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Answer all four of these prompts. Each prompt response should be at least 100 words and should reference one of the readings for the unit


QUESTION 1: Is Lou Gehrig’s story a classic New York tale? In what ways does his life resonate with what we’ve learned in other units?

(Just answer the question about his story being a classic NY tale and ill add how it resonates with what we’ve learned in other units. I attached the file.)

QUESTION 2: Who is the most important athlete currently playing for a New York team? What makes that athlete important?

QUESTION 3: Were the criticisms of Misty Copeland just or unjust? What is your opinion of the way Copeland addressed her critics?

(I attached the file.)

QUESTION 4: What was the single most important thing you learned this term?

( Just talk about how it was hard due to the pandemic and having to learn and do all the work online and the most important thing I had to learn was to multitask and time management, you know bullshit it lol.) .

For this all you gotta do is put the number and answer the question. You dont have to write it in essay or like the templates I usually send unless you want to.

Lou Gehrig
The Iron Horse
Lou Gehrig
• Lou Gehrig’s story is that of a
first generation American
following the great expansion of
immigration at the turn of the
• His parents were immigrants
from Germany—his mother
emigrated to New York in 1899,
his father to Chicago in 1888.
The pair met in New York and
married in 1900.
Lou Gehrig
• Lou was born on June 19, 1903 and
weighed nearly 14 pounds.
• He had two sisters and one
• The family was very poor with
Gehrig’s mother being the primary
wage earner, working as a cook or
a cleaning lady (most famously for
Sigma Nu at Columbia).
• All of Lou’s siblings died of
childhood illnesses including
Whooping Cough and Measles.
Lou Gehrig
• Living at the poverty level, the
Gehrigs were hampered by
Heinrich’s alcoholism.
• The Gehrigs moved from his first
home either at 309 East 94th Street
in or 1994 2nd Avenue in Yorkville
to Washington Heights.
• They lived at 2266 Amsterdam
Avenue. Lou attended PS 132.
• Washington Heights in the early
1900s was a Irish, Hungarian and
German neighborhood.
Lou Gehrig
• The Tenement Museum is at 97
and 103 Orchard Street in the
Lower East Side
• Tours are $22 for college
• The tenements are split into
different apartments showing
different types of immigrant
experience and different income
Lou Gehrig
• Living at the poverty level, the
Gehrigs were hampered by
Heinrich’s alcoholism and
unwillingness to hold steady
• During World War I, the Gehrigs,
like many German-Americans had
their loyalty called into question
• Lou was bullied and the family
stopped speaking German at home
Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt, 10-12-1915
address at Carnegie Hall
There is no room in this country for hyphenated Americanism.
When I refer to hyphenated Americans, I do not refer to
naturalized Americans. Some of the very best Americans
I have ever known were naturalized Americans, Americans
born abroad. But a hyphenated American is not an American
at all. This is just as true of the man who puts “native” before
the hyphen as of the man who puts German or Irish or English
or French before the hyphen. Americanism is a matter of the
spirit and of the soul. Our allegiance must be purely to the
United States.
We must unsparingly condemn any man who holds any other
allegiance. But if he is heartily and singly loyal to this Republic,
then no matter where he was born, he is just as good an
American as any one else. The one absolutely certain way of
bringing this nation to ruin, of preventing all possibility of its
continuing to be a nation at all, would be to permit it to
become a tangle of squabbling nationalities, an intricate knot
of German-Americans, Irish-Americans, English-Americans,
French-Americans, Scandinavian-Americans or ItalianAmericans, each preserving its separate nationality, each at
heart feeling more sympathy with Europeans of that
nationality, than with the other citizens of the American
The men who do not become Americans and nothing else are
hyphenated Americans; and there ought to be no room for
them in this country. The man who calls himself an American
citizen and who yet shows by his actions that he is primarily
the citizen of a foreign land, plays a thoroughly mischievous
part in the life of our body politic. He has no place here; and
