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Accessibility Inspection
Towson University
CIS 435.101
November, 20th 2020
Table of Contents
Overview Part #1
Web Content Accessibility (WCAG)
User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG)
Authoring tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG)
Demonstration of WCAG 2.1
Suggested Corrections
Overview Part #2
Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) from the U.K.
Section 508 and the American Disability Act (ADA) from the U.S.
European Action Plan and European Mandate 376
The Disability Act of 2005 in Ireland
Norway Anti-Discrimination and Accessibility Act of 2008
Australia Disability Discrimination Act of 1992
Examples of Websites Utilizing Acts
Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) from the U.K.
Section 508 and the American Disability Act (ADA) from the U.S.
European Action Plan and European Mandate 376
The Disability Act of 2005 in Ireland
Norway Discrimination Act
Australia Discrimination Act
Work Cited
Overview Part #1
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines provide the recommendation to make a website more
accessible to different people through various devices such as mobile, computers, and other
media. The recommendation includes making the content more accessible to people with
disabilities, more specifically, how to accommodate people with low vision, blindness, limited
movements, photosensitivity, hearing loss, and learning disabilities. WCAG recommendations
touch on web elements such as the Numbers, text, Navigation, input modalities, and physical
reactions. On the web accessibility technology overview, we have User Agent Accessibility
Guidelines, which is documentation on the recommendation that would make the user agents
more accessible to people with disabilities. In this case, the user agents include the media player,
readers, browser, and browser extension, to name a few. Last on our list is the Authoring Tool
Accessibility Guidelines recommendation on making the web authoring tools more accessible to
people with disabilities. In our discussion, we will demonstrate the WCAG recommendations by
analyzing the Whitehouse Website by providing an overview, accessibility score, and the critical
elements missing on the website.
Web Content Accessibility (WCAG)
The WCAG is a list of guidelines that was released in May of 1999. The purpose of WCAG is to
make web content accessible to people with disabilities. The 14 guidelines proposed by WCAG
1.0 are intended toward web developers. These guidelines will not only help users with
disabilities find information quicker but all users will benefit from these accessibility guidelines.
WCAG consider users with these conditions:
● They may not be able to see, hear, move, or may not be able to process some types of
information easily or at all.
● They may have difficulty reading or comprehending text.
● They may not have or be able to use a keyboard or mouse.
● They may have a text-only screen, a small screen, or a slow Internet connection.
● They may not speak or understand fluently the language in which the document is
● They may be in a situation where their eyes, ears, or hands are busy or interfered with
(e.g., driving to work, working in a loud environment, etc.).
● They may have an early version of a browser, a different browser entirely, a voice
browser, or a different operating system.
WCAG offers 14 guidelines with the purpose of increasing accessibility to web pages for users
with disabilities.
Guideline 1: Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content
Developers and editors of websites should use text equivalents for every non-text
item. Some examples of this can be the inclusion of “alt” tags on images,videos,
and sound content. Provide an auditory description of complex media like videos
and presentations. As well, for complex content developers are able to add
additional descriptions using “longdesc”.
Guideline 2: Don’t rely on color alone
Developers should ensure that all information relayed with colors can also be
interpreted without colors. As well, ensure that foreground and background colors
provide adequate contrast.
Guideline 3: Use markup and style sheets and do so properly
Developers must not use markups for presentations effects due to the difficulty of
screen readers to understand the organization of the page. With this being said
developers should not avoid one particle markup because older assistive
technology does not support them. A balance is required to develop a page that is
accessible for all users with a current accessible device.
Guideline 4: Clarify natural language usage
Content developers should use HTTP headers or through markups to identify the
natural language of the document. The purpose of this is for speech synthesizers,
braille, and other devices to automatically switch to the language. As well, when
abbreviating specify the expansion of each abbreviation when it initially occurs.
Guideline 5: Create tables that transform gracefully
Tables should be used to organize data not to organize the layout of a page. By
using a table to layout a page it causes problems with screen readers. Also, when
a table is used for data, make sure the table identifies are set. Depending on the
user device the table may display the wrong information.
Guideline 6: Ensure that pages featuring new technologies transform gracefully
Developers should be wary when using new technology until they know how the
webpage will react with older browsers. Some key points to note here are to
ensure that the page is still readable without a style sheet and when
scripts/programmatic objects are turned off. As well, make sure that the
equivalents for dynamic content are updated when the dynamic content is.
Guideline 7: Ensure user control of time-sensitive content changes
The overall goal of this guideline is to ensure that moving, blinking, and any other
