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Homeostasis is a process by which the body maintains a stable internal environment within a narrow range of variation.Homeostasis (Greek for “staying the same”) is a process by which the body maintains a stable internal environment. The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that helps the body maintain homeostasis. It is located in the brain just above the brainstem and is a group of neurons that forms the primary link between the nervous system and the endocrine system. This small part of the brain is responsible for regulating many key body processes including internal body temperature, hunger, thirst, blood pressure, and daily (circadian) rhythms.

LAB 2: Principles of Scientific Inquiry and Homeostasis Worksheet Max 15 points
Objectives
1. Define key terminologies related to scientific investigation, including hypotheses, variables, etc. and
2. Demonstrate competence by applying knowledge of scientific inquiry process.
3. Demonstrate the scientific method of solving problems by making scientific observations; asking
questions; formulating a testable hypothesis; designing an appropriate experiment; collecting,
analyzing, and interpreting data; and making conclusions.
ACTIVITY 1: Reading of paragraph demonstrate understanding of scientific inquiry
(0.5X6 = 3)
Scenario:
You are concerned about the rate of death in catfish your aquaculture operation in tanks that have a high
amount of algae growth. You collect some of the algae and send it to the university to have it identified. You
find that it is a blue-green alga called Anabaena. Anabaena is known to be toxic to fish. You design an
experiment to test how much of the algae the fish can stand before they die. You obtain 6 large aquariums
(all the same size and make) and fill them with water taken from a healthy catfish pond at your operation.
You put each aquarium on the same bench in the laboratory, where the light and temperature values are
identical. You let the water stand for one day before starting the experiment. In aquarium 1, you add 2
grams of algae and no fish. In aquarium 2, you add 20 small catfish and no algae. Aquarium 3 gets 20 catfish
and 2 grams of algae, #4 gets 20 catfish and 4 grams of algae, #5 gets 20 catfish and 8 grams of algae, and
aquarium #6 gets 20 catfish and 16 grams of algae. The aeration rate of each aquarium is identical. You make
two observations at the same time each day for two weeks. You keep track of the numbers of fish in each
tank that die.
1. Write a Title of this Research (Someone reading the title can get an idea about the
research)
The life and death of the catfish life-cycle.
2. What is the problem? (What was the research question the researchers asked?)
The problem being observed is The increased death rate of catfish in aquaculture operation tanks.
3. If you were conducting this research, what could be a testable hypothesis?
The hypothesis is that the increased death rate is due to the high growth rate of Anabena, bluegreen algae , which is known to be toxic to fish.
4. What is the independent variable?
Blue-green algae are considered the independent variable as the number of fish in the tank is based
on the growth of blue-green algae.
5. What is the dependent variable?
The Dependent variable is the number of fishes as it is dependent on the amount of algae in the
tank.
6. What things are held constant?
The temperature, light, aeration, and size of the aquarium are kept constant throughout the study.
Activity 2: Demonstrating understanding the concept of homeostasis by experiment
Homeostasis is a process by which the body maintains a stable internal environment within a narrow range of
variation.Homeostasis (Greek for “staying the same”) is a process by which the body maintains a stable
internal environment. The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that helps the body maintain homeostasis. It is
located in the brain just above the brainstem and is a group of neurons that forms the primary link between
the nervous system and the endocrine system. This small part of the brain is responsible for regulating many
key body processes including internal body temperature, hunger, thirst, blood pressure, and daily (circadian)
rhythms.
A simple metaphor will be when the temperature of a room becomes too warm, the thermostat will switch on
the air conditioning and cool the room. When the room temperature reaches a set desired temperature, the
system turns off. Similarly, most body systems maintain homeostasis by using positive or negative feedback
mechanisms. When the brain receives messages from the body about an internal change in one of its systems,
it works to restore the system to its normal state.
When a stimulus (environment change) is met by a response that reverses (negates) the trend of the stimulus,
it is negative feedback. As a result the internal environment is returned to normal. Negative mechanisms
are found in the regulation of blood pressure, heart rate, and internal
feedback
temperature is a mechanism that is rare in a healthy body. Instead of restoring
controls. Positive feedback the body to a
normal state, the positive feedback mechanism causes an even greater change. An example of positive
feedback can be found in the release of oxytocin, a hormone that intensifies the contractions that take place
during childbirth. As the baby’s head is ready to move out of the mother’s body, oxytocin increases and the
levels of contractions increase thus pushing the baby out. In this instance, the body responds to an event with
more “force” or in a stronger way.
Exercise causes many factors of homeostasis to kick in to maintain internal equilibrium. How exercise affects
some of these factors can be determined by measuring and observing certain conditions of the human body.
Some of these conditions that can be measured are:
Variables
Data collection and recordings
✓ Skin body temperature
✓ Ventilation rate (number of times you breath in/out = 1 cycle)
✓ count the number of breaths (one inhalation and one exhalation
= 1) for 15 seconds and multiply by 4
✓ Heart rate
✓ find the pulse at the wrist and count the number of beats for
30 seconds and multiply by 2 to get beats per minute or bpm
✓ Perspiration level (none, mild, medium, high)
Collect data before exercise and
immediately, during exercise
and after exercise Record values
in the table
Collect data before exercise and
immediately, during exercise
and after exercise Record values
in the table
Collect data before exercise and
immediately, during exercise
and after exercise Record values
in the table
Collect data before exercise and
immediately, during exercise
and after exercise Record values
in the table
• Title of Investigation (reading the title I can get an idea about the research): be imaginative
1.5
• Research question:
• Prediction:
Materials and Methods
Materials: stop watch, thermometer
Check the Video
‘how to take pulse; ‘https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AHHr8qNU9QY
Simple and fun exercise equipment, such as a jump rope, bicycle, hula-hoop, 2 lbs/
5 lbs weight, etc. Alternatively you can do exercises that do not require equipment,
such as walking, step-ups, sit-ups, squats or push-ups, jumping jacks, jogging in place,
etc. You will want to do at least two different types of exercises, both of which you
can sustain for 10 minutes.
