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I’m working on a history question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

Why do you think the Japanese were interned in Canada during WWII? Explain your answer.

WOLD WAR II
WWII
19391945
WWII
QUESTIONS TO KEEP IN MIND
1) Describe Canada’s role on the front in World War II and how
it compares to the war on the front in World War I?
2) How did Canada’s relationship with Britain and the United
States change?
3) In what ways was women’s experience in 1939-45 different
from 1914-18?
4) What factors led to the internment of the Japanese and how
was their experience unique?
CANADIAN AUTONOMY
AUTONOMY FROM BRITAIN
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
League of Nations
Chanak Crisis (1922)
Halibut Treaty (1923)
Belfour Report (1926)
• “Britain and the Dominions
were equal in status”
• Formal recognition of
independence
• Statute of Westminster (1931)
•
•
•
•
•
CANADIAN AUTONOMY
BELFOUR REPORT (1926)
“They are autonomous Communities
within the British Empire, equal in status,
in no way subordinate one to another in
any aspect of their domestic or external
affairs, though united by a common
allegiance to the Crown, and freely
associated as members of the British
Commonwealth of Nations.”
WWII & THE FRONT
WAR DECLARED
• Following Hitler’s
annexation of Poland,
Britain declared war on
Germany on September 3,
1939
• Canada declared war on
September 10
• What does this reflect
about Canada’s growing
autonomy?
WWII & THE FRONT
“LIMITED LIABILITY”
• Canada’s role would be to
supply war materials
while avoiding combat
and causalities
• What was he hoping to
avoid?
WWII & THE FRONT
THE DARKEST HOUR
• Nazi’s rapidly took control
of Europe as they marched
through Denmark, Norway,
Holland, and finally France
in June 1940
• Britain forced off mainland
at the Battle of Dunkirk
• Britain and her colonies
were all that was left to
stop advances of the Nazis
WWII & THE FRONT
CANADIAN-AMERICAN RELATIONS
• The Ogdensburg
Agreement (1940)
• Permanent Joint Board
on Defence (PJBD)
• The Hyde Park Declaration
(1941)
• Japan attacks Pearl Harbour
(December 1941) and US
enters war
• Canada’s role diminishes
significantly
WWII & THE FRONT
CANADIAN BATTLES
Hong Kong (Nov-Dec 1941)
• Japan began overtaking
European colonies
• Canadians sent to
reinforce British troops in
Hong Kong
• 2000 soldiers sent—300
killed and 500 wounded
• Remaining sent to POW
camps where an additional
267 died
WWII & THE FRONT
CANADIAN BATTLES
Dieppe (August 1942)
• First Canadian battle in
Europe
• Pressured to go
• Canadians sitting while
others fighting
• Soviets wanted a
western front opened
• US and Britain wanted
to test German forces
• Steal Enigma code
machine
WWII & THE FRONT
CANADIAN BATTLES
Dieppe (August 1942)
• Military disaster
• 3,000 (60%) of
Canadians killed or
injured
• Huge morale booster for
German’s
• While steep in loses, the
Dieppe attack is
considered pivotal in
preparation for D-Day
WWII & THE FRONT
CANADIAN BATTLES
Royal Canadian Navy
• Canadian Navy only 11
ships and 20,000 sailors
at beginning of war but
400 warships and
113,000 sailors by end
• Tasked with getting
supplies to Britain and
Russia
• Often considered the
most important
contribution to the war
WWII & THE FRONT
CANADIAN BATTLES
Canadian Air Force
• British Commonwealth
Air Training Program
(BCATP)
• Participated in bombing
raids on German
industry and eventually
citizens
WWII & THE FRONT
CANADIAN BATTLES
Italian Campaign (1943)
• Canadian worked
towards the liberation
of Italy
• 6,000 killed and 20,000
injured
• Canadians earned
reputation as elite
fighters through
technique of “mouseholing”
WWII & THE FRONT
CANADIAN BATTLES
D-Day (1944)
• An invasion force had
been assembled in
Britain. It included 1.25
million USA troops, 1.25
million British troops
and 300,000 Canadians.
The troops were
supported by 700 war
ships, 4,000 landing
craft and 11,000 planes.
WWII & THE FRONT
CANADIAN BATTLES
D-Day (1944)
• Canadians landed at
Juno Beach
• Overtook the second
most defended landing
site in just one day—the
only Allied nation to do
so
• 800 Canadians killed or
wounded
WWII & THE FRONT
CANADIAN BATTLES
Liberation of Europe (1945)
• Fighting continued for 11
months after D-Day
• Canadians lost 1,000 men
each month
• Liberated Netherlands
• 7 May 1945 Nazi Germany
is defeated
WWII & THE FRONT
CONSCRIPTION CRISIS
Mackenzie King struggled
with the issue of conscription
throughout the way.
Why?
WWII & THE FRONT
CONSCRIPTION CRISIS
“Phoney War” ended and
“limited liability” not possible
• Military leaders
demanded more soldiers
• English Canadians
believed Quebec not
doing their share
WWII & THE FRONT
CONSCRIPTION CRISIS
• National Resource Mobilization Bill (1940)—Allows for
conscription for service at home
• Plebiscite on conscription (1942)
• “Are you in favour of releasing the Government from any
obligations arising out of any past commitments
restricting the methods of raising men for military
service?
• 79% English vote yes and 85% French vote no
WWII & THE FRONT
CONSCRIPTION CRISIS
• In 1944, Mackenzie King yielding to demands for more
soldiers and instituted conscription of 16,000 men
• 13,000 go overseas, 2,500 reach the front, and 60 are killed
• Mackenzie King received criticism from both sides but was
considered a moderate
• Despite protests, the Liberals won re-election in 1945 in
Quebec
WWII &
THE HOME
FRONT
WWII
19391945
WWII & THE HOME FRONT
QUESTIONS TO KEEP IN MIND
