+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

You will watch a film for this class, Avatar (see details above). The movie is available for rent
through multiple sources such as Amazon Prime & iTunes. You will then respond to writing
prompts for the movie. This is your opportunity to display your comprehension and
application skills as they relate to our class readings. Although this is a reflection paper, I
will be looking for the incorporation of key terms, definitions and direct relationship to the
class readings. Each paper should be in APA format and four-six type-written pages (double
spaced, 1” margins, 12 pt. font) that address the listed prompts.
Your paper should not be a numbered list. I am looking for an academic styled paper with an
introduction, a body and a conclusion. You must have a title page and a reference page. You
must cite your sources.
For assistance with APA formatting, citing sources, or listing references, please see the
Purdue Online Writing Lab:
https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_style_introduction.html (Li
nks to an external site.)
You will turn in the film reflection assignments to the appropriate assignment submission
box.
Avatar Writing Prompts
Using what you have learned in TC Chapters 1- 5, you will discuss the movie Avatar. First,
select three scenes from the movie – one that correlates as an example to each of the
following topics:
â—¦ Intercultural Competence
â—¦ Individualism/Collectivism
â—¦ Empathy & Perspective-Taking
Then, using what you have learned in TC Chapters 6-12, you will continue to discuss the
movie. First, select three scenes from the movie – one that correlates as an example to each of
the following topics:
â—¦ Intercultural Conflict and Flexibility
â—¦ Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
â—¦ Bias and Out-groups
â—¦ Justice, Responsibility and Ethics in Communication
For each for each scene you select:
•
•
•
•
describe the characters and situation
describe which topic you will address
define the topic/term
discuss CLEARLY why that scene is an exemplar of the topics above. Use key terms and
definitions from your readings (cite your work!).
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 1
Why Study Intercultural Communication?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I.
Practical Reasons to Study Intercultural
Communication (ICC)
II.
What is Culture?
I. Why Study Intercultural
Communication?
•
•
•
•
•
•
I. Some Practical Reasons to Study ICC
A.
Adjust to Global Workplace
Heterogeneity
B.
Adapt to Domestic Workforce
Diversity
C.
Engage in Creative Multicultural
Problem Solving
D.
Comprehend the Role of Technology
in Global Communication
I. Some Practical Reasons to Study ICC cont’d.
E. Facilitate Better Multicultural Health
Care Communication
F. Enhance Intercultural Relationship
Satisfaction
G. Foster Global & Intrapersonal Peace
H. Deepen Cultural Self-Awareness and
Other-Awareness
Jeopardy Time !
~ To see some facts related to the historical
landmark of reaching 7 billion people on planet
Earth, click here.
~ To see a video called “Seven Billion: Are You
Typical?” click here.
II. What is Culture?
•
•
•
•
•
•
II. Culture: A Learned Meaning System
Culture is: a learned meaning system
• consists of patterns of …
• traditions, beliefs, values,
• norms, meanings, and symbols
• that are passed on from one generation
to the next & are shared to varying
degrees
• by interacting members of a community.
Culture is like an Iceberg:
Culture: An Iceberg Metaphor
Surface-level culture: Popular culture
Can you give examples of current U.S. popular culture
icons that are different from the ones listed in the
textbook?
•
•
•
•
Culture: An Iceberg Metaphor
Intermediate-level culture: Cultural norms
How would you introduce yourself:
To your professor?
To your romantic partner’s friends?
Deep-level culture: Culturally shared traditions
How would you explain common U.S. traditions to a
visitor from another culture unfamiliar with them?
Parting Thoughts…
Culture is the widening
of the mind and spirit.
~ Jawarhalal Nehru
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 2
What is Intercultural Communication
Flexibility?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I.
Defining Intercultural Communication:
A Process Model
II. Practicing Intercultural Communication
Flexibility
III. Developing Intercultural Communication
Flexibility
IV. Deepening Intercultural Process Thinking
I. Defining ICC: A Process Model
Intercultural communication:
• symbolic exchange (digital, analogic)
• process (transactional, irreversible)
• cultural community
• negotiate shared meanings (content, relational,
identity meaning)
• interactive situation (relational, psychological,
physical)
• embedded societal system (multilayered
context)
I. Defining ICC: A Process Model
Person A’s
cultural
frame of
reference
Person B’s
cultural
frame of
reference
II. Practicing Intercultural Communication
Flexibility
Introduction Section:
1. Flexible and inflexible intercultural
communication
2. Ethnocentric and ethnorelative
mindset
II. Practicing ICC Flexibility
Ethnocentric mindset…
– Stuck in own cultural worldviews, using our own
cultural values as standards to evaluate others’
behaviors.