the sooner he returns to the land to which he feels his real
heart-allegiance, the better it will be for every good American.
There is no such thing as a hyphenated American who is a
good American. The only man who is a good American is the
man who is an American and nothing else.
For an American citizen to vote as a German-American, an
Irish-American, or an English-American, is to be a traitor to
American institutions; and those hyphenated Americans who
terrorize American politicians by threats of the foreign vote
are engaged in treason to the American Republic.
The foreign-born population of this country must be an
Americanized population – no other kind can fight the battles
of America either in war or peace. It must talk the language of
its native-born fellow-citizens, it must possess American
citizenship and American ideals.
It must stand firm by its oath of allegiance in word and deed
and must show that in very fact it has renounced allegiance to
every prince, potentate, or foreign government. It must be
maintained on an American standard of living so as to prevent
labor disturbances in important plants and at critical times.
None of these objects can be secured as long as we have
immigrant colonies, ghettos, and immigrant sections, and
above all they cannot be assured so long as we consider the
immigrant only as an industrial asset. The immigrant must not
be allowed to drift or to be put at the mercy of the exploiter.
Our object is to not to imitate one of the older racial types,
but to maintain a new American type and then to secure
loyalty to this type.
We cannot secure such loyalty unless we make this a country where
men shall feel that they have justice and also where they shall feel that
they are required to perform the duties imposed upon them. The policy
of “Let alone” which we have hitherto pursued is thoroughly vicious
from two stand-points. By this policy we have permitted the
immigrants, and too often the native-born laborers as well, to suffer
injustice. Moreover, by this policy we have failed to impress upon the
immigrant and upon the native-born as well that they are expected to
do justice as well as to receive justice, that they are expected to be
heartily and actively and single-mindedly loyal to the flag no less than
to benefit by living under it.
We cannot afford to continue to use hundreds of thousands of
immigrants merely as industrial assets while they remain
social outcasts and menaces any more than fifty years ago we
could afford to keep the black man merely as an industrial
asset and not as a human being. We cannot afford to build a
big industrial plant and herd men and women about it without
care for their welfare. We cannot afford to permit squalid
overcrowding or the kind of living system which makes
impossible the decencies and necessities of life. We cannot
afford the low wage rates and the merely seasonal industries
which mean the sacrifice of both individual and family life and
morals to the industrial machinery.
We cannot afford to leave American mines, munitions plants,
and general resources in the hands of alien workmen, alien to
America and even likely to be made hostile to America by
machinations such as have recently been provided in the case
of the two foreign embassies in Washington. We cannot afford
to run the risk of having in time of war men working on our
railways or working in our munition plants who would in the
name of duty to their own foreign countries bring destruction
to us. Recent events have shown us that incitements to
sabotage and strikes are in the view of at least two of the
great foreign powers of Europe within their definition of
neutral practices. What would be done to us in the name of
war if these things are done to us in the name of neutrality?
All of us, no matter from what land our parents came, no
matter in what way we may severally worship our Creator,
must stand shoulder to shoulder in a united America for the
elimination of race and religious prejudice. We must stand for
a reign of equal justice to both big and small. We must insist
on the maintenance of the American standard of living. We
must stand for an adequate national control which shall
secure a better training of our young men in time of peace,
both for the work of peace and for the work of war. We must
direct every national resource, material and spiritual, to the
task not of shirking difficulties, but of training our people to
