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analyze your selected reading and state an opinion or evaluation about the author’s claim. You will then use evidence or key points from the selected reading to back up your evaluation.


Remember to cite any works you use in your assignment. You will not be graded on the citations; the purpose is just to make certain you are practicing using citations.

Specifically, you must address the following rubric criteria:

What is the

author’s claim

in the selected reading? In other words, what do you believe the author wants their audience to learn or understand better once they have finished reading?

Have you identified

key points

that the author uses to support their claim in the selected reading? If so, include them here.

Describe the author’s

target audience:

what group or groups of people is the author trying to reach with their message?

What choices does the author make within their writing to


with this target audience?

Explain your


of the author’s claim: is the claim strong or weak? What evidence or key points from the writing best support the author’s claim? If you found the claim to be weak, explain why the evidence or key points provided did not effectively support the author’s claim.

Caring for your introvert: the habits and needs
of a little-understood group. (Personal File)
Author: Jonathan Rauch
Date: Mar. 2003
From: The Atlantic(Vol. 291, Issue 2)
Publisher: Atlantic Media, Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 1,382 words
Full Text:
Do you know someone who needs hours alone every day? Who loves quiet conversations about
feelings or ideas, and can give a dynamite presentation to a big audience, but seems awkward in
groups and maladroit at small talk? Who has to be dragged to parties and then needs the rest of the
day to recuperate? Who growls or scowls or grunts or winces when accosted with pleasantries by
people who are just trying to be nice?
If so, do you tell this person he is “too serious,” or ask if he is okay? Regard him as aloof, arrogant,
rude? Redouble your efforts to draw him out?
If you answered yes to these questions, chances are that you have an introvert on your hands–and
that you aren’t caring for him properly. Science has learned a good deal in recent years about the
habits and requirements of introverts. It has even learned, by means of brain scans, that introverts
process information differently from other people (I am not making this up). If you are behind the curve
on this important matter, be reassured that you are not alone. Introverts may be common, but they are
also among the most misunderstood and aggrieved groups in America, possibly the world.
I know. My name is Jonathan, and I am an introvert.
Oh, for years I denied it. After all, I have good social skills. I am not morose or misanthropic. Usually. I
am far from shy. I love long conversations that explore intimate thoughts or passionate interests. But
at last I have self-identified and come out to my friends and colleagues. In doing so, I have found
myself liberated from any number of damaging misconceptions and stereotypes. Now I am here to tell
you what you need to know in order to respond sensitively and supportively to your own introverted
family members, friends, and colleagues.
Remember, someone you know, respect, and interact with every day is an introvert, and you are
probably driving this person nuts. It pays to learn the warning signs.
What is introversion? In its modern sense, the concept goes back to the 1920s and the psychologist
Carl Jung. Today it is a mainstay of personality tests, including the widely used Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator. Introverts are not necessarily shy. Shy people are anxious or frightened or self-excoriating in
social settings; introverts generally are not. Introverts are also not misanthropic, though some of us do
go along with Sartre as far as to say “Hell is other people at breakfast.” Rather, introverts are people
who find other people tiring.
Extroverts are energized by people, and wilt or fade when alone. They often seem bored by
themselves, in both senses of the expression. Leave an extrovert alone for two minutes and he will
reach for his cell phone. In contrast, after an hour or two of being socially “on,” we introverts need to
turn off and recharge. My own formula is roughly two hours alone for every hour of socializing. This
isn’t antisocial. It isn’t a sign of depression. It does not call for medication. For introverts, to be alone
with our thoughts is as restorative as sleeping, as nourishing as eating. Our motto: “I’m okay, you’re
okay–in small doses.”
How many people are introverts?
I performed exhaustive research on this question, in the form of a quick Google search. The answer:
About 25 percent. Or: Just under half. Or–my favorite–a minority in the regular population but a
majority in the gifted population.”
Are introverts misunderstood?
Wildly. That, it appears, is our lot in life. “It is very difficult for an extrovert to understand an introvert,”
write the education experts Jill D. Burruss and Lisa Kaenzig. (They are also the source of the
