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Corrections: An Introduction
Sixth Edition
Chapter 1
The History of Crime and
Corrections
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Defining Corrections
• Corrections
– Range of community and institutional sanctions,
treatment programs, and services for managing
criminal offenders
• Penitentiary
– Term first used to describe secure facilities used to hold
offenders serving a criminal sentence
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Mission of Corrections
• Protect society through surveillance and control of
offenders, of treatment and rehabilitative services, and of
incapacitation during prison sentence
– Assisting courts with bail decisions
– Providing information for sentencing
– Imprisoning inmates
– Overseeing offenders
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Figure 1.1 The Criminal Justice System
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Figure 1.2 The Correctional Funnel
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Why Study Corrections? (1 of 2)
• Opportunities in corrections
– Accountant
– Budget and financial specialist
– Caseworker
– Chaplain
– Computer specialist
– Correctional officer
– Facility maintenance worker
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Why Study Corrections? (2 of 2)
• Opportunities in corrections
– Health-care professional
– Human resource manager
– Probation/parole officer
– Psychologist
– Safety manager
– Teacher
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Theories of Crime and Punishment
(1 of 3)
• Classical School of Criminology
– Links crime causation to punishment, based on
offenders’ free will and punishment
– Cesare Beccaria
â–ª Purpose of punishment is utility and prevention of
crime
– Jeremy Bentham
â–ª Hedonistic calculus
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Theories of Crime and Punishment
(2 of 3)
• Positive School of Criminology
– Criminal behavior is predetermined
â–ª Cesare Lombroso
– Atavism
– Evolutionary throwbacks
– Genetic dispositions
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Theories of Crime and Punishment
(3 of 3)
• Neoclassical School of Criminology
– Holding offenders accountable while considering
mitigating and aggravating circumstances
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Early Responses for Crime
• Corporal punishment
– Torture
– Branding
• Transportation
– Remove criminals from society by sending them to
British colonies
• Gaols
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The Development of the Prison (1 of 3)
• William Penn and the Quakers created a new penal code
– Abolition of capital punishment for crimes other than
homicide
– Substitution of imprisonment with hard labor for
corporal punishments
– Free food and lodging to inmates
– Replacement of stocks with houses of detention
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The Development of the Prison (2 of 3)
• Walnut Street Jail
– First penitentiary in the United States
â–ª Built under Quaker values
– Regimen of hard work and reflection for penance
– Inmates were kept in solitary confinement for reflection
â–ª Bible reading, hard labor, and making handicrafts
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The Development of the Prison (3 of 3)
• Pennsylvania System
– Separate but silent system
– Solitary confinement 24/7
– Worked alone in the cell
• Auburn System
– Congregate and silent system
– Strict discipline
– Hard labor outside the cells
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Prisons throughout the Last Two
Centuries (1 of 3)
• Reformatory Era
– Emphasized reformation through education and
vocational programs
– Significant financial burden for the states
• Industrial Prison Era
– Inmates worked and produced items
– Hawes-Cooper Act and Ashurst-Sumners Act
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Prisons throughout the Last Two
Centuries (2 of 3)
• Period of Transition
– Enforced idleness, lack of programs, and excessive
size and overcrowding
– End of the hands-off doctrine with Cooper v. Pate
(1964)
• Rehabilitative Era
– Medical model
– Reintegration
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Prisons throughout the Last Two
Centuries (3 of 3)
• Martinson’s “nothing works”
• Retributive Era
– Tough on crime
– Isolation from law-abiding citizens
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Sentencing Goals of Corrections
(1 of 2)
• Punishment/Retribution
– Lex talionis-eye for an eye
– Solem v. Helm-test of proportionality
• Deterrence
– Specific deterrence-prevent an individual offender from
future crime
– General deterrence-prevent the general population
from crime
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Sentencing Goals of Corrections
(2 of 2)
• Incapacitation
– Selective incapacitation—incarceration of high-risk
offenders
• Rehabilitation
– Recidivism—return to crime
• Restitution
– Victims’ movement
– Restorative justice
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Politics and Policy
• Politics impacts correctional policy
• Furlough
– Program where inmates leave prison early to reside in
a halfway house
• “Tough on crime”
– Attitude that criminals should be severely punished
– Belief that long prison sentences are effective
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Copyright
This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is
provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Corrections: An Introduction
Sixth Edition
Chapter 2
Sentencing and the Correctional
Process
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Sentencing
• Sentencing
– Imposition of criminal sanction by judicial authority
• Felony
– Crime that is punishable by more than one year in
prison
• Misdemeanor
– Crime that is punishable by less than one year in
prison
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Pretrial Activities: Pretrial Diversion
• Suspension of criminal process while the offender is
provided the chance to participate in treatment programs
– Minor offenders and misdemeanor crimes
– Voluntary
– Ideally results in charge dismissal
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Pretrial Activities: Pretrial Detention
in Jail
• Preventative detention
– Detaining an accused person in jail to protect the
community from potential criminal behavior
– Justified by the 1984 Comprehensive Crime Control
Act
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Pretrial Activities: Release on Bail
• Bail
– Pledge of money or property in exchange for promise
to return for further criminal processing
• Surety
– Person who is legally liable for conduct of another
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Pretrial Activities: Alternatives to Bail
• Personal recognizance
• Unsecured bond
• Percentage bond
• Surety bond
• Collateral
• Third-party custody
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Pretrial Activities: Pretrial Service
Programs
• Release on recognizance (ROR)
– Written promise to return for trial process with no
pledge of money
– Used for low-level offenders
• Supervised pretrial release (SPTR) programs
– Supervision of offenders released on their own
recognizance
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The Role of Plea Bargaining and
Sentencing
• Plea bargaining
– Agreement in which the defendant agrees to a plea of
guilty in exchange for a reduced sentence
â–ª 90% of felony cases result in pleas
â–ª Relieves backlogged court system
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Presentencing Correctional Activities
(1 of 3)
• Presentence investigation (PSI)
– Report detailing the background of a convicted
offender, including criminal and personal history
– Used in sentencing, prison classification, and parole
boards
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Presentencing Correctional Activities
(2 of 3)
• Purposes of the PSI
– Sentencing by court
– Determining supervision needs
– Classifying offenders
– Making release decisions
– Research purposes
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Presentencing Correctional Activities
(3 of 3)
• Collecting information for the PSI
– Information collected through interviews and police and
court data
– Victim impact statement and sentencing
recommendation are the two most important pieces of
information
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Figure 2.1 Format for Presentence
Investigation in U.S. Courts
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The Sentencing Decision: Sentencing
Options (1 of 2)
• Economic sanctions
• Probation
• Intermediate sanctions
• Short-term confinement
• Imprisonment
• Capital punishment
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The Sentencing Decision: Sentencing
Options (2 of 2)
• Concurrent sentences
– Sentences that run at the same time
• Consecutive sentences
– Sentences that run one after another
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The Sentencing Decision: Sentencing
Models (1 of 2)
• Indeterminate sentences
– Sentences that have a minimum and maximum length,
and a release authority has discretion of release date
â–ª Rehabilitative form of sentence
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The Sentencing Decision: Sentencing
Models (2 of 2)
• Determinate sentencing
– Sentences of fixed terms
â–ª Truth in sentencing
â–ª Good time
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The Sentencing Decision: Discretion
in Sentencing (1 of 3)
• Judicial form of sentencing
– Judges have primary discretion
• Administrative form of sentencing
– Administrative bodies have discretion in good time and
early release
• Legislative form of sentencing
– Legislative bodies create structured sentencing codes
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The Sentencing Decision: Discretion
in Sentencing (2 of 3)
• Mandatory minimum sentences
– Requires a specific minimum sentence for certain
crimes or certain types of offenders
• Three-strikes laws
– Legislative mandate giving third-time felons extremely
long or life prison sentences
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The Sentencing Decision: Discretion
in Sentencing (3 of 3)
• Presumptive sentencing
– Predetermined range of minimum, average, and
maximum terms for a specific crime
• Sentencing guidelines
– Structured sentences, based on offense severity and
criminal history, to determine current sentence
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Figure 2.3
Minnesota
Sentencing
Guideline Grid