– Viewing our cultural way of living as “natural” and
what’s going on in other cultures as “unnatural.”
– Evaluating the communication norms of our own
cultural group as more “proper.”
– Acting in a conscious or unconscious manner
in favor of the ingroup standard to the exclusion of
outgroup standard.
II. Practicing ICC Flexibility
Ethnorelative mindset…
– Understanding behavior from the other
person’s cultural frame of reference.
– Suspending ethnocentric, reactive judgments
and engaging in a systematic cross-cultural
comparative analysis.
– Promoting a respectful, inclusive climate via
competent communication skills practice.
II. Practicing ICC Flexibility
A. Three Content Components:
Knowledge, Attitude, and Skills
B. Three Criteria:
Appropriateness, Effectiveness, and
Adaptability
III. Developing Intercultural Communication
Flexibility
A.
Staircase Model: Four Stages of Flexible
Intercultural Communication
1. Unconscious incompetence: blissfully ignorant
2. *Conscious incompetence: semi-awareness
3. Conscious competence: “full mindfulness”
4. Unconscious competence: “mindlessly mindful”
* Pretty Woman – Which stage are the women in at the store on
Rodeo Drive? What lesson did Julia Roberts teach them?
III. Developing ICC Flexibility
III. Developing ICC Flexibility
Movie Analysis: Outsourced film clip
Questions to think about:
ï‚— Which stage of the staircase model is Aunty-ji
operating from? How did Todd react to Aunty-ji’s
comments?
 Did you find Aunty-ji’s questions too intrusive? What
culture-sensitive information can you use to justify her
questioning?
ï‚— At what point in the clip did Todd switch from
unconscious incompetence to conscious
incompetence?
ï‚— Apply the three content components (knowledge,
attitude, and skills) from your chapter to help Todd and
Puro reach the conscious competency stage.
III. Developing ICC Flexibility
B.
A Mindful Perspective: Flexible Communicators:
• Attune to their own internal assumptions, values,
and expectations.
• Attend to alternative assumptions, values, and
expectations of the cultural strangers.
• Learn to understand unfamiliar behaviors from
multiple cultural angles.
• Are committed to shift communication styles
when appropriate to the persons, goals, and
cultural context = ICC Flexibility.
NACIREMA Application Exercise
Instructions:
— Need 3 – 5 volunteers to take a walk outside and be
prepared to visit a new culture.
— Inside the classroom: Get ready to play. Will give
you the Nacireman cultural values and rules.
— Enjoy! Play out and dramatize your new roles.
IV. Deepening Intercultural Process Thinking
Realize that ICC often involves these principles:
•
Mismatched expectations stem from group differences.
•
Involves degrees of biased intergroup perceptions,
overgeneralizations, stereotypes.
•
Simultaneous decoding and encoding of verbal/nonverbal
messages.
•
Multiple goal transactions: content, relational, identity.
•
Calls for understanding of diverse communication
approaches and styles.
•
Often involves well-meaning culture bumps or clashes.
•
Always takes place in context and in embedded systems.
IV. Deepening Intercultural Process Thinking
Mindfulness
Flexibility
Parting Thoughts…
A traveler without observation
is like a bird without wings…
~ Author unknown
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 3
What are the Essential Cultural Value Patterns?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I. Functions of Cultural Values
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions
III. Additional Value Orientations
IV. Individual Socialization Development
V. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
I. Functions of Cultural Values
•
•
•
•
•
I. Functions of Cultural Values
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Analyzing Cultural Values
Identity Meaning Function
Explanatory Function
Motivational Function
Ingroup–Outgroup Evaluative
Function
Click here to watch how Best Buy demonstrates how it
takes its cultural values and uses them throughout the
different countries in which it operates.
