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What do I want from the Outlines? Two things: I want them to be 1) succinct (short/brief), yet 2) thorough. Try to get them down to 2 – 3 pages, if possible, but no more than 4 pages.

The idea is to discern between what is and is not important to include in your outline.

The goal is to study ONLY from your outline to prepare for your Quests.

Many will require small charts with data to be included as well. Examples are below.

Nutrient-Gene
Interactions
in Health and
Disease
Unit 26
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Nutrition and Genomics
• Two milestones in the study of nutrition
– Experiments in the late 1800s demonstrating that
some constituents of foods are essential for life
– Mapping of the human genome and development of
the field of nutrigenomics
• Led to discovery of the underlying causes of a
variety of common diseases and the specific roles
of components of diets in disease prevention and
treatment
• The identification of genetic codes for protein
production and nutrients that affect, or are affected
by, gene activity
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Definitions and Explanations of Genetic
Terms
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Definitions and Explanations of Genetic
Terms (cont’d.)
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Definitions and Explanations of Genetic
Terms (cont’d.)
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Genetic Secrets Unfolded
• Humans share 99.9% of the same DNA
– The human genome is estimated to contain 19,000
genes
– Not all segments of DNA code for protein formation
• Individual uniqueness in genetic makeup is located
in noncoding segments of DNA
• These segments contain instructions for the
regulation of gene activity to turn them on or off
• These segments vary in composition based on
environmental factors such as nutrient availability
and exposure to infectious agents, or
environmental toxins
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Genetic Secrets Unfolded (cont’d.)
• Genetic traits and susceptibility to disease
– Most disorders are related to multiple genes and
interactions among gene function and environmental
factors
• Some genes can provide protection against
diseases related to lifestyle factors
• But some genes can increase disease risk among
people with healthy lifestyles
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Nutrient–Gene Interactions
• Increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids from fish
combined with a reduction of intake of omega-6
fatty acids from oils decreases inflammatory
gene expression
• Some gene variants influence the development
of obesity through subtle effects on appetite,
food intake, and food preferences
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Nutrient–Gene Interactions (cont’d.)
• Among individuals with particular gene types,
high-fat diets increase insulin resistance and fat
stores in the liver, and increase the risk of type 2
diabetes and obesity
• Adults with specific gene variants who frequently
consume fried foods versus adults who consume
fried foods less often are associated with higher
body mass indices
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Nutrient–Gene Interactions (cont’d.)
• Gene variants related to impaired folate and
choline utilization can increase the need for
folate and choline
• The risk of developing breast cancer appears to
be lower in women with certain gene variants if
they regularly consume cruciferous vegetables
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Nutrient–Gene Interactions (cont’d.)
• Genetic variation influences health and disease
development
• In addition, lifestyle factors such as diet and
exercise play important roles in the prevention
and development of obesity, diabetes, and other
common disorders
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Single-Gene Defects
• Single-gene defects (or “inborn errors of
metabolism”) are disorders resulting from one
abnormal gene
• Thousands of rare diseases related to a defect
in a single gene have been discovered
– Phenylketonuria (PKU), galacostemia,
hemochromatosis, and sitosterolemia are four
examples of single-gene defects that substantially
affect nutrient needs or utilization
• All babies born in the United States and many
other countries are tested for PKU after birth
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Single-Gene Defects (cont’d.)
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Single-Gene Defects (cont’d.)
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Genetics of Taste
• Food preferences are partly influenced by
genetic traits related to taste sensitivity
– Genetically influenced food preferences apply to
dogs, cats, and other animals as well humans
– There are more than 80 genes that help people taste
bitter foods
• People born with a high sensitivity to bitter tastes
tend to dislike cooked cabbage, collard greens,
spinach, Brussels sprouts, or other vegetables that
taste bitter to them
• Genetic traits also affect a person’s perception of
sweet and savory (umami) tastes
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Genetics of Taste (cont’d.)