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Reforming Sentencing: Sentencing
Policies and Incarceration Rates
• Rate of imprisonment
– Number of offenders in prison per 100,000 population
• Factors influencing incarceration rates
– Separate time served for violent offenders
– Enhancing sentences for drug offenses
– Mandatory sentencing laws
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Figure 2.4 Map of the United States with
Incarceration Rates per State
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Reforming Sentencing: Re-examining
Sentencing Policies
• United States v. Booker (2005)
– Struck down requirement of federal sentencing
guidelines and asked judges to make decisions based
on reasonableness of the case
• Sentencing policies should embody fairness and serve the
community while working to rehabilitate the offender
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Creative Sentencing Options
• Drug courts
– Alternative to traditional court models to deal with the
underlying drug problem
– Successful as an alternative to traditional court and
sentencing processes
• Mental health and other specialty courts
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Copyright
This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is
provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Corrections: An Introduction
Sixth Edition
Chapter 3
Jails
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History of Jails (1 of 2)
• Gaol
– Early English term for jails
– First used in 1166
– Detained offenders waiting for trial, as well as mentally
ill, vagrants, and the poor
• Deplorable conditions led to the Penitentiary Act of 1779
– John Howard
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History of Jails (2 of 2)
• Early American jails followed the English model
– Used as workhouses and for confinement of offenders
• Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia was the first to be used
for confinement and rehabilitation
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Role and Functions of Jails
• Jails are locally operated correctional facilities that hold
individuals before and after adjudication
– Individuals waiting for trial
– Individuals serving one year or less incarceration
– Individuals waiting to testify in local court proceedings
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Organization of Jails
• Sheriff
– Elected official responsible for overseeing a county jail,
generally in rural counties
• Regional jail
– Jail that serves more than one county and is
administered by regional jail commission
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Jail Populations
• Incarceration rate
– Number of persons per 100,000 who are in jail or
prison
– Jail incarceration rate more than doubled between
1985 and 2008, but there has been a gradual decline
since 2008
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Table 3.1 Inmates Confined in Local Jails, Average Daily
Population, and Incarceration Rates, 2005–2015
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Increasing Use of Jails
• Factors affecting jail populations:
– Tough on crime policies
– Extensive overcrowding in prisons
– Split sentence use
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Admissions and Length of Stay
• Average length of jail stay in 2013 was 23 days
• Logistical nightmare for booking and release procedures
– Identification of offenders and releasing wrong inmate
are not unusual occurrences
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Jail Process
• Inmates are booked and given a brief physical and mental
health screening
• Some inmates are released on bail while others are held
for court proceedings
– Inmates not released are placed in more permanent
housing and classified
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Jail Classification
• Objective classification system
– Statistical approaches to consider the risk of escape
and violence by inmates
– Identify criminal history and personal characteristics
• Used to protect the inmate, as well as other inmates, from
violent individuals
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Jail Staffing
• Jail staff members supervise and transport inmates, as
well as perform administrative and clerical functions
• Staff to inmate ratio is always very high
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Design and Supervision of Jails (1 of 2)
• First-generation jails housed inmates in a linear design,
with cells in long rows and walkways in front of the cells for
supervision
• Podular designs
– Common dayroom surrounded by cells
– Benefit over first-generation jails include better
supervision of inmates, inmate interaction, and lower
staff-inmate ratio
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Design and Supervision of Jails (2 of 2)
• Second-generation jails
– Podular housing designs with remote supervision and
electronic controls to open/close doors
• Third-generation jails
– Correctional officers are located in the unit in direct
contact with inmates
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Responding to Jail Crowding
• Added capacity
• Use of bail and other release mechanisms
• Contracting with private correctional companies
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Figure 3.3 Jail Population by Race
and Ethnicity, 1990-2015
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Legal Issues for Jails
• Jails must provide a constitutionally acceptable
environment
– Nutritious food
– Acceptable level of privacy
– Controlled violence
– Medical care
• Bell v. Wolfish
– Developed punitive intent standard for Eighth
Amendment violations
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Dealing with Mentally Ill Offenders
• Estimated that 16 percent of all jail inmates have mental
illness
• Few jails offer intensive mental health programs
• Cost more to house mentally ill offenders than other
offenders
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Preventing Suicide
• Suicide prevention programs
– Staff education to recognize early signs of suicide risks
• Suicide watch
– Management of suicidal inmates by placing them in
isolation
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Copyright
This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is
provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Corrections: An Introduction
Sixth Edition
Chapter 4
Probation and Intermediate
Sanctions
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Community Corrections
• Community corrections
– Criminal sanctions that involve community supervision
and require offenders to abide by specified conditions
– Gained prominence in Rehabilitative Era
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History of Probation
• John Augustus of Boston, Massachusetts, is recognized as
the father of probation
– Volunteered to supervise over 1,800 offenders to alieve
jails
• Massachusetts was the first state to pass a probation
statute in 1878
– Remaining states quickly followed
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Modern Probation
• Probation
– Prison sentence that is suspended on the condition
that an individual follow certain rules
• Probation is the most frequently used sentencing plan in
the United States
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Figure 4.1 The City and County of San Francisco Adult
Probation Department—Table of Organization
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Characteristics of Probationers
• Average time served on probation in 2012 was 23 months.
• 75% male
• 55% white, 30% black, and 13% Hispanic
• Majority of probationers sentenced for drug or property
crimes
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Supervision (1 of 3)
• Probation supervision
– Role of a probation officer in monitoring an offender’s
behavior
• Casework style of supervision
– Places emphasis on helping an offender with
counseling and treatment
• Surveillance style of supervision
– Places emphasis on monitoring and enforcing
compliance with rules
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Supervision (2 of 3)
• Regular caseloads
– Made up of standard probationers with no special
conditions
• Intensive-supervision caseloads
– Made up of offenders with too high of risk to be on
regular supervision and need more required contacts
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Supervision (3 of 3)
• Special caseloads
– Made up of offenders with a special type of problem,
such as mental illness or substance abuse issues
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Conditions of Probation (1 of 2)
• Standard conditions of probation must be followed by
every probationer
– Maintain employment
– Report to probation officer
– Obtain permission to leave district
– Refrain from associating with criminals or committing
crimes
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Conditions of Probation (2 of 2)
• Special conditions of probation tailored to meet the needs
of individuals
– Random U/A
– Drug/alcohol counseling
– Vocational training
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Revocation of Probation (1 of 4)
• Technical violations
– Violations of community supervision
• New-crime violation
– Violation of condition of refraining from new criminal
activity
• Violations are reported and recommendation for action is
made by PO
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Revocation of Probation (2 of 4)
• Gagnon v. Scarpelli
– Guarantees probationers the following rights during
revocation process:
â–ª Alleged violations in writing
â–ª Notice of process in writing
â–ª Preliminary hearing to determine probable cause
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Revocation of Probation (3 of 4)
• Gagnon v. Scarpelli
– Guarantees probationers the following rights during
revocation process:
â–ª Revocation hearing prior to final decision
â–ª Present witnesses and confront witnesses
â–ª Written decision
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Revocation of Probation (4 of 4)
• Revocation options:
1. Reprimand and restore to supervision
2. Add conditions and restore to probation
3. Revoke probation and restore imprisonment under
original sentence
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Table 4.2 Probationers Who Exited
Supervision, by Type of Exit, 2006–2015
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Annual Probation Survey, 2006–2012, updated from
Probation and Parole in the United States, 2015.