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions
IDENTITY:
Individualism
Collectivism
POWER:
Small Power
Distance
Large Power
Distance
Weak
UNCERTAINTY: Uncertainty
Avoidance
Strong
Uncertainty
Avoidance
SEX ROLES:
Masculine
Feminine
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions:
Individualism–Collectivism Value Pattern
Individualistic Cultures Collectivistic Cultures
“I” Identity
“We” Identity
Nuclear family
Extended family
Privacy regulation
Relational harmony
Individual competition
Teamwork
Personal competence
Ingroup emphasis
Direct comm. patterns
Indirect comm. patterns
Independent self
Interdependent self
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions:
Small–Large Power Distance Value Pattern
Small Power Distance
Large Power Distance
Emphasize interpersonal
equality
Children may contradict
parents
Emphasize status based
difference
Children should obey
parents
Younger people are smart
Older people are wise
Teachers ask for feedback

Teachers lecture
Subordinates expect
consultation
Subordinates expect
guidance
Informal comm. patterns
Formal comm. patterns
Horizontal self
Vertical self
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions:
Weak-Strong Uncertainty Avoidance Value Pattern
Strong Uncertainty
Weak Uncertainty
Avoidance
Avoidance
Uncertainty is valued
Uncertainty is a threat
Family is dynamic and changing
Reinforce family rules
High mobility in relationships
Low mobility in relationships
Challenges are welcome
Routines are welcome
Encourage risk-taking
Encourage clear procedure
Conflict can be positive
Conflict is negative
High tolerance for ambiguity
Low tolerance for ambiguity
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions:
Feminine-Masculine Value Pattern
Feminine Cultures
Masculine Cultures
Flexible sex roles
Complementary sex roles
Emphasize nurturance
Emphasize achievement
Both genders take initiative
Males take initiative
Social adjustment is critical
Academic performance is
critical
Work in order to live
Live in order to work
Fluid gender communication
“Masculine” toughness vs.
Overlapped gender roles
“feminine” softness
Clear masculine/feminine
gender roles
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions:
Media Activities
My Big Fat Greek Wedding film clip:
Connect with the different value dimensions
Japanese Snowboarder: Values
During the 2008 Winter Olympics a Japanese
snowboarder received a large backlash from
his home country after wearing his
country’s uniform “inappropriately.”
Click here to watch video.
The Last Samurai film clip:
Click here to watch this clip about Feminine/ Masculine
Cultures
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions:
Self-Assessment Discussion
Four-Dimensional Values Inventory (DVI)
What Factors Shape Your Values’ Development?
ï‚— Increase Your Self-Awareness of Value Dimensions
on Multiple Levels: Cultural/Ethnic, Workplace,
Family, and Personal Self.
ï‚— Dyadic Discussion: Increase Your Awareness of
Differences and Similarities between SELF and
OTHER. . .
ï‚—
III. Additional Value Orientation Patterns
IV. Individual Socialization Development
A. Independent versus Interdependent
Self-Construal
B. Horizontal versus Vertical SelfConstrual
C. Internal versus External Locus of
Control
V. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
Flexible intercultural communicators:
Practice the O-D-I-S Method:
O=
Observe verbal and nonverbal
signals attentively.
D=
Describe specific behaviors with a
minimum of distortion.
I=
Generate multiple interpretations
of the unfamiliar behaviors.
S=
Suspend ethnocentric evaluation,
perform open-ended evaluation.
Values Exploration Exercise
“PARABLE” Application Exercise
ï‚— Individual Decision Ranking
ï‚— Group Discussion
ï‚— Group Decision Consensus Ranking
ï‚— In-Class Writing Assignment
Parting Thoughts…
Only if we understand can we care.
Only if we care will we help.
Only if we help shall they be saved.
~ Jane Goodall
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 4
What are the Keys to Understanding Cultural
& Ethnic Identities?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I. Family and Gender Socialization
II. Group Membership: Intercultural
Boundary Crossing
III. Group Affiliation and Identity Formation
IV. Ethnic–Racial Identity Change Process
V. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
An Application Exercise
Who Am I?
and
Who Are YOU?
I. Family and Gender Socialization
Identity: reflective self-conception or self-image
that we derive from family, gender, cultural,
ethnic, and individual socialization processes.
“Social identities” cultural, ethnic, gender,
sexual orientation, social class, age,
disability, or professional identity.