1) In what ways was women’s experience in 1939-45 different
from 1914-18?
2) What factors led to the internment of the Japanese and how
was their experience unique?
3) What measures did the Canadian government take to
prevent depression following the war?
WWII & THE HOME FRONT
WARTIME ECONOMY
• End of Depression
unemployment
• Total war, led by C.D. Howe,
Minister of Munitions and Supply
• What did Canada need to
produce for the war effort?
– Aircraft
– Bombs, bullets, weapons,
ships
– Automobiles
– Agriculture
WWII & THE HOME FRONT
WARTIME ECONOMY
• “Based on the fundamental fact that the real costs of the war
must be borne by the generation which fights it…We, and not
the post-war generation…must make sacrifice today.”
• Government imposed:
• Heavy taxes
• Wage and price controls
• Controlled the price of living
• Voluntary Measures
WWII & THE HOME FRONT
VOLUNTARY MEASURES
• Victory Bonds sold to help
government pay for war
• Rationing
• Instituted by the
Wartime Prices and
Trade Board in 1942 to
ensure costs/prices
stayed low and so that
enough supplies were
available to send
overseas
WWII & THE HOME FRONT
WOMEN AND LABOUR
• Government put in place
policies to recruit labour
to support war effort—
most importantly women
• “Women, back them
up—to bring them
back”
• 225,000 in munitions
factories
WWII & THE HOME FRONT
WOMEN AND SERVICE
• Women allowed to join
military in 1941
• 43,000 enlisted
• Not allowed to fight
• Served nurses, stretcher
bearers, drivers, machine
operators, cooks, and
secretaries, and pilots
• Paid 60% of what men
made
WWII & THE HOME FRONT
TREATMENT OF ETHNIC GROUPS
• The Defence of Canada
Regulations also allowed
the Minister of Justice to
detain anyone without
due process who acted
“in any manner
prejudicial to the public
safety or the safety of
the state.”
Germans
Italians
Jews (escaping from Europe)
Japanese
WWII & THE HOME FRONT
JAPANESE INTERNMENT IN CANADA
One group that was affected more than any other during the
war were the Japanese Canadians. By the end of the war,
22,000 Japanese were interned in camps in the interior of
British Columbia.
WWII & THE HOME FRONT
JAPANESE INTERNMENT IN CANADA
Read “Excerpts from “My Happy Childhood in Racist BC” by
David Suzuki and discuss the following questions in groups:
1) Describe the Japanese experience during World War II in
Canada.
2) What were the living conditions like in the internment
camps?
3) What is the great contradiction found in the treatment of
the Japanese and other visible minorities in Canada?
4) How do you think Canadians justified this treatment during
the war? As historians, we can understand the real reasons.
Consider other events in Canadian history and explain the
causes of the treatment of the Japanese.
WWII & THE HOME FRONT
JAPANESE INTERNMENT IN CANADA
• At the outbreak of the World War II in 1939, the population
of British Columbia included around 21,000 Canadians of
Japanese origin, 75% of whom had residence rights.
• Common belief held was that the Japanese are unable to
assimilate into Canadian society as easily as those of
European heritage (REMEMBER THE ANTI-ASIAN RIOTS?)
• Prime Minister Mackenzie King himself expressed a belief in
“the extreme difficulty of assimilating Japanese persons in
Canada”
WWII & THE HOME FRONT
JAPANESE INTERNMENT IN CANADA
• In 1939, 21,000 Canadians of Japanese origin in BC, 75% of
whom had residence rights.
• Believed that Japanese unable to assimilate into Canadian
society as easily as those of European heritage
(REMEMBER THE ANTI-ASIAN RIOTS?)
• Prime Minister Mackenzie King himself expressed a belief in
“the extreme difficulty of assimilating Japanese persons in
Canada”
• Rumours of Japanese submarines off of Coast and fears of
Japanese spies
WWII & THE HOME FRONT
JAPANESE INTERNMENT IN CANADA
• Resentment against
Japanese Canadians
exploded into panic and
anger in British Columbia.
• 1,200 fishing boats were
seized by the Canadian
navy in fear of spying
• The war offered a
convenient excuse for
Canadians to address the
Japanese Canadian
question.
WWII & THE HOME FRONT
JAPANESE INTERNMENT IN CANADA
• More than 20,000 Japanese Canadians forced to give up their
lives, properties, possessions, and businesses and move into
internment camps in central BC
WWII & THE HOME FRONT
JAPANESE INTERNMENT IN CANADA
1941 (December 8): 1,200 Japanese Canadian fishing boats
impounded. Japanese language newspapers and schools close.
1942 (February 24): All male Japanese Canadian citizens ordered to
be removed along the coast of British Columbia.
1942 (February 26): Mass evacuation of Japanese Canadians begins.
Some given only 24 hours notice. Cars, cameras and radios
confiscated for “protective measures.” Curfew imposed.
1942 (March 4): Japanese Canadians ordered to turn over property
and belongings as a “protective measure only.” Eventually sold and
proceeds used to pay for the interment
1942 (March 25): British Columbia Security Commission initiates
scheme of forcing men to road camps and women and children to
“ghost town” detention camps.
WWII & THE HOME FRONT
JAPANESE INTERNMENT IN CANADA
• In 1945, the government extended the Order in Council to
force the Japanese Canadians to go to Japan and lose their
Canadian citizenship, or move to eastern Canada.
• Even though the war was over, it was illegal for Japanese
Canadians to return to Vancouver until 1949.
• Public protest would eventually stop the deportations, but
not before 4000 Japanese left the country.

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