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Nutrition Tomorrow
• Meaningful breakthroughs in the future will be in
the area of disease prevention and treatment
through nutritional changes
– Knowledge of genetic traits will increasingly be used
to identify individual nutrient needs and
responsiveness to dietary and other changes
– Personalized modifications of dietary intake based on
genotypes will become standard practice in clinical
dietetics and medicine
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Nutrition Tomorrow (cont’d.)
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Nutrition Tomorrow (cont’d.)
• The sequencing of an individual human’s
genome cost $350,000 in 2008 but can now be
done for $1,000
– However, knowledge of an individual’s genetic
makeup does not provide enough information to
reliably indicate disease risk
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Nutrition Tomorrow (cont’d.)
• The function of genes is determined by
epigenetic factors
– It is estimated that 90% of DNA alterations associated
with disease are due to gene switches rather than
genes
– Additional information about gene variants and
environmental exposures that influence gene
functions is needed to understand and manage
disease risk
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Nutrition and Physical
Fitness for Everyone
Unit 27
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Physical Activity: It Offers Something for
Everyone
• Physical activity involves body movements
produced by muscles that require energy
expenditure
– Exercise is a subcategory of physical activity
– It is generally planned, structured, and repetitive
– The terms physical activity and exercise are often
used interchangeably
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Physical Activity: It Offers Something for
Everyone (cont’d.)
• Physical activity has much to offer the athlete
and non-athlete alike
– It provides recreation, which is good for both the body
and soul
– It doesn’t have to cost anything
– It benefits almost everyone
– At its best, physical activity results from play and has
positive consequences for health and well-being
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The “Happy Consequences” of Physical
Activity
• By improving a person’s physical health, regular
physical activity:
– Helps ward off heart disease, obesity, some types of
cancer, hypertension and stroke, osteoporosis, and
diabetes
– Tends to increase a person’s feeling of well-being and
helps relieve depression, anxiety, and stress
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The “Happy Consequences” of Physical
Activity
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The Bonus Pack: Physical Activity Plus a
Healthy Dietary Pattern
• Physical activity benefits health most when
combined with a healthy dietary pattern
• Regular physical activity is one of the few factors
we can identify that help people reduce weight
gain with age
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Exercise and Body Weight
• Combined with a moderate decrease in normal
caloric intake (200 calories per day), exercise
helps people lose body fat, build muscle mass,
and become physically fit
• People who enjoy physical activity because it is
perceived as being fun or pleasurable are less
likely to reward themselves with high-calorie
foods
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Calorie Cost of Various Types of
Exercise
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Calorie Cost of Various Types of
Exercise (cont’d.)
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What is Physical Fitness?
• A state of health measured by muscular strength
and endurance, cardiorespiratory fitness, and
flexibility
– The strength component of physical fitness relates to
the level of maximum force that muscles can produce
– Muscular endurance refers to the length of time
muscles can perform physical activities
– Flexibility refers to a person’s range of motion
– Cardiorespiratory fitness relates to the functioning of
the circulatory system, heart, and the lungs
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Muscle Strength
• Muscle strength depends on the ability of a
muscle or groups of muscles to lift, pull, push, or
otherwise exert force against a weight or
opposing force
– Muscle-building activities are referred to as resistance
exercise
• These are physical activities that involve the use of
muscles against a weight or force
• Resistance exercise increases muscle strength,
mass, power, and endurance
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Muscle Strength (cont’d.)
• Resistance exercise is also called resistance
training, strength training, and weight training
• Strength-building exercise includes lifting
weights, doing pull-ups and push-ups, and the
use of stretch bands
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Muscle Strength (cont’d.)
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Muscle Endurance and Cardiorespiratory
Fitness
• Muscular endurance is a measure of the ability
of a muscle to sustain repeated muscular
contractions against a weight or force over time
• The length of time muscles can work against a
weight or force depends on cardiorespiratory
fitness
– Aerobic fitness is a state of respiratory and circulatory
health
• Measured by the ability to deliver oxygen to
muscles and the capacity of muscles to use the
oxygen for physical activity
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Muscle Endurance and Cardiorespiratory
Fitness (cont’d.)