“Personal identities” unique attributes we
associate with our individuated self
in comparison with others.
I. Family and Gender Socialization
A. Families Come in Different Shapes
1. Types of families: diverse types
2. Two family types: personal and positional
B. Gender Socialization and Interaction
Patterns
1. Gender identity: Meanings and
interpretations concerning gender images
2. Expectations concerning “femaleness” and
“maleness” in our socialization process
II. Group Membership: Intercultural
Boundary Crossing
A. The Process of Acculturation & Enculturation
Acculturation: incremental identity-related
change process of immigrants and refugees
in a new environment from a long-term
perspective.
Enculturation: sustained, primary
socialization process of
individuals in their original home
culture wherein they have
internalized their cultural values.
II. Group Membership: Intercultural
Boundary Crossing
B. Systems-level Factors
C. Individual-level Factors
D. Interpersonal F2F and Network-Level
Factors
E. Mass Media–Level Factors
III. Group Affiliation and Identity Formation
A. Cultural Identity Conceptualizations
Cultural identity
Cultural identity salience
B. Ethnic Identity Conceptualizations
Ethnic identity
Ethnic value content
Ethnic identity salience
Click here to find out about the origin of the Hapa identity.
IV. Ethnic–Racial Identity Change Process
A. Cultural–Ethnic Identity Typological Model
1. Ethnic-oriented identity or traditional option:
Identifies strongly with ethnic traditions and values,
identifies weakly with dominant culture’s values.
2. Assimilated identity:
Identifies weakly with ethnic traditions and values;
identifies strongly with larger culture’s values, norms.
3. Bicultural identity or integrative option:
Identifies strongly with ethnic traditions and also
with the values and practices of larger society.
4. Marginal identity state:
Disconnected ties with both ethnic group and larger
society, often experiences alienation, invisibility.
IV. Ethnic–Racial Identity Change Process
A. Cultural–Ethnic Identity Typological Model
10
IV. Ethnic–Racial Identity Change Process
B. Racial–Ethnic Identity Development Model
IV. Ethnic–Racial Identity Change
Process
my.blogs 4.2 and 4.3
Assess your Cultural Identity and Marginal
Identity on p. 78
Assess your Ethnic Identity and Bicultural
Identity on p. 80
IV. Ethnic–Racial Identity Change Process
C. Multiracial and Biracial Identity
Social identity complexity theory
a. Intersection:
Compound identity with 2 (or more) social
membership categories cross to form a single,
claimed identity.
b. Dominance:
Individual adopts one major social identity.
c. Compartmentalization:
Shifting of social identity category serving as
basis of identification based on context or
situation.
d. Merger:
Deep awareness of the complex multifaceted
spheres of identity memberships and the
importance of multiple ingroups.
V. Intercultural Reality Check:
Do-Ables
A. Practice Mindful Listening
•
•
•
Thoughtful attention to both verbal and
nonverbal messages.
Check responsively for accuracy.
Involves a consciously competent shift of
perspective. (How do things look from the other’s
identity perspective?)
B. Practice Identity Validation Skills
•
•
•
Use verbal and nonverbal confirming messages.
Recognize group- and person-based identities.
Validate other people’s experiences as real.
Parting Thoughts. . .
He who knows others
is learned;
He who knows himself
is wise.
~ Lao Tzu
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 5
What is Culture Shock?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I. Unpacking Culture Shock
II. Intercultural Adjustment:
Developmental Patterns
III. Reentry Culture Shock
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
I. Unpacking Culture Shock
Considering Culture Shock …
• Have you ever experienced culture shock? Share a
story…
• What were you experiencing emotionally?
• What caused your anxious feelings?
• How did you handle the culture shock situation?
• In retrospect, would you like to have handled the
situation differently?
• What does culture shock mean to YOU???
I. Unpacking Culture Shock
A.
Characteristics of Culture Shock
Culture Shock: a stressful transitional period
when individuals move from a familiar
cultural environment to an unfamiliar one.
Watch a group of Sudanese men as they experience
culture shock, arriving in the United States for the first
time. Click here.
I. Unpacking Culture Shock
ABCs of culture shock:
• Affectively,
sojourners often feel anxiety, bewilderment,
confusion, disorientation, and intense desire
to be elsewhere.