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Changing Style of Supervision
• Transition from casework to surveillance style of
supervision due to:
– More conditions placed on offenders
– Limited tolerance for risk to community
– Hiring and training of officers
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Effectiveness (1 of 2)
• Mixed results in probation’s effectiveness
• In 2015:
– 62% of probationers successfully exited
– 15% of probationers were incarcerated
– 15% of probationers absconded or other unsatisfactory
exit
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Effectiveness (2 of 2)
• Best practices for improving success:
– Effectively access probationers’ criminogenic risks and
needs, as well as strengths
– Employ smart, tailored supervision strategies
– Use incentives and graduated sanctions
– Implement performance-driven personnel management
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Reforming Probation
• Move to reinvest in cost-effective community supervision
• Reductions in “revocation recidivism”
– Adding options other than revocation
– Improving quality of interactions between officers and
offenders
– Giving officers authority to place offenders in treatment
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Probation Classification Systems
(1 of 3)
• Community classification systems
• Supervision levels:
– Intensive
– Regular
– Minimum
– Administrative
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Probation Classification Systems
(2 of 3)
• Eight principles that reduce risk of community offenders
failing supervision:
1. Assess actuarial risk/needs
2. Enhance intrinsic motivation
3. Target interventions
4. Skill train with directed practice
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Probation Classification Systems
(3 of 3)
• Eight principles that reduce risk of community offenders
failing supervision:
5. Increase positive reinforcement
6. Engage ongoing support
7. Measure relevant processes/practices
8. Provide measurement feedback
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Intermediate Sanctions
• Intermediate sanctions
– Midrange dispositions that fall between incarceration
and probation
– Midlevel punishments
• Community corrections acts
– Passed by state legislatures to encourage counties to
develop alternatives to prison
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Types of Intermediate Sanctions
(1 of 6)
• Economic sanctions
– Fines
â–ª Requirement to pay a dollar amount as punishment
for a crime
– Offender restitution
â–ª Repaying society for harm created
– Victim compensation
â–ª Repaying victims for harm caused
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Types of Intermediate Sanctions
(2 of 6)
• Economic sanctions
– Cost of supervision
â–ª Payment for costs associated with supervision, such
as drug testing
– Asset forfeiture
â–ª Seizure of cash and property obtained through
illegal activities
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Types of Intermediate Sanctions
(3 of 6)
• Intensive supervised probation
– Supervision of community offenders with higher than
average risk
– Stricter and more supervision compared to normal
probation
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Types of Intermediate Sanctions
(4 of 6)
• House arrest
– Offenders live at home and are only permitted to leave
for activities approved by their probation officer
– Electronic monitoring
â–ª Use of technology to monitor offender’s location
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Types of Intermediate Sanctions
(5 of 6)
• Community residential centers
– Houses in which offenders live in the community that
provide supervision, room and board, and some
treatment
• Split sentences
– Combination of short jail sentence and return to
probation
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Types of Intermediate Sanctions
(6 of 6)
• Shock incarceration/boot camp
– Operated similarly to military camps, including strict
discipline, athletic training, and education
– Low success rate
• Shock probation
– Short period of imprisonment to “shock” offender, then
return to probation
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Effectiveness of Intermediate
Sanctions
• Goals of intermediate sanctions:
– Divert offenders from prison
â–ª Net widening effect
– Reduce cost of corrections
– Reduce level of recidivism
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Copyright
This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is
provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Corrections: An Introduction
Sixth Edition
Chapter 5
Prison Systems
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Prisons
• Prisons
– Institutions designed to house convicted, adult felons,
serving a sentence of one year or more
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Current Status of Prisons in the
United States
• In 1967, state and federal prisons held less than 300,000
inmates
– Medical model was prevailing philosophy
• Currently, “tough on crime” mentality
• Prison now holds a very heterogeneous population in
regard to offending types
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Role and Mission of Prisons (1 of 2)
• Mission
– Statement of an organization’s major function and what
it is supposed to accomplish
• The mission of prisons is to hold to convicted felons
– Protect the public
– Assist with rehabilitation
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Role and Mission of Prisons (2 of 2)
• Rhodes v. Chapman
– Overcrowding itself is not a violation of the Eighth
Amendment
– Consideration of the “totality of the conditions”
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Growth of Prison Population (1 of 3)
• By 2016, the prison population was over 1.5 million
– Public is more fearful of crime, hence tougher and
longer sentencing laws
– More use of determinate sentencing policies
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Growth of Prison Population (2 of 3)
• New penology
– Emphasis on the rational and efficient deployment for
control strategies of inmates
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Growth of Prison Population (3 of 3)
• War on Drugs
– Reagan initiative to reduce the availability and
dependence on illicit drugs through interdiction,
criminal sanctions, and treatment
– Caused severe prison overcrowding and imprisonment
of low-level drug offenders and users
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Federal and State Prison Systems
• Federal versus state crimes
– Federal crimes involve interstate commerce or
treason/espionage against the United States
– State crimes are generally street crimes, which are
crimes with little sophistication (robbery, burglary,
murder)
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Federal Prison System
• Three Penitentiary Act
– 1891 act of Congress that authorized the construction
of the first three federal prisons
– Fort Leavenworth in Kansas
• Establishment of the Federal Bureau of Prisons in 1930
– Sanford Bates was first director
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Growth of Federal Prison System
(1 of 3)
• White Slave Act (1910)
– Interstate commerce of prostitution
• Harrison Narcotic Act (1914)
– Taxing and records must be kept on controlled
substances
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Growth of Federal Prison System
(2 of 3)
• Volstead Act (1918)
– Prohibition of the sale and consumption of alcohol
• Dyer Act (1919)
– Interstate transportation of stolen vehicles
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Growth of Federal Prison System
(3 of 3)
• Sentencing Reform Act of 1984
– Act of Congress that abolished parole, established
determinate sentencing, and reduced the amount of
good time available to federal offenders
– Other acts in 1986, 1988 and 1990 created mandatory
minimums
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Table 5.1 U.S. Bureau of Prisons
Population on January 4, 2018
Type of facility
Number of inmates
BOP-operated prisons
155,057
Long-term privately managed facilities
18,068
Community correctional centers
10,368
Total
183,493
Note: Community correctional centers include offenders in
halfway houses, home, confinement, and jails.
Source: Data from Federal Bureau of Prisons, available at
https://www.bop.gov/ (accessed January 10, 2018).
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Bureau of Prisons Today (1 of 2)
• Five security levels
1. Minimum
â–ª Dormitory housing and limited perimeter fencing
2. Low
â–ª Double perimeter fencing and strong work
component
3. Medium
â–ª Electronic fencing and cells
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Bureau of Prisons Today (2 of 2)
• Five security levels
4. High
â–ª Close control of inmates and high staff-to-inmate
ratio
5. Administrative
â–ª Most serious criminals
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ADMAX Facility
• Located in Florence, CO
– Federal “supermax” facility
– Contains serious federal criminals
â–ª Mob bosses, terrorists, violent felons
– Solitary confinement for all inmates
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Figure 5.1 Federal Prison System:
Current Locations
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State Prison Systems
• At the end of 2016, states operated almost 1,250 prisons
holding approximately 1.32 million inmates
– Texas—163,703 inmates
– North Dakota—1,791 inmates
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Organization of State Prison Systems
• Move from decentralized to centralized system of
management
• State prisons are generally run by a Department of
Corrections, Public Safety, or something comparable
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Figure 5.3 Three Models of
Correctional Agency Relationship to
the Chief Executive
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Inmates in State Prison Systems
• Over the past several years among state prison systems,
there has been a decline in the growth of inmates
– Most cited reason is impact of budgets
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Table 5.2 Percentage of Sentenced State
Inmates by Type of Crime, 1990, 2000, and 2016
Type of crime
1990
2000
2016
Violent
46%
49%
55%
Property
25
20
18
Drug
22
21
15
Public order/other
7
10
12
Sources: Data from Heather C. West and William J. Sabol,
Prisoners in 2007 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice,
Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2008), p. 27; and E. Ann
Carson, Prisoners in 2016 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of
Justice, 2018), p. 18.