• Cardiorespiratory fitness levels build up with
time as individuals increase their level of aerobic
exercise
• Aerobic exercises increase cardiovascular
fitness in three major ways
– Strengthens and expands the capacity of the lungs to
deliver oxygen
– Increases the ability of the circulatory system to
deliver blood and oxygen to muscles and other
tissues throughout the body
– Strengthens the ability of the heart to move an
increased volume of blood through the body
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Muscle Endurance and Cardiorespiratory
Fitness (cont’d.)
• Aerobic exercise is physical activity in which the
body’s large muscles move in a rhythmic
manner for a sustained period of time
– Involves metabolic pathways that require oxygen for
energy production and improve functioning of the
cardiovascular and respiratory systems
– Includes walking, jogging, running, swimming, skiing,
vacuuming, house cleaning, lawn mowing, raking,
cycling, and aerobic dance
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An Example of Aerobic Exercise
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How Is Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Determined?
• Assessed by measuring maximal oxygen
consumption (VO2 max) under supervision in a
laboratory
– People can perform physical activity at 100% of VO2
max for only a few minutes
– Therefore, aerobic fitness goals are set below that
level
– It is recommended that beginners start a
cardiorespiratory fitness program with a goal of
exercising at 40 to 60% of VO2 max
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How Is Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Determined? (cont’d.)
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Physical Fitness and Heart Rate
• Heart rate is used as an indicator of
cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise intensity
• The lower the heart rate, the more efficient your
body is at delivering oxygen to cells and utilizing
glucose and fat for energy formation
• Resting heart rate reflects the number of times
per minute your heart must beat to maintain
body functions while you are at complete rest
– It can be used to help track progress in becoming
physically fit
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Physical Fitness and Heart Rate (cont’d.)
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Physical Fitness and Heart Rate (cont’d.)
• The rate at which the highest level of oxygen
delivery to working muscles can occur is
considered the maximum heart rate (MHR) or
100% MHR
– Moderate intensity activities are considered those
between 50% and 69% MHR, and intense activities
fall between 70% and 90% MHR
– Identifying estimated MHR and using heart rate
targets for physical activity can help individuals
monitor their progress
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Calculations of 100% MHR and 60%
MHR
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Target Heart Rates
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Wearable Devices and Smart Phone
Apps
• Some of the wearable devices and their apps
are able to calculate steps and speed with
reasonable accuracy 88% to 98% of the time
• Smart phone sensors and apps are very close to
being accurate at least 93% of the time
• Activity monitors are available that provide
automated feedback and interactive behavioral
change tools via smart phones or computers
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Flexibility
• Flexibility is the range of motion of your muscles
and connective tissues around your joints
– Affects your ability to stretch, react, bend, and
maintain balance and agility
– Important for day-to-day activities such as walking,
reaching, moving smoothly and quickly out of danger,
and balance
– Maintained and increased by many types of physical
activities
• Stretching exercises increase flexibility
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Flexibility (cont’d.)
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Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
(DOMS)
• DOMS is muscle pain, soreness, and stiffness
that occurs a day or two after exercise of
muscles that are not normally used to high levels
of activity
– Overused muscles develop microscopic tearing in
muscle fibers that cause stiffness and soreness for a
day or two
– Within a few days, your muscles recover and actually
end up in a better state to be strengthened
– Muscles rebuild and become ready for the next bout
of use
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DOMS (cont’d.)
• DOMS is most likely to occur when you:
– Use muscles you don’t generally use for vigorous
physical activity
– Engage in physical activity when you are out of shape
– Dramatically increase exercise intensity or duration of
physical activity
– Run downstairs or downhill, or engage in other
downward motions
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Fueling Physical Activity
• Muscles use fat, glucose, and amino acids for
energy
– The proportion and amount of each that is used
depends on the intensity of activity
• When we’re inactive, fat supplies between 85 and
90% of the total amount of energy needed by
muscles
• The rest is provided by glucose and amino acids
– Fat is also the primary source of fuel for activities of
low to moderate intensity such as jogging and
swimming
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Fueling Physical Activity (cont’d.)
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Fueling Physical Activity (cont’d.)