•
Behaviorally,
they are confused as to norms and rules
that guide communication appropriateness
and effectiveness.
• Cognitively,
they lack competence to interpret or explain
“bizarre” behaviors.
I. Unpacking Culture Shock
B. Pros and Cons of Culture Shock
C. Approaching Culture Shock: Underlying
Factors
• Motivation Orientation
• Personal Expectations
• Cultural Distance
• Psychological Adjustment
• Sociocultural Adjustment
• Communication Competence
• Personality Attributes
A Mini-Experiential Exercise
“Writing with My Non-Dominant Hand…”
2 Writing Rules:
1) Write with your non-dominant hand.
2) Write from right to left.
Reflection:
• What did you experience? What did you feel?
• What did you learn?
I. Unpacking Culture Shock
D. Initial Tips to Manage Culture Shock
1. Increase motivation to learn about the new
culture.
2. Keep expectations realistic and increase familiarity
with diverse facets of new culture.
3. Increase linguistic fluency and appropriateness
and understand core values linked to specific
behaviors.
4. Work on tolerating ambiguity and other flexibility
attributes.
5. Develop close friends and acquaintanceships to
manage identity stress and loneliness.
6. Be mindful of suspending ethnocentric evaluations
of interpersonal behaviors of host culture.
II. Intercultural Adjustment:
Developmental Patterns
A. The U-Curve Adjustment Model
1. Initial adjustment:
optimistic or elation phase.
2. Crisis:
stressful phase when sojourners are
overwhelmed by own incompetence.
3. Regained adjustment:
settling-in phase, involving effective coping.
II. Intercultural Adjustment:
Developmental Patterns
B. The Revised W-Shape Adjustment Model
10
II. Intercultural Adjustment: Developmental Patterns
The Revised W-Shape Adjustment Model
STAGES:
A. Honeymoon
“Everything is Beautiful”
B. Hostility
“Everything is Ugly”
Three types of reaction: Early Returnees, Time Servers,
or Participators
C. Humorous
“Everything is Quite Funny”
Rebounding stage
D. In-Sync
“Everything is OK”
II. Intercultural Adjustment: Developmental Patterns
The Revised W-Shape Adjustment Model
E. Ambivalence
“Everything is Sweet & Sour”
Departure stage
F. Re-Entry Culture Shock
“Everything is Off Center”
G. Re-Socialization
“Everything is Home Again… Maybe?!”
Resocializers, Alienators, Transformers
II. Intercultural Adjustment: Developmental Patterns
The Revised W-Shape Adjustment Model
Media Activity: The Namesake film clip
Discussion Questions:
• What is your reaction to this clip?
• Where is Ashima in the W- shape model? Can you
describe her feelings?
• How do you think her husband, Ashok, could better
prepare his wife for the American cultural
experience?
• What can Ashima do (how might she reach out to
seek help) to reach the in-sync stage?
III. Re-entry Culture Shock
If you have experienced re-entry culture
shock:
ï‚— Did you experience any re-entry culture
shock stress? How so?
ï‚— Any tips to make the re-entry culture
shock less stressful?
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
• Realize that culture shock is inevitable.
• Maintain an ethnorelative attitude.
• Acknowledge your roller-coaster emotions.
• Reach out and seek help when needed.
• There are many caring individuals and resources
out there awaiting to help you.
• Take care of your physical & mental health daily.
• Do something creative every day – write your
travel blogs, express yourself in a journal, snap
fun photos.
• Stay in touch with supportive others.
Parting Thoughts…
When you leave one home for another,
there’ll always lessons to be learned.
~ Kofi Annan
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 11
What are the Communication Issues Facing a
Global Identity?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I.
Wired and On: The Roar of the
Internet
II. The Transformation of Local and
Global Identities
III. Who and What Are E.netizens?
IV. The Dialectical Pulls of an E.netizen
V. The Tipping Point: Communication
Pattern Changes
VI. Personal Identities in Flux: The Global
Face
I. Wired and On: The Roar of the
Internet
A.The Internet as Our Central Station
B. Wired Communication
•
Take a moment and think about how
technology influences your
communication with your friends,
loved ones, and acquaintances.
• How much of your interaction time is face to face?
How much of your interaction time is via a gadget?