Remember to always stop an exercise if you feel faint.
Brainstorm in the Zoom Chat and agree on a form of light physical activity.
• Type of Light Activity:
• Duration: 10 minutes
Brainstorm in the Zoom Chat and agree on a form of moderate physical activity.
• Type of Moderate Activity:
• Duration:
Procedure:
1. Before starting the experiment on yourself or another volunteer, must record the control values of
the parameters: perspiration level, body temperature, heart rate (pulse) per minute, breathing rate
per minute the baseline information (control data set).
2. Before starting the activities, rest for at least 5 minutes.
a. Record your pulse rate in radial artery (wrist). CONTROL
3. Take three separate measurements, each for 30 seconds. Calculate the beats per minute by multiplying
the values obtained by 2. Record Data.
Control Pulse (beats per minute = bpm):
TRIAL 1: …………… bpm
TRIAL 2: …………… bpm
TRIAL 1: …………… bpm
Average Control Pulse = ………….. bpm. Record data in the master table.
4. Record observation and data on perspiration level, body temperature, breathing rate (control set).
Record data in the master table.
5. Perform the light exercise for 10 minutes – record pulse at intervals (2nd minute, 5th minute, 10th
minute and immediately at the end of exercise – refer to the data table), also record data on
perspiration level, body temperature and breathing rate in the master Table.
6. Rest for 10 minutes after light exercise.
7. Repeat the same procedure (Steps 1 through 5) for the moderate exercise for 10 minutes – record
pulse at each 2 minute interval (2nd minute, 5th minute, and 10th minute), also record data on body
color, perspiration level (0 = none; 5 = droplets dripping down the face), body temperature and
ventilation rate in the master Table.
* Take precaution not to get injured during the activities, if there is any physical disability, select the exercises
that are compatible with your abilities. You may conduct this experiment on a volunteer.
Variables
1.5
Identify the dependent variable(s):
Identify the independent variable(s):
Identify the controlled variable(s):
Data Presentation
(2)
Light Exercise Data
Time Intervals
Rest (Control)
2 minutes
Perspiration Level
(Scale of 0 to 5)
Body Temperature
Breathing Rate
Pulse(
(Breaths per Minute) beats per minute)
5 minutes
10 minutes
Post exercise
2 minutes
Post exercise
5 minutes
No
thermometer?
Temperature
Scale
Post exercise
10 minutes
Rest 10 minutes
Control data for
next experiment
Master Table: Observations and Measurements during various intervals of light and moderate exercise
Moderate Exercise Data
Time Intervals
Rest (Control)
2 minutes
5 minutes
10 minutes
Post exercise
2 minutes
Post exercise
5 minutes
Post exercise
10 minutes
Perspiration Level
(Scale of 0 to 5)
Body Temperature
Breathing Rate
(Breaths per Minute)
Pulse( beats
per minute)
Create Graph
8. Graphs and charts communicate information visually. They can show patterns, help scientists identify
correlations, and get the point of the experiment across quickly. Typically, the independent
variable is plotted on the x-axis The dependent variable is plotted on the y-axis.
A. Give the graph a title
B. Graph the heart rate and breathing rate in the line graph or bar graph
C. Create a scale on the y axis, label the time intervals on the X axis
D. Use a different color for each set of data
E. Fill in the legend
Attach the graph(s) with your submission (include all requirements)
(2)
Communication
Scientists generally tell others what they have learned. Communication is a very important component of
scientific progress! In the discussion, you get to tell your readers what this is really all about. You will take
the most important results and explain why they matter, what they could really mean, and what sorts of
questions they unveil for future investigation.
By documenting both the successes and failures of scientific inquiry in journals, presentations, or other public
documents, scientists are contributing information that will serve as a basis for future research.
Discussion
(3)
Use the data to describe the effects of light and moderate exercise on the parameters investigated.
1. What happened to the pulse after moderate exercise is finished (2 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes
post exercise? Did you observe restoration of resting pulse rate it immediately or not? Explain your
reasoning for this observation in view of comparison between your results and prediction.
2. Suggest what would happen if the body failed to return to normal after exercise. Explain.
3. Why does an increase in heart rate and breathing rate accompany exercise? Explain.
Student Reflection
LAB 2: Principles of Scientific Inquiry and Homeostasis Worksheet
2 Points
1. In what way does this particular lab contributes to learning about this course in general and prepares
you for your future career goal? Connect the concept related to the activities. No general statement,
be specific.
(0.45)
2. Share your thoughts. What were some of my most challenging moments and what made them so? (0.35)
3. “Confidence is a measure of one’s belief in one’s own abilities and is considered a psychological trait that
is related to, but distinct from, both personality and ability traits.” “An interrelated construct is ‘selfefficacy,’ which refers to a person’s belief in one’s capabilities to learn or perform behaviors. Research
shows that self-efficacy influences academic motivation, learning, and achievement. “What is the level
of confidence you think will be an appropriate measure that you have learned the language and concepts
pertaining to this lab?
(0.30)
Select the level. Circle or highlight clearly
AT THE BEGINNING
Very low
Low
Medium
High
Very high
__5_______________25________________50_______________75_________________100____
AFTER COMPLETING THE LAB
Very low
Low
Medium
High
Very high
__5_______________25________________50_______________75_________________100____
4. Could you teach what you have learned to someone else? Why or why not?
(0.45)
5. What would be at least one suggestion to improve this lab worksheet? How does your
suggestion help improving the lab? Explain.
(0.45)

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