• High-intensity, short-duration activities, like
making a tackle, throwing a fastball, or sprinting
down the block to catch a bus, are fueled
primarily by glucose
– Our supply of glucose for intense activities comes
from glycogen, the storage form of glucose
– Glycogen is stored in muscles and the liver and can
be rapidly converted to glucose when needed by
working muscles
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Fueling Physical Activity (cont’d.)
• High intensity, short-duration activities represent
anaerobic exercise because the conversion of
glucose to energy does not require oxygen
• People can undertake very intense activity only
as long as their stores of glycogen last
• Activities such as basketball, hockey, tennis,
football, and soccer, which involve walking,
running, and high-intensity, quick moves, use
both fat and glucose for energy
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A Reminder about Water
• Physical activity increases the body’s need for
water
– If the climate is hot and humid, this need increases
even more
– People should drink in response to thirst
– You are consuming the right amount of water if your
urine is pale yellow and normal in volume
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Achieving Physical Fitness
• The beneficial effects of training on muscular
endurance diminish dramatically within two
weeks after training stops
– Muscle strength also decreases, but at a lower rate
– A realistic and achievable plan is best—one that feels
right and that will last because it’s good to you and for
you
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Achieving Physical Fitness (cont’d.)
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Physical Activity Recommendations
• Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans
• Developed by the Department of Health and Human
Services to improve the physical activity and fitness
levels of Americans
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Physical Activity Guidelines for
Americans
• At least 150 minutes per week of moderateintensity aerobic activity
– Moderate intensity activities are those that increase
heart and breathing rates
– Includes brisk walking and jogging, scrubbing floors,
operating a wheelchair manually or playing a sport
from a wheelchair, running around with children, fast
dancing, tennis, and playing basketball
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Physical Activity Guidelines for
Americans (cont’d.)
• At least two sessions of strengthening activities
per week
– Strengthening activities should include activities like
push-ups, sit-ups, weight lifting, or other resistance
exercises
– Exercises should work legs, hips, back, chest,
stomach, shoulders, and arms
– Each exercise should be repeated 8 to 12 times per
session
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Physical Activity Recommendations for
Schoolchildren
• Only 30% or less of children and adolescents
exercise at the recommended level of an hour or
more each day at a moderate to vigorous level
• Only one in three students are offered daily
physical activity classes
• Physical activity should focus on meeting fitness
goals rather than on competitive or sports
performance goals
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Physical Activity Recommendations for
Schoolchildren (cont’d.)
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Some Exercise Is Better Than None
• In 2014, 48% of U.S. adults met the Physical
Activity Guidelines for Americans
• Sedentary people who take up walking, dancing,
gardening, biking, golfing, or similar exercises
experience improvement in aerobic fitness,
strength, and energy level
• Short, interspersed bouts of moderate-intensity
physical activity also count as health promoting
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Some Exercise Is Better Than None
(cont’d.)
• Bouts of running or jogging for 5 to 10 minutes
during the day decrease heart disease risk
• Mixing prolonged periods of sitting with short
bouts of walking enhances blood glucose
utilization
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Nutrition and Physical
Performance
Unit 28
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Sports Nutrition
• Three major factors affect physical performance:
genetics, training, and nutrition
– Nutrition is often ignored or misunderstood
– Misinformation about nutrition and physical
performance can be found on dietary supplement
labels, in online blogs, and in magazine articles
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Sports Nutrition (cont’d.)
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Nutrition and Physical Performance
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Nutrition and Physical Performance
(cont’d.)
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Basic Components of Energy Formation
During Exercise
• Glycogen
– The storage form of glucose
– Glycogen is stored in muscles and the liver
• Physical performance
– The ability to perform a physical task or sport at a
desired or particular level
• Ergogenic aids
– In the context of sports, an ergogenic aid is broadly
defined as a technique or substance used for the
purpose of enhancing performance
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Basic Components of Energy Formation
During Exercise (cont’d.)
• Basic knowledge of how energy is formed within
muscle cells is beneficial in understanding
– The role of nutrition and performance and the
potential effects of some ergogenic aids
• Main substrates for energy formation in muscles
– Glucose from muscle
– Liver glycogen stores
– Fatty acids released from fat stores
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How ATP Is Formed for Muscular
Movement
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Basic Components of Energy Formation
During Exercise (cont’d.)
• Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine
diphosphate (ADP) are molecules containing a
form of phosphorus that can trap energy
obtained from the macronutrients
– ADP becomes ATP when it traps energy and returns
to being ADP when it releases energy for muscular
and other work
• Each substrate (glucose, glycogen, and fatty
acid) is used to form ATP from ADP
– ATP serves as the source of energy for muscle
contraction
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Fat vs. Glycogen as the Main Energy
Source
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Anaerobic Energy Formation
• Glucose is obtained from the liver, and muscle
glycogen forms ATP without oxygen
– This route of energy formation is anaerobic, or
“without oxygen”
• Generates most of the energy used for intense
muscular work
– Glucose is converted to pyruvate during energy
formation
• In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate is converted to
lactate which can build up in muscles and blood if
not reconverted to pyruvate by the addition of
oxygen
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Aerobic Energy Formation (cont’d.)
• The conversion of pyruvate and fatty acids to
ATP requires oxygen
– Much more ATP is delivered by the breakdown of
fatty acids than glucose
– Unlike glucose, energy formation from fatty acids is
not limited by availability
– Muscle cells can continue to produce energy from
fatty acids as long as delivery of oxygen from the
lungs and the circulation is sufficient
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Nutrition and Physical Performance
• Factors related to energy formation and physical
performance
– Glycogen stores
– Foods and fluids consumed before, during, and after
exercise
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Nutrition Recommendations for Athletic
Performance
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Glycogen Stores and Performance
• Continuous, intense physical activity is limited by
the amount of glycogen stored
• When muscle glycogen is depleted, fat and liver
glycogen must be used as fuel
• Hitting the wall occurs when liver and muscle
glycogen is depleted
– Athlete has to slow his pace because he can no
longer use glycogen as a fuel
• When liver glycogen is depleted, hypoglycemia
occurs
– Bonking
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Snacks to Increase Glycogen Stores
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Foods and Beverages That Provide
about 60 Grams Carbohydrate
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Protein and Performance
• Strength or endurance athletes may need 20–40
grams of additional protein daily to support
muscle protein synthesis and repair
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The Protein–Muscle Connection
• Muscle fibers develop microscopic tears during
training, and protein is needed to help limit
muscle tissue breakdown and to repair and
rebuild the muscle
– Consumption of about 20 grams of high-quality
protein within two hours after exercise sessions
facilitates muscle protein synthesis and repair and
enhances strength
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The Protein–Muscle Connection (cont’d.)
• High-quality protein (or “complete protein”) is
protein that contains all of the essential amino
acids in amounts needed to support growth and
tissue maintenance
– Examples of high-quality proteins include eggs, soy
milk, milk, meat, and beans and rice
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Amount of Protein Supplied in a
Sandwich
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Foods and Beverages That Provide
about 20 Grams High-Quality Protein
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Hydration
• Hydration status is the state of the adequacy of
fluid in the body tissues
• Hydration status is a major factor affecting
physical performance and health
– Adequate hydration during training and competition
enhances performance, prevents excessive body
temperature, delays fatigue, and helps prevent
injuries
– Hydration status during exercise is affected primarily
by how much a person sweats
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Estimating Fluid Needs: Sweat Rate
• The amount of fluid athletes need during an
event can be estimated by calculating an hourly
sweat rate for a specific activity
– Sweat rate: fluid loss per hour of exercise; equals the
sum of body weight loss plus fluid intake
– The sweat rate amount of fluid should be consumed
per hour of the marathon event
• Athletes who gain weight during an event have
consumed too much water
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Calculating Sweat Rate
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Dehydration
• Dehydration is a condition that occurs when the
body loses more water than it takes in
– Indicated by loss of more than 2% of body weight
during an event
– Prolonged exercise accompanied by profuse
sweating in high temperatures, vomiting, diarrhea,
certain drugs, and decreased water intake can lead to
dehydration
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Dehydration (cont’d.)