• Could you go a week without technology?
• How has your use of the Internet shaped you, your
communication styles, and your identity?
II. The Transformation of Local and
Global Identities
Local identity: made up of ethnic values,
practices, traditions of the local identity
communal group.
Global identity: adopt and embrace
international practices and values over
local. Keep up with latest trends,
technological advances, etc.
II. The Transformation of Local and
Global Identities
A. The Lens of Television: Identity Imitation
Television is an identity supplier, provides escape from
traditional-based cultural values, and forges sense of
communal belonging.
• Children across the globe watch international programs
based on the United States and values of pop culture
and consumerism.
•
B. Global Television Impact
•
Shapes the way we see our world, influences how we
form our stereotypes of people in different
cultures/ethnic groups.
II. The Transformation of Local and
Global Identities
C. Be Hip, Be Hot, and Pop Culture Impact
• Pop culture supporters see the world as constantly
changing, interdependent.
• Opponents view pop culture as negative because it
can damage culture boundaries and Westernizes
intact, indigenous cultural groups.
D. Outsourced Beats: You Are What You Can
Dance To
• Through music, common identity
expression and connection with others.
• Creates our rhythmic identity and sparks
a communal sense of space and time.
II. The Transformation of Local and
Global Identities
D. Outsourced Beats:
Do you see any new music trends in the United
States that demonstrate the globalization of the
music industry?
Recall J. Lo’s On The Floor that topped 18 national
single charts in 2011. Doesn’t the tune sound
familiar? Can you guess where the tune first
originated? Click here to see these tunes that
date back to the 1980s!
II. The Transformation of Local and
Global Identities
E. You Are What You Wear: Pop Culture
as Fashion
Take a look at Blog Pic 11.2 Japan Ganguro
Photo (p. 238)
•
•
•
What are your impressions of this “ganguro girl”
look?
An attempt to rebel against the traditional
European American standards of “normal” or
“beauty?”
Can you generate any other
interpretations?
III. Who and What Are e.netizens?
e.netizen: new generation of individuals, wired
to the Internet via intersecting space, having a
“hybrid” identity—both local and global.
A. Defining the Background of e.netizens
• E.netizens—the “first-wave” users, having the
latest technology.
• “Globally ethnic” involves multiple ethnicities.
III. Who and What Are e.netizens?
B. Characteristics of an e.netizen
Identity
E-characteristics:
• Exclusive
• Evolved
• Explorers
• Emoticon 😉 (^_^) m(_ _)m
• Entertained
• Energized
• Engaged
III. Who and What Are e.netizens?
C. Inverted Pyramid of e.netizen Identity
IV. The Dialectical Pulls of an e.netizen
A. Spatial Zone Dialectics
1. Internet provides privacy and anonymity and
shared communal space.
2. Individuals experience solitude and tribal pole.
3. Individuals access the Internet in private
space within solitude pole.
4. Web community allows individuals to interact
without face-to-face contact.
5. Too much in the tribal pole and one may find
themselves addicted.
IV. The Dialectical Pulls of an e.netizen
B. Temporal Zone Dialectics
1. Internet is allowing individuals to move between
monochronic and polychronic time.
2. Monotrack focus: working on one project at a time.
3. Multitrack focus: tending to multiple e.net tasks or
activities.
4. Monotrack e.netizens: concentrate on one project at
a time via one medium.
5. Multitrack e.netizens: can surf, text, and blog at the
same time.
6. Being-in-doing e.net philosophy—individuals fuse
“being” with “doing mode” value dimensions: being
with friends on Facebook while doing tasks.
V. The Tipping Point: Communication
Pattern Changes
A. Gadget Communication Patterns:
Fast and Furious
• Gadgets have transformed the way
we communicate with each other.
• Mobile phone was game changer, main
distracter from face-to-face conversation;
average users spend 209 minutes/day on
phone.
• Mobile phones change conversation in public
areas: we stay on our phones.
V. The Tipping Point: Communication
Pattern Changes
B. Sharing Intimate Partners with a Gadget
• Our relationships may be affected.
• Japanese males find it difficult to have face-toface communication.
C. Language Styles:Text,Tweet,Talk
• We use truncated language and emoticons to
replace long sentences.