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Classification within State Prison
Systems
• Inmates are often placed in central reception centers for
security classification, then assigned a prison
– Minimum
– Medium
– Maximum
– Supermax
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Design of State Prisons
• Prison architecture has evolved over the past 150 years
• Outside cells
– Staff corridor is between the rows of cells, which face
each other and are abutted to a wall
• Inside cells
– Considered more secure than outside cells
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Table 5.4 Inmate Prison Assignments
Assignment
Number of inmates
Percent of totala
Prison industry
78,881
7.8
Prison farm
34,180
3.6
Other work
550,583
47.0
Full-time education
or vocational
129,049
13.9
Part-time education
or vocationalb
129,683
14.5
aThe total will not be 100 percent because some inmates are unassigned and some states
have other assignments not included in these categories.
bPart-time includes release preparation, adult continuing education, parenting, and fitness
and wellness programs.
Source: Data from Camille Graham Camp and George M. Camp, The 2002 Corrections
Yearbook:Adult Systems (Middletown, Conn.: Criminal Justice Institute, 2003), p. 82.
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Other Public Correctional Systems
• Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
– Responsible for housing illegal aliens pending
deportation
– 34,000 individuals detained
• Military facilities/brigs
– Hold violators of military law
– Approximately 1,400 individuals housed
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Private Prisons
• Any secure correctional facility operated by a private
company, usually for profit, and contracts with government
to provide housing, security, etc. for inmates
– CoreCivic
– The GEO Group, Inc.
– Management Training Corporation
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Table 5.9 Number of Prisoners Held in Private
Facilities, December 31, 2000–2015
Sources: Data derived from Paul Guerino, Paige M. Harrison, and William J. Sabor, “Prisoners in 2010,”
E. Ann Carson and Daniela Golinelli, “Prisoners in 2012,” and E. Ann Carson, Prisoners in 2016,” BJS
Bulletins (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2011, 2013, and 2018).
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Copyright
This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is
provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
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Corrections: An Introduction
Sixth Edition
Chapter 6
Parole and Prisoner Reentry
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History of Parole
• Origin is French word “parol,” meaning “word of honor”
• Parole
– Conditional release of inmates by a parole board prior
to expiration of sentence
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Maconochie and the Mark System
(1 of 3)
• Alexander Maconochie
– Superintendent of British penal colony on Norfolk
Island
• Created the mark system
– Credits against a sentence that allowed for inmates to
be released early
• Pushed for penal reform and better treatment of prisoners
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Maconochie and the Mark System
(2 of 3)
• Four stages of the mark system, each providing more
liberty:
1. Penal stage
â–ª Solitary confinement and punishment
2. Associated stage
â–ª Association with other inmates, work and
programs
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Maconochie and the Mark System
(3 of 3)
• Four stages of the mark system, each providing more
liberty:
3. Social stage
â–ª Inmates grouped and held responsible for each
other’s behaviors
4. Ticket of leave
â–ª Conditional pardon
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Walter Crofton and the Irish System
(1 of 2)
• Sir Walter Crofton
– Director of Irish prison system
• Created four-stage system of release:
1. Solitary confinement
â–ª Approximately 9 months long and focuses on
punishment
2. Special prison
â–ª Works with other inmates and takes classes to
earn credits
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Walter Crofton and the Irish System
(2 of 2)
• Created four-stage system of release:
3. Open institution
â–ª Transitional stage focusing on freedoms
4. Ticket of leave
â–ª Conditional release
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Parole Begins in the United States
• 1870—First meeting of the American Prison Association
– Zebulon Brockway presented a paper on the Irish
system
â–ª Became superintendent of the Elmira Reformatory
in 1876
â–ª Created a system of earning privileges among
inmates, including parole
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Parole and the Medical Model
• Under the medical model, indeterminate sentencing and
parole were increased in use
– Focused on rehabilitation, reintegration and inmate
treatment
– Kept dangerous criminals incarcerated for longer
– Parole was an incentive for good behavior
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Attacks on the Medical Model and
Parole (1 of 2)
• Martinson review concluded “nothing works”
• Justice model
– Proposal to use determinate sentencing and eliminate
parole boards
• Just deserts model
– Proposal to use fixed sentencing so that punishment
fits the crime
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Attacks on the Medical Model and
Parole (2 of 2)
• Discretionary parole
– Release of inmates where the decision is made by a
parole board
• Supervised mandatory release
– Inmates serve a determinate sentence then released
with a period of supervision
• Unconditional mandatory release
– Expiration of sentence
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Table 6.1 Abolition of Discretionary Parole
Jurisdiction abolishing parole
Year abolished
Maine
1975
Indiana
1977
Illinois
1978
Minnesota
1980
Florida
1983
Washington
1984
Federal government
1984
Oregon
1989
Delaware
1990
Kansas
1993
Arizona
1994
North Carolina
1994
Mississippi
1995
Virginia
1995
Ohio
1996
Wisconsin
1999
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Figure 6.1 Entries to Parole, by Type
of Entry, 2000-2015
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New Models for Release Decisions
• Parole guidelines
– Similar to sentencing guidelines, these are used to
predict success of offender on parole and risk to the
community
• Salient factor score
– Point determination to use in parole guidelines
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Figure 6.2 U.S. Parole Commission
Salient Factor Score Sheet
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Current Status of Parole in the United
States
• Offenders on parole or mandatory release supervision at
year-end 2015 was 870,500
• Number of offenders on parole has changed significantly in
past three decades
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Figure 6.4 Adults on Parole at YearEnd, 1980–2015
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Operations of Parole
• Sentencing release process includes three major steps:
1. An indeterminate sentence
2. Consideration of release by a parole board
3. Supervision in the community
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Organization of Parole Boards
• Parole authorities responsible for release decision and
post-release supervision
– Agencies responsible are dependent by state
• Almost all parole boards consist of full-time employees of
the state, who are appointed by the governor
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Parole Hearings (1 of 2)
• Many parole hearings are by video communications
• Parole board gathers information on behavior while
incarcerated from records and staff
– Inmates are allowed to discuss their crimes and
behavior while in prison, as well as stability of plans
after release
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Parole Hearings (2 of 2)
• If board grants parole, presumptive parole date is issued
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Supervision and Conditions of Parole
(1 of 2)
• Standard conditions
– Given to all parolees
• Special conditions
– Pertains to particular parolee
– Can entail electronic monitoring, therapy, drug
treatment
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Supervision and Conditions of Parole
(2 of 2)
• Once offenders being supervision, they are classified to
determine risk and needed frequency of contacts
– Intensive
– Basic high
– Basic medium
– Basic low
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Revoking Parole
• If a technical or new-crime violation occurs, the revocation
process includes:
– Possible stipulated agreement
– Notice of violation and possible arrest
– Preliminary revocation hearing
– Full revocation hearing
– Reprimand/modification of conditions or return to
prison
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Legal Issues Regarding Revocation
(1 of 2)
• Morrissey v. Brewer (1972)
– Once parole is granted, certain due process rights are
in action before revocation:
â–ª Advanced written notice of violation
â–ª Opportunity to attend hearing and present
evidence/witnesses
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Legal Issues Regarding Revocation
(2 of 2)
• Morrissey v. Brewer (1972)
– Once parole is granted, certain due process rights are
in action before revocation:
â–ª Right to cross-examine
â–ª Neutral body to hold hearing
â–ª Written decision
– Did not provide right to counsel
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Effectiveness of Parole (1 of 2)
• Can be measured as:
– Percent of offenders who successfully complete parole
â–ª In 2015, 62% of offenders successfully completed
parole conditions
– Percent of offenders who recidivate
â–ª 67% of offenders recidivate after release
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Effectiveness of Parole (2 of 2)
• Can be measured as:
– How discretionary release with supervision compares
to release with no supervision
â–ª Supervised offenders recidivate less
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Prisoner Reentry
• Process of an inmate leaving prison and returning to the
community
• Obstacles to reentry include:
– Housing
– Employment
– Positive peers
– Alcohol and drug abuse
– Adapting to changing society and technology
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Changes Over the Past Three
Decades
• Current model of prison operations focuses more on
punishment, deterrence, and incapacitation than on reentry
and rehabilitation
• Programs are available to a small number of inmates
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Issues Faced by Offenders Returning
to the Community
• Collateral consequences
– Adverse effects on the offender that stem from a
criminal conviction but are not included in the sentence
– Includes prohibition from:
â–ª Voting
â–ª Holding certain jobs
â–ª Living in public housing
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Recent Progress in Prisoner Reentry
(1 of 2)
• Second Chance Act signed into law in 2008 and funds:
– Mentoring programs
– Drug treatment
– Education and job training
– Alternatives to incarceration
– Programming for children of incarcerated parents
– Early release of non-violent elderly
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Recent Progress in Prisoner Reentry
(2 of 2)
• Reentry courts
– Specialized courts that use judicial oversight to monitor
offenders’ transition to community and reduce
recidivism
– Promising outcomes
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What Else Can Be Done to Improve
Prisoner Reentry?