overcome difficulties.
Our aim must be, not to make life easy and soft, not to soften
soul and body, but to fit us in virile fashion to do a great work
for all mankind. This great work can only be done by a mighty
democracy, with these qualities of soul, guided by those
qualities of mind, which will both make it refuse to do
injustice to any other nation, and also enable it to hold its own
against aggression by any other nation. In our relations with
the outside world, we must abhor wrongdoing, and disdain to
commit it, and we must no less disdain the baseness of spirit
which lamely submits to wrongdoing.
Finally and most important of all, we must strive for the
establishment within our own borders of that stern and lofty
standard of personal and public neutrality which shall
guarantee to each man his rights, and which shall insist in
return upon the full performance by each man of his duties
both to his neighbor and to the great nation whose flag must
symbolize in the future as it has symbolized in the past the
highest hopes of all mankind.
Lou Gehrig
• After WW I, Gehrig attended The
High School of Commerce (19021968), one of the first public
schools for high achievers
destined for business or
university studies
• The space is now occupied by
the Juilliard School
• After graduating, Gehrig went to
Columbia, Phi Delta Theta frat
Lou Gehrig
• Gehrig attended Columbia for three
years, playing football and baseball
but dropped out to join the New York
• “There’s no getting away from it,” he
told the New York Times in 1939, “a
fellow has to eat. At the end of my
sophomore year my father was taken
ill and we had to have money. I had
been playing on the college ball team
and I had had eight offers to join
professional clubs. So when there was
no money coming in there was
nothing for me to do but sign up.”
Lou Gehrig
• Gehrig was a left-handed first
baseman, 6’, 200lb
• 2721 hits, 493 home runs, batting
average .340
• Played the last 14 years straight,
2130 games, never missing a day
• 23 grand slams (still the record)
• Single season AL RBIs 184 (still the
• First jersey number ever retired
(number 4)
Lou Gehrig
• In 1938, Gehrig began to feel
unwell and his baseball playing
started to drop in quality
• Gehrig was the Yankee captain
and took himself out of the
lineup on May 2nd, 1939 and
never played again
• He was diagnosed with
amyothrophic lateral sclerosis
(ALS) which is now usually called
Lou Gehrig’s disease
Lou Gehrig
• On July 4th, 1939, Gehrig was
brought back to Yankee Stadium
for a special celebration
• Gehrig gave one of baseball’s
most famous speeches
• He died on June 2nd, 1941 he
was 37
• He was unanimously inducted
into the Hall of Fame
“Fans, for the past two weeks you have been
reading about the bad break I got. Yet today I
consider myself the luckiest man on the face of
this earth. I have been in ballparks for 17 years
and have never received anything but kindness
and encouragement from you fans.
“Look at these grand men. Which of you
wouldn’t consider it the highlight of his career
just to associate with them for even one day?
Sure, I’m lucky. Who wouldn’t consider it an
honor to have known Jacob Ruppert? Also, the
builder of baseball’s greatest empire, Ed Barrow?
To have spent six years with that wonderful little
fellow, Miller Huggins? Then to have spent the
next nine years with that outstanding leader,
that smart student of psychology, the best
manager in baseball today, Joe McCarthy? Sure,
I’m lucky.
“When the New York Giants, a team you would
give your right arm to beat, and vice versa,
sends you a gift — that’s something. When
everybody down to the groundskeepers and
those boys in white coats remember you with
trophies — that’s something. When you have a
wonderful mother-in-law who takes sides with
you in squabbles with her own daughter —
that’s something. When you have a father and a
mother who work all their lives so you can have
an education and build your body — it’s a
blessing. When you have a wife who has been a
tower of strength and shown more courage than
you dreamed existed — that’s the finest I know.
“So I close in saying that I may have had a tough
break, but I have an awful lot to live for.”
• Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a
progressive neurodegenerative
• It was first described in 1869 by
Jean-Martin Charcot
• Charcot specialized in multiple
sclerosis, Parkinson’s, ALS, and
hypnosis and hysteria
• Charcot was the father of
neurology and his students
