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What is the relationship between corruption in a country (i.e., government officials taking bribes) and economic growth? Is corruption always bad?

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Thanks. For the feedback see below1. This discussion topic is interesting because so many of us would assume that corruption is automatically bad particularly when it involves government officials, but research points out other dynamics that are not initially considered. Cooper-Miller (2014) stated that corruption is a misuse of power used for private or personal gain. As it pertains to governance and the economy, corruption means that public resources are being used for private gain essentially taking away from the overall population. Corruption in developed countries undermines law and governing institutions. Although, while the overall idea of corruption is bad, if a country has high level regulations but week government institutions then corruption could be used to launch an economy. Developing countries experience a higher level of corruption because of the lack in experience of statehood. It is argued that corruption can buy loyalty. In some situations that loyalty and support is a launching pad for socio-political and economic change that might not happen otherwise (Cooper-Miller, 2014).The challenge for many countries, is where does the corruption stop. Taylor et al. (2022) stated that corruption breeds corruption. Meaning that even though corruption was used to create the required support needed for reform and change, at what point do government officials say that corruption is no longer allowed even though those same officials could have been involved in it initially. It is also argued that the word corruption is what has bad connotation but if giving money in support of a political agenda is considered bad then what is to be said of lobbying and campaigning (Taylor et al., 2022). It seems that the word corruption is associated with bad things, but it depends on the country’s viewpoint.ReferencesCooper-Miller, J. (2014, June 12). Is corruption always bad? University of Sussex. https://blogs.sussex.ac.uk/centre-for-the-study-of-corruption/2014/06/12/is-corruption-always-bad/Taylor, I. W., Muhammad, A. U., Koul, S., & Mark, S. U. (2022). Evaluating the impact of institutional improvement on control of corruption—A system dynamics approach. Systems, 10(3), 64. https://0634oyr0q-mp03-y-https-doi-org.prx-keiser.lirn.net/10.3390/systems100300642. Corruption is the use of unfair practices like bribes, abuse of power, and other illegal ways, Džuni?, M., & Golubovi?, N. (2018).  Corruption does not allow the natural laws of the economy to work properly, and it prevents small businesses from growing. If the country is underdeveloped in that case the corruption will further diminish the economic development however in the case of developed countries the corruption makes it easier to get the job done and therefore it further encourages economic development, Doren, et al (2021).Corruption is not always bad; it provides an incentive to speed up the process and get the job, Yu, Y., & Shusen, Q. (2021). Corruption is a complex social phenomenon that has long existed and is more predominant in the public sector, Džuni?, M., & Golubovi?, N. (2018).  References:Doren, C., Banjo, R., & Alexandre, K. (2021). Corruption, Bribery, and Innovation in CEE: Where is the Link?: JBE. Journal of Business Ethics, 174(4), 747-762. https://0624oindn-mp02-y-https-doi-org.prx-keiser.lirn.net/10.1007/s10551-021-04925-xDžuni?, M., & Golubovi?, N. (2018). PERCEIVED CORRUPTION IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT: EXPLORING THE UNDERLYING CAUSES. E+M Ekonomie a Management, 21(4), 48-64. https://0624oindn-mp02-y-https-doi-org.prx-keiser.lirn.net/10.15240/tul/001/2018-4-004Yu, Y., & Shusen, Q. (2021). I Know What I Need: Optimization of Bribery: JBE. Journal of Business Ethics, 174(2), 311-332. https://0624oindn-mp02-y-https-doi-org.prx-keiser….

  
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