• Maryland Scale of Scientific Methods
– Used to identify crime prevention programs that work
– Effective programs include:
â–ª Vocational training
â–ª Work release programs
â–ª Drug rehabilitation
â–ª Educational programs
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Figure 6.8 A Reentry-Focused
Correctional System
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Copyright
This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is
provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Corrections: An Introduction
Sixth Edition
Chapter 7
The Clients of Adult Correctional
Agencies
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Overview of Adult Offenders
• Dramatic growth of adults under correctional supervision
over past three decades
– 1980—over 1.8 million
– 2015—over 6.7 million
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Table 7.1 Number of Persons under Correctional
Supervision, Selected Years 1980–2015
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Gender, Race, Ethnicity (1 of 2)
• Majority of offenders are male and of minority race
• Females under correctional supervision has grown faster
than for males
– Four jurisdictions (TX, federal system, FL, CA) hold
more than 1/3 of all female prisoners
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Gender, Race, Ethnicity (2 of 2)
• Racial disparity
– Minorities make up a greater percentage of those
under incarceration compared to general population
– Believed to be causes of disparity:
â–ª Policies and practices
â–ª Implicit bias
â–ª Structural disadvantage
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Age of Offenders
• Three phenomena contribute to the aging of America’s
prison:
1. Overall US population is aging
2. Inmates are serving longer sentences
3. Mandatory sentencing and sentencing guidelines
take away judicial discretion to give older offenders
probation
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Figure 7.2 The Leveling Out of Prison
Population by Age
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Types of Offenses and Lengths of
Confinement
• Growth in relative number of offenders who have
committed violent crimes
• Recent reduction in number of people imprisoned for a
drug offense
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Table 7.3 Number of Sentenced Prisoners in Custody of
State Correctional Authorities by Most Serious Offense,
Selected Years 1980–2015
Year
Violent
Property
Drug
Public Order
1980
173,300
89,300
19,000
12,400
1985
246,200
140,100
38,900
23,000
1990
313,600
173,700
148,600
45,500
1995
459,600
226,600
212,800
86,500
2000
589,100
238,500
251,100
124,600
2005
687,700
248,900
253,300
98,700
2010
715,900
263,400
255,700
116,100
2013
707,500
247,100
210,200
140,200
2014
696,380
250,118
206,676
152,703
2015
707,497
233,669
197,320
150,586
Source: Data from Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997 (Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Department of Justice, 1998); Prisoners in 2002; Prisoners in 2004; Prisoners in 2007; Prisoners in
2010; Prisoners in 2013; and Prisoners in 2016 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2003,
2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, and 2018), p. 10, p. 21, and p. 18.
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Male Offenders
• Males made up 92.5% of the state and federal prison
population in 2015
• Males made up 79.8% of arrests for violent crime in 2015
• Majority of adult prisons hold normal, male inmates in
general population
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Table 7.4 Total Arrests of Males in
2015 for All Index Crimes
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Table 7.5 Estimated
Percent of Sentenced
Prisoners under State
Jurisdiction, by
Offense and Gender,
Year-End 2015
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Female Offenders
• Females made up 7.3% of the state and federal prison
population in 2015
• Women on probation are more likely to be white, and
women in prison/jail are more likely to be minorities
• Women are more likely to be convicted with drug/property
offenses
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Table 7.6 Characteristics of Adult Women
under Correctional Supervision
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Special Issues and Needs of Female
Inmates
• 60% of female inmates have been physically and/or
sexually abused
• 60% of incarcerated women are mothers
– Hardship on families due to separation
– Prisons often have parenting programs to help female
inmates with life and parenting skills
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Separation from Family and Children
• Parenting programs
– Prison programs to assist inmates improve their
parenting skills
• Girl Scouts Beyond Bars
– Girl Scout troops that have their chapter based in a
prison so inmates with children can participate as
Scout parents
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Alcohol and Substance Abuse
• Majority of female offenders are alcohol/drug users
– Majority were under the influence at the time of arrest
• Need for treatment is not satisfactorily met
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Need for Medical Care
• Female inmates have more serious health problems than
male inmates
• Factors hampering provision of health services:
– Not a priority
– Limited financial resources
– Difficulty recruiting staff
– No health-care policy
– Isolation of institution
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Classification Systems for Female
Offenders
• Women are often overclassified
– Placement of offenders in prisons more secure than
needed for their level of risk
– Difficult issues upon release regarding employment
and housing
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Legal Issues Regarding Female
Inmates
• Barefield v. Leach (1974)
– Disparity of programs for female inmates could not be
justified because the smaller number of female inmates
made it more costly to provide program parity
• Pargo v. Elliott (1995)
– Differences in male and female programs does not
necessarily violate equal protection clause
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Copyright
This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is
provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Corrections: An Introduction
Sixth Edition
Chapter 8
The Juvenile Correctional
System
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Problem of Juvenile Crime (1 of 2)
• Juvenile arrest rate was 68% lower comparing 1996 to
2015
• Juvenile violent crime arrests decreased by 47.1% from
2006 to 2015
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Problem of Juvenile Crime (2 of 2)
• Juvenile violent crime rate greatly increased from 1988 to
1994
– Emergence of crack cocaine and violence associated
– Expansion of juvenile gang membership
• High rate of status offenses
– Activity only considered criminal because offender is
under age 18
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Figure 8.1 The Juvenile Arrest Rate
for All Crimes, 1980-2015
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Development of the Juvenile Justice
System (1 of 5)
• Prior to the 1800s, children over age 7 were dealt the
same as adults
• Refuge period
– Period from 1824 to 1899 where delinquent/neglected
children were placed in home for training and
discipline
– House, train, educate, and provide good habits for
children
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Development of the Juvenile Justice
System (2 of 5)
• Juvenile Court Act of 1899
– Passed in Illinois
– Established the first juvenile court in Chicago
– Juvenile justice system established
â–ª Handles juveniles separately from adults
â–ª Parens patriae
– Giving court authority to take over supervision of
the child
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Development of the Juvenile Justice
System (3 of 5)
• Juvenile institutions were originally seen as positive places
of reform, but then were seen as an overly aggressive
sanction
– Deinstitutionalize
â–ª Movement to remove juveniles from correctional
institutions and place them in community
alternatives
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Development of the Juvenile Justice
System (4 of 5)
• Adultification
– Move to make the juvenile justice system act more like
the adult system
• Waiver to adult court
– Due to violent nature of juvenile crime, statutory
exceptions allow movement to adult court for criminal
processing
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Development of the Juvenile Justice
System (5 of 5)
• Superpredator
– Generation of violent youth who practice indiscriminant
violence on the street
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Waiver of Juvenile Offenders
• Mandatory waiver
– Direct assignment of specific crimes committed by
juveniles to be handled in adult court
• Discretionary waiver
– Juvenile courts decide case by case whether juveniles
should be waived
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Categories of Juvenile Offenders
(1 of 2)
• Dependent children
– Children who have not committed any crime but are
without parental supervision
• Neglected children
– Children who have a family or guardian, but are not
receiving proper care
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Categories of Juvenile Offenders
(2 of 2)
• Delinquent children
– Children who have committed a crime
• Age of original jurisdiction
– Oldest age a juvenile court will have jurisdiction over
the categories of offenders
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Steps in the Juvenile Justice Process
(1 of 4)
• Juvenile detention
– Temporary care of children in physically restricted
facilities pending court disposition
• Intake
– Determination if juvenile cases should be dismissed,
handled informally, or referred to juvenile court