• Effects of dehydration range from mild to severe
– People who experience dehydration tend to feel
thirsty, sweat less, and have reduced urine output
– If dehydration progresses, they begin to feel confused
and light-headed
– At the extreme, dehydration can lead to heat
exhaustion or heat stroke
– Dehydration and heat exhaustion can be remedied by
fluids and appropriate amounts of electrolytes, but
heat stroke requires emergency medical care
• Electrolytes are minerals such as sodium and
potassium that carry a charge when in solution
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Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke
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Water Intoxication
• Occurs during endurance events when
insufficient sodium is consumed compared to
water
• Also referred to as hyponatremia, a deficiency of
sodium in the blood (135 mmol/L sodium or less)
• Can cause nausea, vomiting, confusion,
seizures, and coma
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Water Intoxication (cont’d.)
• Water intoxication
– Should be treated promptly
– Can generally be prevented by periodic consumption
of a beverage containing about 100 mg sodium per 8
ounces
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Water Intoxication (cont’d.)
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Maintaining Hydration Status During
Exercise
• It is recommended that athletes engaged in
events that last an hour or less drink water to
maintain hydration status
• Athletes undertaking longer events should
consume primarily water and beverages that
provide sodium and carbohydrate
• Fluids that do not hydrate
– Fluids containing over 8% carbohydrates
– Alcoholic beverages
– Water in a sodium-depleted person
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Nutrition-Related Concerns of Athletes
• Female athlete concerns include:
– Irregular or absent menstrual periods
– Late onset of periods during adolescence
• Female athletes engaged in “leanness” sports
such as gymnastics, diving, and figure skating
are particularly at risk for inadequate calorie
intake
• Female athletes with missing and irregular
periods are at risk for developing low bone
density, osteoporosis, and bone fractures
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Incidence of Irregular or Absent
Menstrual Cycles
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Wrestling: The Sport of Weight Cycling
• “Making weight” is a common and recurring
practice among wrestlers
• Wrestlers may fast, “sweat the weight off” in
saunas or rubber suits, or vomit after eating to
lose weight before the weigh-in
– These practices can be dangerous if taken too far
• After the match is over, the wrestlers may binge
and regain the weight they lost
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Wrestling: The Sport of Weight Cycling
(cont’d.)
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Wrestling: The Sport of Weight Cycling
(cont’d.)
• The American Medical Association and the
Association for Sports Medicine
recommendation
– Determine wrestling weight after six weeks of training
and normal eating
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Iron Status of Athletes
• Iron status is an important topic in sports
nutrition because iron deficiency and irondeficiency anemia decrease endurance
• Female athletes are at higher risk of irondeficiency anemia than other females
• The International Olympic Committee
recommends that female athletes be screened
for iron deficiency so that females needing
additional iron can be identified
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Ergogenic Aids: The Athlete’s Dilemma
• The safety and effectiveness of ergogenic aids
– Relatively few have been tested for safety and
effectiveness
– Those known to increase muscle mass, strength, or
endurance are usually banned from use
– The National Athletic Trainers’ Association supports a
food-first philosophy to support health and
performance among athletes
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Ergogenic Aids: The Athlete’s Dilemma
(cont’d.)
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Ergogenic Aids: The Athlete’s Dilemma
(cont’d.)
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Ergogenic Aids: The Athlete’s Dilemma
(cont’d.)
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Ergogenic Aids: The Athlete’s Dilemma
(cont’d.)
• Anabolic steroids are substances derived from
testosterone, a primary male sex hormone
– Banned by the U.S. Olympic Committee
– Have adverse effects on health
• Anabolic steroid use can lead to the development
of acne, increased sex drive, increased body hair,
impaired fertility, and mood changes ranging from
depression to hostility
• Male characteristics, such as facial hair and voice
deepening, can occur in females who use anabolic
steroids
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Ergogenic Aids: The Athlete’s Dilemma
(cont’d.)
• Caffeine
– A mild stimulant consumed by many athletes to
decrease fatigue and increase alertness during
exercise
– Caffeine is associated with few adverse side effects if
consumed by adults in moderate doses
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Path to Improved Performance
• Keys to physical performance
– Genetics
– Training
– Nutrition
• Athletic competition is not a test of drugs or
performance aids; it is a test of an individual’s
ability to excel
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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