updating objects are able to be stopped/paused.
Guideline 8: Ensure direct accessibility of embedded user interfaces
Developers should ensure that embedded objects are accessible. To do this
developers should make programmatic elements like scripts directly accessible
and or compatible with assistive technologies
Guideline 9: Design for device-independence
When developing a web page the developers need to consider all input devices. If
you can only interact with objects using a pointer than a blind user will not be
able to access the site. To solve these issues developers should provide client side
image mapping instead of server side. Another trick is to allow keyboard
shortcuts and a logical tab order.
Guideline 10: Use interim solutions
Accessibility technologies have issues determining if a new window is opening.
As a developer you should try to avoid pop ups and at least notify the user when it
occurs. Also, ensure that form controls labels are positioned properly. This is
because screen readers can not distinguish between the two.
Guideline 11: Use W3C technologies and guidelines
When possible developers should use W3C technologies, this is because they
have undergone review to ensure that accessibility issues are considered during
the design. These tools have accessibility features builtin. Developers should not
create an accessible page. That should be their very last option
Guideline 12: Provide context and orientation information
When grouping objects a good practice is to provide contextual information about
the objects being grouped. You can do this by titling each frame and or you can
use the longdesc attribute to add descriptions between relationships of objects.
Guideline 13: Provide clear navigation mechanisms
Links throughout your site should be meaningful enough to understand the link
when read out loud. And provide clear and constant navigation mechanics
throughout the website
Guideline 14: Ensure that documents are clear and simple
Throughout the site developers should use clear and simple language and images
that add value to the page. Try to avoid unnecessary noise. Constant style as well.
WCAG 2.0 builds off of WCAG 1.0 by applying more broadly advanced technologies and future
technologies . WCAG 2.0 is designed to be more testable by both automated and manual
methods. Still the overall goal of WCAG is to coordinate a single web content standard
internationally. Some of the major changes between WCAG 1.0 and 2.0 are:
WCAG 1.0
WCAG 2.0
Until user agents render text equivalents for
This is no longer required because user agents
client-side image map links, provide redundant now render text alternatives for client-side image
text links for each active region of a client-side map areas.
image map
Ensure that foreground and background color
combinations provide sufficient contrast when
viewed by someone having color deficits or
when viewed on a black and white screen.
The visual presentation of text and images of text
has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1.
Large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least
The visual presentation of text and images of text
has a contrast ratio of at least 7:1.
Specify the expansion of each abbreviation or
acronym in a document where it first occurs
A mechanism for identifying the expanded form
or meaning of abbreviations is available
Identify the primary natural language of a
The default human language of each Web page
can be programmatically determined
Provide summaries for tables
This is no longer required for conformance.
However, in layout tables, the summary attribute
must be omitted or empty.
WCAG 2.1 brings over all the criteria of WCAG 2.0. The overall goal of WCAG 2.1 is to
provide additional criteria to address people with mobile accessibility, low vision, and cognitive
and learning disabilities. WCAG 2.1 added an additional 17 criteria to address these issues.
Some of the major additions are:
1.3.4 Orientation- Depending on the orientation of the user device, content should not
restrict the view of operations.
1.4.12 Text Spacing- Minimal text spacing is required. Line spacing 1.5, letter spacing 12
font, word spacing 0.16 times, and spacing following a paragraph to 2 times the font size.
2.3.3 Animation from Interactions- Motion animation from an user actions should have
an option to be disabled
2.5.5 Target Size- Target size of user input devices should be at least 44 by
44 pixels.
For more details of these guidelines refer to the official WCAG 2.1 page
User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG)
UAAG are guidelines geared towards making user agents accessible to people with disabilities.
What is a user agent you may ask. A user agent is a software that is able to state what it is and
render the content appropriately. Some examples of user agents can be browser, media players,
and readers. UUAG is for the developers of agents to allow better communications to assistive
technologies like screen readers. The goal of UAAG is to avoid having one particle agent work
with one assistive device. They should be interchangeable. Some of key principles in UAAG are
the following:
Principle #1- Perceivable
Text configuration, orientation in viewport, missing content
Principle #2- Operable
Keyboard access, graphical controls, time based media
Principle #3-Understandable
Mistakes and documentation
Principle #4 Programmatic access
Assistive technology
Principle #5 Specifications and conventions
Follow specifications
Authoring tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG)
ATAG is mainly used to assist developers of authoring tools. They provide a detailed standard
for web accessibility to assist in the creation of authoring tools to be used throughout the web.
The guidelines are in place to demonstrate how the tools should be made in order to make
accessibility as efficient as possible.
ATAG 2.0 Pt A focuses on:

Guides users on the adjusting the tool UI accessibility

Guidelines in place reflect WCAG 2.0

Tool accessibility requirements aren’t based off the web
ATAG 2.0 Pt B

Creating tools that can generate WCAG 2.0 content for the web

Four guidelines to key on
Editing tools that the ATAG guidelines apply towards:

Tools producing web content such as HTML editor

Tools used for saving web format content such as word processors

Tools for converting a document into web format (converting a page to HTML for

Tools used to create multimedia applications for the web such as edits for a video

Tools for website publishing such as WordPress

Tools for designing and formatting a layout such as CSS
Demonstration of WCAG 2.1
The Whitehouse website (https://www.whitehouse.gov/) is a U.S. Government Website that
provides information about the U.S. President, Vice President, their families, transcript of
speeches, and executive orders, among other government information such as current issues. The
website provides a key platform for the U.S. citizen to engage with the government and be
informed. Being such an important platform then, it is expected to be compliant with the WCAG
guidelines to ensure that people with any disabilities such as blindness to learning are not
forgotten about in terms of accessible information being provided by the whitehouse. We will
analyze the whitehouse website to check WCAG 2.1 compliance. Throughout our analysis we
will be looking at ways that https://www.whitehouse.gov/ is and is not compliant with the
WCAG 2.1 guidelines. Once this is completed we will be listing on recommendations on how to
fix the issues that were found.
Level AAA (Most important)
● 2.1.3 Keyboard (No Exception)
All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface
without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes.
-All content can be access via tabbing
● 2.3.2 Three Flashes
Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in
any one second period.
-No flashes found
● 3.1.5 Reading Level ❌
When text requires reading ability more advanced than the lower
secondary education level after removal of proper names and titles
Level AA
● 1.2.4 Captions (Live)
Captions are provided for all live audio content in synchronized media.
● 1.3.4 Orientation
Content does not restrict its view and operation to a single display
orientation, such as portrait or landscape, unless a specific display
orientation is essential.
● 1.3.5 Identify Input Purpose
The input field serves a purpose identified in the Input Purposes for User
Interface Components section
Level A
● 1.4.1 Use of Color
Color is not used as the only visual means of conveying information,
indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual
● 2.4.2 Page Titled ❌
Web pages have titles that describe topic or purpose.
Some pages do have proper titles but as in the second image below “…” is
not an acceptable title.
● 3.1.1 Language of Page
The default human language of each Web page can be programmatically
Suggested Corrections
3.1.5 Reading Level- Some of the published content on the site may be too
difficult for someone at a lower reading level. I would suggest to simplify the
language throughout some of the published content.
2.4.2 Page Titled- Publishes and developers should add descriptive titles to all
pages. Currently some of the article pages have a title “…” which is not
Overview Part #2
The DDA protects any individual who has a disability, which according to the DDA is described
as something that hinders someone’s ability physically and/or mentally in their day to day life. In
short the DDA makes sure that people with disabilities don’t face driscimination due to the
disability they have. The ADA is similar in that it aims to protect similar issues described in the
DDA, however what is classified as a disability is slightly different given the country shift (UK =
DDA ; US = ADA). The European action plan was implemented to assist in negating the harmful
use of alcohol. Below we will provide a descriptive, more in-depth overview of the elements
within each act/law not highlighted in here to provide better clarity on everything.
Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) from the U.K.
The DDA came into place when the content’s web access was not widely accepted. This act was
meant to protect people with disabilities, including the blind and the partially sighted people,
from any form of discrimination. The civil rights law that started its implementation in 1995 has
evolved over time to meet the changing world. In 2002, for instance many service providers
started implementing the law on their premises to accommodate people of all types. Similarly, on
the emergency of the technology that resulted in the increased websites and other information
access creations, the creator had to accommodate the acts recommendations. The act has evolved
to affect the development of accessible tools in the U.K., where many websites now comply with
the acts requirements. Since its implementation the DDA has been amended several times. For
instance in the year 1999 the Disability Rights Commission Act of 1999 was replaced with the