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Steps in the Juvenile Justice Process
(2 of 4)
• Consent decree
– Informal handling of juvenile case, in which the juvenile
admits to wrongdoing and agrees to special conditions
of behavior
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Steps in the Juvenile Justice Process
(3 of 4)
• Referral
– Formal processing of juvenile offender through juvenile
court
– Delinquency petition is issued (similar to indictment)
• Adjudicate
– Find a juvenile guilty of a delinquent act
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Steps in the Juvenile Justice Process
(4 of 4)
• Order
– Sanction for a juvenile found delinquent by juvenile
court
• Aftercare
– Supervision of a juvenile in the community after serving
time in juvenile correctional institution
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Figure 8.3 Stages in the Juvenile
Justice Process
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Figure 8.4 Juvenile Case Processing Overview, 2013
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Table 8.5 Comparison of Adult and
Juvenile Justice Processing (1 of 5)
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Table 8.5 Comparison of Adult and
Juvenile Justice Processing (2 of 5)
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Table 8.5 Comparison of Adult and
Juvenile Justice Processing (3 of 5)
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Table 8.5 Comparison of Adult and
Juvenile Justice Processing (4 of 5)
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Table 8.5 Comparison of Adult and
Juvenile Justice Processing (5 of 5)
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Juvenile Residential Facilities
• Security is the primary emphasis in medium and maximum
security facilities
• Education is the predominant feature of daily activities
– Most offenders do not have a high school diploma/GED
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Juvenile Offenders in the Community
• Moving from a residential to a community supervision
approach:
1. Juvenile incarceration is expensive and ineffective
2. Use the “risk principle”
3. Using accurate and valid risk-assessment
instruments provides foundation for cost-saving
alternatives
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Legal Issues in the Juvenile Justice
System (1 of 3)
• In re Gault (1967)
– Require hearings for juveniles who may be committed
â–ª Right to counsel
â–ª Notice of the charges against them
â–ª Question witnesses
â–ª Protection against self-incrimination
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Legal Issues in the Juvenile Justice
System (2 of 3)
• In re Winship (1970)
– Finding of guilt has to meet standard of beyond a
reasonable doubt
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Legal Issues in the Juvenile Justice
System (3 of 3)
• McKeiver v. Pennsylvania (1971)
– Jury trials are not a requirement in juvenile court
• Breed v. Jones (1975)
– Waiver to adult court after an adjudication hearing in
juvenile court constitutes double jeopardy
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Figure 8.5 U.S. Supreme Court Cases Regarding
Juvenile Offenders and Courts
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Issues in Juvenile Corrections (1 of 3)
• Juvenile gangs
– Groups of adolescents who see themselves as a group
and commit crime
– Most gangs are formed within racial groups
– Generally composed of males
– Involved in activities to make money and protect turf
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Issues in Juvenile Corrections (2 of 3)
• Juvenile competency
– Competency is the ability to make reasoned decisions
– Competency is linked to mental illness in juveniles
– No standard definition of competency
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Issues in Juvenile Corrections (3 of 3)
• Juvenile Drug Crime
– Balanced and restorative justice (BARJ)
â–ª Integrates goal of public safety and rehabilitation
â–ª Uses graduated sanctions
â–ª Similar approach used in adult drug courts
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Figure 8.6 The Balanced and Restorative Justice
Perspective
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Copyright
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provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Corrections: An Introduction
Sixth Edition
Chapter 9
Special Offenders
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Special Offenders
• Special offenders are those offenders whose
circumstances, conditions, or behaviors require
management or treatment outside the normal approach
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Juvenile Offenders in Adult Criminal
Court (1 of 5)
• Three methods to transfer juveniles to adult court
1. Waiver
â–ª Decision made by the judge and limited by age and
offense
2. Direct file
â–ª Decision made by the prosecutor
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Juvenile Offenders in Adult Criminal
Court (2 of 5)
• Three methods to transfer juveniles to adult court
3. Statutory exclusion
â–ª Mandatory waiver for specific offenses and ages
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Juvenile Offenders in Adult Criminal
Court (3 of 5)
• Blended sentencing
– Judge can choose a wide array of juvenile and adult
sanctions
• Straight adult incarceration
– Juveniles placed in adult correctional facilities with no
separate housing
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Juvenile Offenders in Adult Criminal
Court (4 of 5)
• Graduated incarceration
– Juveniles handled in adult courts are placed in juvenile
facilities until they turned 18 and then placed in an
adult facility
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Juvenile Offenders in Adult Criminal
Court (5 of 5)
• Segregated incarceration
– Juveniles handled in adult court are placed in an adult
facility, but housed separately and given special
programming
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Prisoners with Substance Abuse
Needs (1 of 3)
• Obama Administration increased drug control budget in
2016
– $30.6 billion
â–ª $15.8 billion for domestic law enforcement,
interdiction, and international programs
â–ª $14.7 billion for treatment and prevention
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Prisoners with Substance Abuse
Needs (2 of 3)
• Arrestee drug abuse monitoring
– Gathers data within 48 hours of their arrest from
individuals regarding their substance abuse
• Large portion of state and federal prisoners have
substance abuse issues and/or are serving time for drug
crimes
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Table 9.2 Participation in Drug Treatment Programs since
Admission among State Prisoners and Sentenced Jail Inmates Who
Met Drug Dependence or Abuse Criteria, 2007-2009
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Prisoners with Substance Abuse
Needs (3 of 3)
• Bureau of Prison’s Drug Abuse Program
– Five-part treatment strategy
1. Orientation screening and referral
2. Drug abuse education
3. Nonresidential drug treatment services
4. Residential drug abuse treatment
5. Transitional services
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Mentally Ill Offenders (1 of 3)
• Most inmates have a mental health need
– More likely to be disciplinary problems, victimized,
recidivate, and are more expensive to house in prison
• Antipsychotic drugs
– Drugs administered to mentally ill individuals to
counteract symptoms of mental illness
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Mentally Ill Offenders (2 of 3)
• Treatment for mentally ill offenders in prisons
– Screening inmates at intake for mental health
conditions
– Therapy or counseling
– Psychotropic medications
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Table 9.3 Mental Health Treatment Received by Inmates
Who Had a Mental Health Problem, 2011-2012
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Mentally Ill Offenders (3 of 3)
• Mentally ill offenders after release
– Expected to maintain employment and stay crime-free,
just like any other offender
– Issue of stable housing, medication access, and finding
consistent treatment
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Aging Offenders (1 of 2)
• Prisons are built for young and active offenders
– Walking long distances and wheelchair access
– Bunk beds used in cells
– Different habits compared to young offenders
– Fewer work opportunities
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Aging Offenders (2 of 2)
• Medical parole
– Placing aging or disabled patients in a nursing home or
hospital to receive care while still serving sentence
– Cost covered by Medicaid
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Transgender Inmates (1 of 2)
• Management of transgender inmates is inconsistent in
U.S. prisons
– No “standards of accepted practice”
• One of the most vulnerable populations in a correctional
facility
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Transgender Inmates (2 of 2)
• Issues complicating management
– What gender of prison to assign a transgender inmate
– Use of proper pronoun
– Searching inmates
– Physical and mental health care
– Clothing and commissary
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Violent Offenders (1 of 3)
• In 2015, 49% of adults in state prison were there for violent
offenses
– Huge threat to security within the prison to other
inmates and staff
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Violent Offenders (2 of 3)
• Supermax prisons
– Freestanding or distinct within other prisons that
provide secure control of violent inmates
– Inmates are almost always in solitary confinement
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Violent Offenders (3 of 3)
• Bruscino v. Carlson (1985)
– Federal decision that lockdown of inmates at U.S.