included Freud and Tourette.
• May start as innocently as
trouble holding a cup or a pen or
slight difficulties speaking
• Difficult to diagnose
• The average survival time from
diagnosis to death is 3 years
• Progressive muscle weakness
leading to full body paralysis and
• ALS usually strikes people
between age 40-70
• Slightly more likely to affect men
and Caucasians and nonHispanics
• Motor neurons–a type of nerve
cell in the brain and spinal cord
that control signals to the
muscles–die off
• There is no cure
Misty Copeland
Misty Copeland
• Born in Kansas City in 1982.
• She first started ballet in 1996
just before her 14th birthday—
very late for a ballerina.
• Within 3 months she was
dancing en pointe, within 8
months she was performing in
The Nutcracker.
• Her mother had 5 other children
and three ex-husbands and had
little time for her.
Misty Copeland
• As her talent developed, she
began to spend more time at her
dance teacher’s home.
• She began attending synagogue,
began being homeschooled, and
dedicated almost all of her time
to studying dance.
• After a rapid rise and an offer to
attend the San Francisco Ballet’s
school, her world partially
Misty Copeland
• Her mother had hired
controversial celebrity lawyer
Gloria Allred to get Copeland
away from her teachers.
• Copeland sued for
• In 1998, to Copeland’s obvious
embarrassment, they even
managed to get on the Leeza
Gibbons talk show.
Misty Copeland
• By 2000, she had graduated high
school and joined the ABT in
NYC—considered to be in the
top ten in the world for ballet.
• But all was not well.
• She only hit puberty at age 19
when she was 5’2” and 108 lbs.
• She suffered a lumbar stress
• She developed bulimia.
Misty Copeland
• After 7 years in the corps de
ballet, she was promoted to
soloist with the ABT.
• She was the 4th African American
soloist in ABT’s 75-year history.
• Soloist is the third rung in the
ABT’s structure.
• Currently, there are 13
principals, 15 soloists, 57 in the
corps de ballet, and 6
Misty Copeland
• During the 2010’s, the ballet world
became more and more aware of
its quite obvious diversity
• After a quite public campaign, in
2015, Copeland became the first
African-American woman to
promoted to principal ballerina in
the ABT and only the second
African-American woman to be a
principal ballerina.
• She was 32.
Misty Copeland
• In the run up to her promotion, she
had been on the cover of Time
magazine, had written a children’s
book, had written an
autobiography, and had been in
one of Prince’s last music videos.
• She had also been hired as an
Under Armour model, the face of
Estee Lauder, and served as a guest
judge on So You Think You Can
• Her relentless social promotion
served to make a case for herself
outside of simply dancing.
Misty Copeland
• Copeland also partners with
Dannon, Naked Juice, Coach, and
• With her corporate endorsements
and her 1.6 million Twitter
followers, she has more power
than perhaps any ballet dancer
after Baryshnikov.
• Copeland sees her triumph as a
step in the right direction, saying
that ballet’s problem wasn’t the
“lack of black principal dancers, it’s
the lack of black dancers, period.”
Misty Copeland
• “It’s going to be a long time before we
start to see change with the artistic
staff – teachers of colour, and of
course dancers on the stage. The
investment is so deep, but it’s one I’m
wholly committed to – we have to get
more black and brown children into
dance schools and then make sure
they have the right training to take it
to a professional level. Knowing
there’s a black principal at ABT, the
black community is going to come,
because they feel a connection to it.
When you don’t have that, if you
don’t see yourself represented, how
can you relate to ballet?”
Misty Copeland
• Copeland has been a very public
figure since her promotion to
• At the same time, she continues
to dance at a grueling pace.
• In the coming months she will be
dancing in The Nutcracker, in
Giselle, in Romeo and Juliet, in
Deuce Coupe, in Jane Eyre, and
in Swan Lake.
Misty Copeland
• But her success is not without
• She has been repeatedly criticized
for poor or lazy technique.
• One particular criticism is that she
cannot do the required 32 fouette
turns en pointe in Swan Lake.
• As it is against the rules to record
during a ballet, the criticism was
hard to judge until someone leaked
footage from a performance in
March in Singapore.

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