quotation in the previous paragraph.) Extroverts are easy for introverts to understand, because
extroverts spend so much of their time working out who they are in voluble, and frequently
inescapable, interaction with other people. They are as inscrutable as puppy dogs. But the street does
not run both ways. Extroverts have little or no grasp of introversion. They assume that company,
especially their own, is always welcome. They cannot imagine why someone would need to be alone;
indeed, they often take umbrage at the suggestion. As often as I have tried to explain the matter to
extroverts, I have never sensed that any of them really understood. They listen for a moment and then
go back to barking and yipping.
Are introverts oppressed? I would have to say so. For one thing, extroverts are overrepresented in
politics, a profession in which only the garrulous are really comfortable. Look at George W. Bush. Look
at Bill Clinton. They seem to come fully to life only around other people. To think of the few introverts
who did rise to the top in politics–Calvin Coolidge, Richard Nixon–is merely to drive home the point.
With the possible exception of Ronald Reagan, whose fabled aloofness and privateness were
probably signs of a deep introverted streak (many actors, I’ve read, are introverts, and many
introverts, when socializing, feel like actors), introverts are not considered “naturals” in politics.
Extroverts therefore dominate public life. This is a pity. If we introverts ran the world, it would no doubt
be a calmer, saner, more peaceful sort of place. As Coolidge is supposed to have said, “Don’t you
know that four fifths of all our troubles in this life would disappear if we would just ask down and keep
still?” (He is also supposed to have said, “If you don’t say anything, you won’t be called on to repeat
it.” The only thing a true introvert dislikes more than talking about himself is repeating himself.)
With their endless appetite for talk and attention, extroverts also dominate social life, so they tend to
set expectations. In our extrovertist society, being outgoing is considered normal and therefore
desirable, a mark of happiness, confidence, leadership. Extroverts are seen as bighearted, vibrant,
warm, empathic. “People person” is a compliment. Introverts are described with words like “guarded,”
“loner,” “reserved,” “taciturn,” “self-contained,” “private”–narrow, ungenerous words, words that
suggest emotional parsimony and smallness of personality. Female introverts, I suspect, must suffer
especially. In certain circles, particularly in the Midwest, a man can still sometimes get away with
being what they used to call a strong and silent type; introverted women, lacking that alternative, are
even more likely than men to be perceived as timid, withdrawn, haughty.
Are introverts arrogant? Hardly. I suppose this common misconception has to do with our being more
intelligent, more reflective, more independent, more level-headed, more refined, and more sensitive
than extroverts. Also, it is probably due to our lack of small talk, a lack that extroverts often mistake for
disdain. We tend to think before talking, whereas extroverts tend to think by talking, which is why their
meetings never last less than six hours. “Introverts,” writes a perceptive fellow named Thomas P.
Crouser, in an online review of a recent book called Why Should Extroverts Make All the Money? (I’m
not making that up, either), “are driven to distraction by the semi-internal dialogue extroverts tend to
conduct. Introverts don’t outwardly complain, instead roll their eyes and silently curse the darkness.”
Just so.
The worst of it is that extroverts have no idea of the torment they put us through. Sometimes, as we
gasp for air amid the fog of their 98-percent-content-free talk, we wonder if extroverts even bother to
listen to themselves. Still, we endure stoically, because the etiquette books–written, no doubt, by
extroverts–regard declining to banter as rude and gaps in conversation as awkward. We can only
dream that someday, when our condition is more widely understood, when perhaps an Introverts’
Rights movement has blossomed and borne fruit, it will not be impolite to say “I’m an introvert. You are
a wonderful person and I like you. But now please shush.”
How can I let the introvert in my life know that I support him and respect his choice? First, recognize
that it’s not a choice. It’s not a lifestyle. It’s an orientation.
Second, when you see an introvert lost in thought, don’t say “What’s the matter?” or “Are you all
Third, don’t say anything else, Either.
Jonathan Rauch is a correspondent for The Atlantic and a senior writer for National Journal.
Rauch, Jonathan
Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2003 Atlantic Media, Ltd.
Source Citation (APA 7th Edition)
Rauch, J. (2003, March). Caring for your introvert: the habits and needs of a little-understood group.
(Personal File). The Atlantic, 291(2), 133+. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A97872643/GLS?
Gale Document Number: GALE|A97872643

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