Penitentiary in Marion, Illinois, was not a violation of
the Constitution
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Operation and Controversies of
Supermax Prisons (1 of 2)
• Security is dominant feature
• Human contact limited
• Use has expanded over the years
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Operation and Controversies of
Supermax Prisons (2 of 2)
• Controversies
– Human rights violations
– Negative consequences on individual
– Deterioration of inmates’ mental health
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Sex Offenders (1 of 4)
• Sex offenders
– Offenders who committed a legally prohibited sexual
act
• Pedophile
– Someone who is sexually attracted to and molests
children
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Sex Offenders (2 of 4)
• Victims of sex offenders
– Primarily white
– 45% are 12 years old or under
– Over one-third of assaults are by family members
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Sex Offenders (3 of 4)
• Sex offender characteristics
– Primarily male
– Majority are white
– Average age at arrest was 34 years old
– 22% were married at time of arrest
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Sex Offenders (4 of 4)
• Offenders receive sentences ranging from probation to
imprisonment
• In 2016, there were 861,837 registered sex offenders in
the United States
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Treatment of Sex Offenders (1 of 2)
• Containment model
– Approach to managing sex offenders that includes
treatment to develop internal control over deviant
thoughts, supervision and surveillance to control
external behaviors, and polygraph examinations to
monitor conformance to treatment plans and
supervision conditions
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Treatment of Sex Offenders (2 of 2)
• Components of containment model
1. Goal of community safety
2. Individualized case management system
3. Multidisciplinary collaboration
4. Consistent public policies regarding effective
management
5. Quality-control
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Table 9.5 Recidivism Rates of Sex
Offenders
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Civil Commitment
• Civil commitment statutes
– Laws designed to continue incarceration of sexual
predators even after their maximum criminal sentence
– Must be judged to have mental abnormality or
personality disorder in most jurisdictions
– 20 states and D.C. use involuntary commitment laws
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Offenders with Infectious Diseases
(1 of 3)
• HIV/AIDS
– Issue has been declining in prison
– Approximately 17,150 prisoners with HIV/AIDS
– Rates are similar for male and female prisoners
– High medical costs for these inmates
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Offenders with Infectious Diseases
(2 of 3)
• Tuberculosis
– Inmates at high risk due to background of poverty, poor
living conditions, and substance abuse
– Airborne disease
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Offenders with Infectious Diseases
(3 of 3)
• Hepatitis C
– Most common bloodborne illness in the United States
– Spreads through sharing of needles for drug use and
tattoos
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Copyright
This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is
provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Corrections: An Introduction
Sixth Edition
Chapter 10
The Management of Prisons
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State Department of Corrections
• Central organization that oversees state and federal
prisons is the central office or headquarters
– Varies in responsibility depending upon the state
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Functions of the Office of the Director
(1 of 3)
• Director
– Chief executive officer of the department of corrections
– Generally oversees central management functions
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Functions of the Office of the Director
(2 of 3)
• Organizational entities often include:
– Public affairs
â–ª Manages media
– Legislative liaison
â–ª Answers legislative requests and builds support for
resources
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Functions of the Office of the Director
(3 of 3)
• Organizational entities often include:
– Legal advisors
â–ª Manages inmate lawsuits and handles policies
– Internal affairs
â–ª Inspector handles allegations by inmates against
staff
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Administrative Functions
• Budget development
– Gathers information from prisons regarding budget and
resource use
• New prison construction
– New prisons and/or units (beds) are constantly being
added in the United States
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Human Resources Functions
• Recruitment
• Hiring
• Evaluations
• Retirement
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Other Entities
• Community supervision
– Probation or parole
• Field operations
– Supervise wardens and implementation of policies
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Prison Staff Organization (1 of 2)
• Custody
– All security functions
– Uniformed staff
• Treatment
– All rehabilitative functions focused on keeping inmates
productively engaged and preparing them for release
– Professional staff
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Prison Staff Organization (2 of 2)
• Services
– All the functions required to operate a prison
– Staff and facility issues
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Unit Management (1 of 2)
• Organize the prison into smaller components to
decentralize authority to manage inmate population and
make staff more accessible to inmates
• Unit manager
– Individual in charge of a unit
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Unit Management (2 of 2)
• Case manager
– Social worker or inmate caseworker
• Correctional counselors
– Work with inmates on daily issues
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Figure 10.3 Table of Organization for
a Unit Management Department in a
Prison
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Controlling Inmate Behavior
• Clear and well-written policies and procedures
– Consistent with professional standards (American
Correctional Association manuals)
– Clearly communicated to staff and inmates
– Consistently implemented and in a high-quality fashion
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Quality Assurance of Policy (1 of 2)
• Consistent implementation of prison policies is ensured by:
– Monitoring policy compliance
â–ª Policy audit
– Review to determine if broad agency policy is in
place
â–ª Policy implementation audit
– Review to determine if policies are consistently
carried out by staff members
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Quality Assurance of Policy (2 of 2)
• Consistent implementation of prison policies is ensured by:
– A C A accreditation
â–ª Process to promote and recognize improvement
through administration of voluntary standards
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Inmate Classification (1 of 2)
• BOP was the first to develop a classification system in the
mid-1970s
• Current function
– Determine appropriate security level for inmates
– Determine housing assignments
– Reclassification is a motivator for good behavior
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Inmate Classification (2 of 2)
• Internal classification systems
– Instruments used to assign inmates to housing or
programs after they are placed in a particular prison
– Reclassification occurs on a regular basis
â–ª Every 3 or 6 months
– Incentive for good behavior
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Inmate Discipline (1 of 3)
• Inmate disciplinary system
– Policy that clearly prescribes the process required to
find that an inmate committed a proscribed act and
identifies allowable punishments
– Punishments range from warning to placement in a
supermax prison.