National Disability Council with the Disability Right Commission (DRC). In the year 2001 new
provisions were inerted to the act by the special education needs and disability act of 2001 in
order to deal with the discrimination in schools and other education institutions. The law
principles insist on making reasonable adjustments in order to make it easier for the people with
disability to have access to the IT equipment and platforms such as the computers, websites, and
other information platforms. Ensuring that the adjustments meet the needs for the disabled
Section 508 and the American Disability Act (ADA) from the U.S.
American Disability Act Bill from U.s Congress has protected a law that This implies that
government representatives with inabilities can accomplish their work on the available PCs,
telephones and hardware in their workplaces, take internet preparation or access the
organization’s inside site to find required data. Area 508 likewise implies that an individual with
a handicap going after a position with the national government or an individual who is utilizing
an organization’s site to get data about a program, or finishing an online structure approaches
similar open data and assets accessible to anybody. individuals with disabilities who are Federal
employees to have access to and use of information and data that is comparable to the access to
and use of the information and data by Federal employees who are not individuals with
disabilities. Any technologies that are made available or new form of technologies which the
company is proving must be protected and be available for anyone. Guarantee that all individuals
have equivalent admittance to products, administrations, and correspondence. Area 508 is
explicit to Information Communication Technology for government organizations and
administrations. The ADA is a more extensive law that covers all elements, associations, public,
private, and not-for-benefit; barring government offices. The ADA Standards require equivalent
admittance to all products, administrations, data, and correspondence. Such technologies are
computers, websites, telephone, software, as even a PDF document must be protected under this
European Action Plan and European Mandate 376
The European Commission’s (EC) Mandate M 376 coordinates the three European norms
associations CEN, CENELEC and ETSI–to build up a bound together arrangement of necessities
for public-area acquisition of available data and correspondence advancements (ICT). Right
now, the standard is in its third draft design, and the objective is to have a rendition distributed
by February 28, 2014. Its the european version of section 508 of U.S Congress. accessible for
persons with disabilities and there are several guidelines to assist developers in building more
accessible software. Regulation activities are beginning to make the accessibility of software a
mandatory requirement in some countries.
The Disability Act of 2005 in Ireland
The Disability Act of 2005 in Ireland – This is a law passed in the year 2005, which advocates for
improving the quality of life for people with disabilities. The act in particular touches on the
following key points, that is the access to the public building, access to the services where web
access applies, access to the information among other key principles all which allies to the
people with disability thus protecting them from any form of discrimination.
The act’s sections 26, section 27 and the section 28 ensure that the people with disability have
equal opportunity when it comes to the access of the services offered in the country to the public
as well as when it comes to the access of the information published in various media such
websites . The acts ensure that the formats of the published media conforms to the global
requirements. The law also extends to the access of information to every person in a format that
works with adaptive technologies.
Norway Anti-Discrimination and Accessibility Act of 2008
This act is a huge deal for Norway. It marks the countries very first nationwide nondiscrimination act, with a focus on disabilities. To reiterate the importance, there were no anti-
discrimination acts regarding accessibility in place before this act. And with this act, Norway is
making great strides toward nationwide accessibility for those who are disabled. The scope of
this accessibility act for Norway is huge as well. This act does not just focus on technological
accessibility. It applies to all aspects of Norweigin society with the exception of family matters
and personal relationships of a similar nature. According to the unofficial english translation of
the Anti-Discrimination and Accessibility Act, the purpose of the Act is to promote equality and
ensure equal opportunities for and rights to social participation for all persons regardless of
disabilities and to prevent discrimination on the basis of disability.
In section 9 of this anti-discrimination act, it states that any and all public undertakings must take
active measures to promote general accommodation and accessibility to any disabled persons. As
