has been
observed that in the COVID-19 situation, people have reduced using vehicles to a larger
extent and this has decreased the demand for fuel in the market and it also creates
fluctuations in the prices to a major extent (Schmidt et al, 2017).
References
Dewenter, R., Heimeshoff, U. and Lüth, H., 2017. The impact of the market
transparency unit for fuels on gasoline prices in Germany. Applied Economics Letters,
24(5), pp.302-305.
Schmidt, T.S., Matsuo, T. and Michaelowa, A., 2017. Renewable energy policy as an
enabler of fossil fuel subsidy reform? Applying a socio-technical perspective to the
cases of South Africa and Tunisia. Global Environmental Change, 45, pp.99-110.

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