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Inmate Discipline (2 of 3)
• Components of disciplinary systems
– Written policy documenting prohibited behavior
– Fair and equitable sanctions increasing with the
severity of rule violation
– Ways to separate inmates from general population
– Provisions for long-term separation or special security
for inmate threats
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Inmate Discipline (3 of 3)
• Administrative appeals process
– Informal process for inmates to appeal a disciplinary
sanction or to seek remedy of any other injustice they
feel they have received at the hands of correctional
officials
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Figure 10.6 U.S. Bureau of Prisons Disciplinary
Process
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Role of Staff in a Prison (1 of 2)
• Recruiting, hiring, and retention of correctional staff
– Military
– Social services agencies
– Colleges and universities
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Role of Staff in a Prison (2 of 2)
• Integrity interview
– Interviews of candidates for correctional employment
used to assess if candidates have issues to put them in
compromising positions
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Collective Bargaining
• Formal recognition of employee organizations and their
right to negotiate with management regarding workplace
issues
• Seniority
– Use of length of employment to determine employee’s
assignment, days off, or other job-related functions
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Copyright
This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is
provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Corrections: An Introduction
Sixth Edition
Chapter 11
Prison Life for Inmates
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Prison Life for Male Offenders
• Total institution
– Described by Goffman
– Setting isolating people from the rest of society and
unnecessarily manipulating them through the actions of
administrative staff
– Uniforms, shaved heads, and complete control over
rule enforcement
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Prison Culture and Inmate Code
(1 of 5)
• Inmate code
– Expected rules and behaviors represented by model
prisoner and reflecting values/norms of society
â–ª Don’t snitch
â–ª Don’t trust the guards
â–ª Mind your business
â–ª Don’t exploit other inmates
â–ª Respect the cons
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Prison Culture and Inmate Code
(2 of 5)
• Prisonization
– Process by which inmates take on folkways, mores,
customs, and general culture of the prison
â–ª New language
â–ª Status
â–ª Degradation of status
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Prison Culture and Inmate Code
(3 of 5)
• Inmate subculture is a result of deprivation of liberties and
importation of values from the outside
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Prison Culture and Inmate Code
(4 of 5)
• Three types of inmates in the prison setting
1. Convicts
â–ª Long-term inmates who become used to prison
society and find a way to live in this environment
with minimal issues
2. Thieves
â–ª Inmates who have adopted a career of crime and
are doing time until they get a “big score”
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Prison Culture and Inmate Code
(5 of 5)
• Three types of inmates in the prison setting
3. Square johns
â–ª First-time offenders who are affiliated with straight
society
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Violence in Prison (1 of 3)
• One in four inmates are victims of non-sexual violence in
prison, due to:
– Overcrowding
– Tensions between gangs
– Street culture
– Boredom
– Sexual frustration
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Violence in Prison (2 of 3)
• Interpersonal violence
– Violence between two or more inmates that occurs due
to personal issues
• Collective violence
– Violence that is between, and initiated by, groups of
inmates and includes prison riots and disturbances
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Violence in Prison (3 of 3)
• Three categories of inmates who resort to violence
1. Antisocial offenders
2. Special-needs offenders
3. Psychopathic offenders
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Gangs in Prison (1 of 2)
• Groups that form in prison and use the threat of violence to
intimidate other inmates, control drug sales and
prostitution, and gain power and influence
– Approximately 230,000 gang members in prison
– 24.8% of the male inmate population are gang
members
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Gangs in Prison (2 of 2)
• Current major gangs in prison
– Aryan Brotherhood
– Mexican Mafia
– Black Guerilla Family
– La Nuestra Familia
– Mexikanemi
– Texas Syndicate
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Prison Gang Control Strategies (1 of 3)
1. Transferring gang members to maximum-security
prisons
2. Limiting inmates’ access to money
3. Placing the most violence-prone gang members in
special facilities
4. Developing gang intelligence
5. Recruiting informers
6. Observing daily activities to identify patterns
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Prison Gang Control Strategies (2 of 3)
• Gang validation process
– Identification of the number of identifiers of gang
activity used to confirm individuals’ gang activity
▪ 5–6 items = member
▪ 3–4 items = associate
▪ 1–2 items = suspect
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Prison Gang Control Strategies (3 of 3)
• Debrief
– Gang members tell correctional officials everything
they know about gang operations
â–ª Become enemy of the gang
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Homosexual Behavior in Male
Prisons (1 of 3)
• Large portion of inmates participate in homosexuality in
prison, but do not identify as homosexual
• Many fights and stabbings often result from sexual
triangles (jealousy between inmates)
• Most prison rapes are methods of domination and power
maintenance
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Homosexual Behavior in Male
Prisons (2 of 3)
• Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) was passed in 2003
– Established a zero-tolerance policy for sexual assault
in prison
– Mandatory yearly reporting by the government on
sexual assault in prison
– Increased punishments for inmates and staff involved
in sexual assault
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Figure 11.1 National Estimates of Allegations and
Substantiated Incidents of Sexual Victimization, 2005–11
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Homosexual Behavior in Male
Prisons (3 of 3)
• Conjugal visiting
– Private visiting opportunities between inmates and
spouses with expectation of participation in sexual
activity
– Used to reduce homosexual activity in prison
â–ª Only permitted in California, Connecticut,
Mississippi, New Mexico, New York, and
Washington
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Drugs in Prison (1 of 2)
• 47.5% of federal inmates and 15.2% of state inmates are
serving time for drug offenses
• Prisoners are constantly looking for opportunity to get
drugs into the prison
– Staff
– Family visits
– Mail
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Drugs in Prison (2 of 2)
• Inmates who sell drugs in prison have extreme power
• Prison administration tries to reduce availability by:
– Checking mail and packages for contraband
– Strip searching inmates after visits
– Searching of staff each day when they enter for duty
– Random drug testing of inmates
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History of Women’s Prisons (1 of 3)
• Male and females were housed together until the Walnut
Street Jail made a separate wing in the late 1700s
• Elizabeth Fry, a Quaker, advocated for separation of
female inmates, hiring of female guards, and decreased
amount of hard labor for female inmates
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History of Women’s Prisons (2 of 3)
• Reformatories for women were opened in the late 1800s
– Built in cottage-style architecture
â–ª Several small housing units holding 30 inmates, with
a kitchen, living room, and nurseries for children
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History of Women’s Prisons (3 of 3)
• Modern-day female prisons now resemble men’s prisons
– Campus-style architecture
– Physical security has increased
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Culture in Women’s Prisons (1 of 2)
• Women are not afraid to talk to staff
• Women seek companionship/emotional stability
– Form pseudofamilies
â–ª Family organizations where inmates play role of
parents and children
• Experience stress and depression due to separation from
children
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Culture in Women’s Prisons (2 of 2)
• Between 30% and 60% participate in lesbian relationships
• Sexuality is used for companionship, support and affection
• The 2011–2012 PREA report indicated that female inmates
had twice the rate of inmate-on-inmate sexual assault
compared to men
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Copyright
This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is
provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Corrections: An Introduction
Sixth Edition
Chapter 12
The World of Prison Staff
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Jobs of Prison Staff (1 of 3)
• Chaplain
• Counselor or case manager
• Computer specialist
• Institution administrator
• Substance abuse counselor
• Employee development specialist
• Facility maintenance worker
• Financial manager
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Jobs of Prison Staff (2 of 3)
• Food service worker
• Health-care worker (physician or nurse)
• Industrial supervisor
• Laundry supervisor
• Psychologist
• Personnel manager
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Jobs of Prison Staff (3 of 3)
• Recreation specialist
• Safety manager
• Secretary/clerical worker
• Classification specialist
• Teacher
• Staff training instructor
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Organization of Prisons (1 of 2)
• From the early 1800s to 1960s, prisons were a closed
system.
– Prison systems that consist of only the internal
environment, under the direct control of the warden,
and without interference of external groups
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Organization of Prisons (2 of 2)
• Currently operating as open systems
– Prison systems that have frequent interactions
between the organization and other groups, in order to
obtain resources, gain support, and accomplish goals
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Chain of Command
• Vertical hierarchy in an organization, identified in terms of
authority, and the order through which persons receive
directives from the person immediately above them and
pass these directives to the person immediately below
them
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Figure 12.1 A Prison Chain of Command
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The Warden (1 of 5)
• Chief executive officer of a prison
– Responsible for day-to-day operations
• Era of bureaucratic wardens
– Development of a mission statement
– Coordination of budget
– Strategic evaluation
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The Warden (2 of 5)
• Era of bureaucratic wardens
– Management of daily activities
– Management of labor relations
– Formulation of policy
– Supervision of staff
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The Warden (3 of 5)
• Warden leadership styles are different compared to the
past
– Transactional leaders
â–ª Traditional leaders in an organization who were
involved in exchange relationships between leaders
and followers
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The Warden (4 of 5)
• Warden leadership styles are different compared to the
past
– Transformational leaders
â–ª Leadership based on principles, while motivating
staff to jointly address challenges and find solutions
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The Warden (5 of 5)
• Organizational culture
– Values and beliefs that form a way of life in an
organization
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Life for a Correctional Officer
• Correctional officer
– Staff person in a prison or jail who accomplishes the
institution’s mission by maintaining control and order in
the prison
– Make up 2/3 of all staff in prisons
– 74% corrections officers are male in state prisons
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The Daily Grind (1 of 2)
• Correctional officer assignments
– Living units
– Work detail supervisors
– Industrial s…
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