well as any private undertakings which offer goods or services to the general public. Section 10
discusses the universal requirements of all public structures to make adequate accommodations
to the accessibility of disabled persons. While section 12 requires that all employers or schools
shall make accommodations to disabeled members that are within reasonable limits. Many
sections that are included in this act seek to address Norway’s need for anti-discrimination laws
in a way that is broad enough to cover as many aspects of society as possible.
The Anti-Discrimination and Accessibility Act of 2008 introduced many safeguards throughout
Norweigein society to fight against discrimination of people with disabilities. In order to enforce
these safeguards, the Act has listed many prohibitions. Section 4 of the act addresses disabilityfocused discrimination as a whole and states that direct and indirect discrimination on the basis
of disability is prohibited. The Act addresses the many safeguards in greater detail further in the
documentation. Section 6 states that harassment on the basis of disability is prohibited. Section 7
prohibits instructing anyone to carry out discrimination or harassment based on disabilities.
While section 8 prohibits the use of reprisals against someone who has complained about a
breach of this act. All of these sections mentioned, which work together to address the antidiscrimination needs of the nation, are enforced by section 3 of this act. Which states that public
authorities are to make active, targeted and systematic efforts to promote the purpose of the Act.
All businesses and societal functions, public or private, must make adequate efforts according to
this act, toward anti-discrimination and accessibility needs of those who are disabled. Anyone
required to make changes regarding this act must also report the changes that have been made to
ensure efforts are being made.
Australia Disability Discrimination Act of 1992
To provide a little background, disability discrimination is when people with a disability are
viewed as lesser or favored less over someone without a disability. In 1992, Australia issued the
Disability Discrimination Act which made it illegal to discriminatre against a disabled person in
such a way. Section 4 of the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) defines disability in several
points. Total or partial loss of a person’s mental or bodily functions. Total or partial loss of a part
of the body. The presence of disease causing organisms in the body. The malfunction or
malformation of a part of a person’s body. Any mental disorder which inhibits a person’s
learning ability. All of these are put in place to ensure that through this Act, no one with a
rightful claim to a disability will be left out from the fight against discrimination. The DDA
effectively makes it unlawful to discriminate against a person with a disability as defined above,
and in section 4 of the Act. This encapsulates as many areas of public life as possible. Including
employment and businesses, educational foundations, the use of public goods and services,
renting or purchasing property, and accessing public places. All aspects of public life must make
adequate accommodations to promote the accessibility and anti-discrimination of those who are
disabled. The DDA also protects all disabled persons whether disabeled temporarily, or
permanently. As well as harassment because of a disability.
So what does this mean for the evolution of anti-discrimination in Australia. This is not the first
anti-discrimination Act to be passed. In fact, there are several laws already in place which
prevent the discrimination of disabled persons. Almost every state in Australia already has laws
in place. The difference between these pre-exisitng anti-discrimination laws and the DDA of
1992 is that these are on a state level. The DDA of 1992 was the first anit-discrimination act to
be passed on a federal level. It ensures that the same standards are being upheld nationwide. This
is a major step in the right direction toward equality for Australia.
Examples of Websites Utilizing Acts
Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) from the U.K.
RNIB.UK is a good example of how the DDA from the United Kingdom is increasing
accessibility standards and fighting against discrimination of disabled peope. Right on the main
page of the site, you will see tabs where they offer sight loss advice, and reading services.They
offer life advice and solutions for everyday living for people with imparied vision and other
disabilities. RNIB is a perfect example of the UK DDA being put to good use because promoting
equality is one of their primary missions.
Section 508 and the American Disability Act (ADA) from the U.S.
Great example would be in HHS.gov you will find the different type of size of font for any
person who has trouble reading the fonts and it helps them read the article in their own needs
European Action Plan and European Mandate 376
Europa.eu is the official website of the European Union. And as such, this site must be a front
runner in efforts toward making content accessible for any and all disabled users. They have
taken great measures to ensure that the content on this site is fully accessible. Not just to
disabeled individuals, but anyone of a different nationality as well. In this screenshot, you will
see a drop down language menu where you can change the language format of the site to almost
any language imaginable.
The Disability Act of 2005 in Ireland
A perfect example of the Disability Act of Ireland is the official website of the act itself. Here,
you can view the many sections of the act, and educate yourself on various informative links.
You can also file a complaint through this site if you are a disabled individual and you believe
your disability rights have been violated. At the top right of the main page, users are given the
option to change language from english, to traditional gaelic Irish. This makes sense since the
typical visitor of this site would most likely be from Ireland.
Norway Discrimination Act
A good example of anit-discrimination against disabled persons is this norweign airlines site
called norwegian.com. When you first visit the site, you are asked to choose which language you
would like the site to present itself in, which is nice. You then quickly notice that they’ve made
great efforts to accommodate disabled people. When you visit the menu, the primary links that
you would be interested in are in massive writing. This would benefit those with limited vision.
Further down the page, the most popular buttons like “book a flight” are encapsulated in a
massive box which is clickable. These buttons take up a huge portion of the screen. This would
accommodate those who may have impaired hand eye coordination. I also noticed that the
primary hyperlinks located at the bottom of the site are highlighted in red. They contrast less
important links which are colored black. I learned that for color blind people, the combination of
red and black is a good one and will be less likely to confuse a color blind person. This site has
made great strides toward the accessibility of the disabled in Norway.
Australia Discrimination Act
A perfect example of accommodations being made to support the disabled and follow all
Australian DDA requirements is the site aihw.gov. It is the Australian Institute of Health and
Welfare, and they have made great strides to accomodate the disabled. The site has included all
important tabs at the very top of the site where you only need to hover over the words in order to
see the sub-categories. I found this nice that you don’t need to physically click. A mentally
challenged individual may not necessarily know that you click to access more content. Allowing
it to just pop up makes it easier for someone to explore and learn. There is also large print
writing whenever possible to accommodate the visually impaired. However, I did not see any
attempts to accommodate the totally blind with audio assistance. The great thing about this site is
that they’ve included a tab about accessibility! I’ve included it in the screenshot above. It states
that the AIHW website aims to comply with all Australian Accessibility laws, and make all
content accessible by everyone. They even go so far as to say if any information on this site is
not accessible to you, please contact them. I think that’s amazing.
Work Cited
(WAI), W. (n.d.). What’s New in WCAG 2.1. Retrieved November 20, 2020, from
Act June 20 2008 No 42 relating to a prohibition against discrimination on the basis of
disability (the Anti-Discrimination and Accessibility Act). (2008, June 28). Retrieved
November 20, 2020, from
Anonymous. (2020, April 17). Official website of the European Union. Retrieved
November 21, 2020, from https://europa.eu/european-union/index_en
The Disability Act. (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2020, from
DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION ACT 1992. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2020, from
Disability discrimination. (1970, February 18). Retrieved November 21, 2020, from
User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG) 2.0. (2015). Retrieved November 20, 2020,
from https://www.w3.org/TR/UAAG20/
W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). (n.d.). How WCAG 2.0 Differs from WCAG 1.0
â—¦ Web Accessibility Initiative â—¦ W3C. Retrieved November 20, 2020, from
W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). (n.d.). Navigating WCAG 1.0 Guidelines and
Techniques Documents â—¦ Web Accessibility Initiative â—¦ W3C. Retrieved November 20,
2020, from https://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag10.php
WCAG (Henry)
User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG)
The Disability Act of 2005 in Ireland
European Action Plan and European Mandate 376
(Norway discrimination act)
(Australian discrimination act)
The report should discuss the evolution of these policies and their effect on the
development of accessible tools in each country. This should include an example of a
website that has incorporated these policies in each of the above regions. The final
reports will be presented in class in selected schedules.

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