• For example, on a chat site: SITCOM (Single
Income, Two Children, Oppressive Mortgage)
V. The Tipping Point: Communication
Pattern Changes
D. Communicating to Be Social
Change Agents
• Social networking allows for active
engagement and involvement.
• Disaster relief, anti-regime protests, and peace
activism supported via social networking.
• Social networking expands our intercultural
relationships.
Have you used social media to be a change
agent? Try something creative!
V. The Tipping Point: Communication
Pattern Changes
E. Present but Virtual
• One of fastest growing trends in business is
virtual teams and meetings.
• There still may be intercultural
misunderstandings, mistrust, language barriers.
VI. Personal Identities in Flux: The
Global Face
A. Developing a sense of identity takes time,
but in an age where time is compressed
and in flux, our self-view can transform
in an instant.
B. Opponents argue Internet appeals to our
worst instincts, makes us more like-minded.
Do you agree with this opinion?
C. E.netizens have ability to morph and fuse
identity, and Internet shapes image and
standard of beauty. Do you agree with this
statement?
Parting Thoughts…
Make technology
work for you,
not the other
way around.
~ Leeva Chung
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 10
What are the Challenges in Developing an
Intercultural-Intimate Relationship?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I.
Developing Intercultural-Intimate
Relationships: Invisible Challenges
II.
Intercultural-Intimate Relationship
Attraction: Facilitating Factors
III. Intercultural-Intimate Conflict:
Obstacles and Stumbling Blocks
IV. Raising Secure Bicultural Children
V.
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
I. Developing Intercultural-Intimate
Relationships: Invisible Challenges
A. Cultural-Ethnic Membership Values
Individualistic Orientation Collectivistic Orientation
Couple’s privacy, autonomy
We-identity, ingroup
relationship pressures
Ingroup’s (we) connection,
concerns
Voluntary, personal
commitment
Structural commitment,
family and social reactions
Low-context emotional
expressions
High-context emotional
expressions
“Fall in love,” passionate love
Value companionate
(friendship, loyalty) love
I-identity relationship
expectations
Media Activity:YouTube Videos
ï‚— The Meaning of Love 7 Billion Others
ï‚— Church Bans Interracial Couple
I. Developing Intercultural-Intimate
Relationships: Invisible Challenges
Discussion Questions:
Intercultural-intimate relationships:
ï‚— Have you experienced a relationship of this type?
ï‚— What were some positive things that you gained
from it? What were some negative things that
occurred?
ï‚— What was most surprising to you about the
different love expectations?
 Have you experienced the “me–we” dialectical
forces in any of your relationships? What
happened and how did you feel?
II. Intercultural-Intimate Relationship
Attraction: Facilitating Factors
A. Perceived Physical Attractiveness
Physical attractiveness critical to initial
attraction; cultural differences regarding what is
attractive.
• For example, U.S. individuals attracted to: high energy,
enthusiasm.; Korean individuals attracted to: high
integrity, concern for others.
B. Perceived Similarity
• Similarity–attraction hypothesis: cognitive consistency
• Intergroup–interpersonal attraction: attitudinal issues
II. Intercultural-Intimate Relationship
Attraction: Facilitating Factors
C. Cross-Cultural Self-disclosure Comparisons
• Self-disclosure: intentional process of revealing
exclusive information about ourselves to
others that other individuals do not know.
• Social penetration theory: interpersonal
information progresses from superficial
nonintimate to more deep-layered intimate
self-disclosure.
• Shrek explains the onion metaphor of social
penetration theory.
II. Intercultural-Intimate Relationship
Attraction: Facilitating Factors
C. Cross-Cultural Self-disclosure
Comparisons: Discussion
Check out similarities and differences….
• Where did you learn your self-disclosure tendency?
• Do you come from a high-disclosive family or a lowdisclosive family?
• What topics do you consider as quite “Public”?
• What topics do you consider as quite “Private”?
II. Intercultural-Intimate Relationship
Attraction: Facilitating Factors
C. Cross-Cultural Self-disclosure Comparisons:
Johari Window:
II. Intercultural-Intimate Relationship
Attraction: Facilitating Factors
Media Activity: Fools Rush In film clip
Discussion:
• Can you relate to this clip?
• How do the cultural value dimensions impact the
development of your particular intimate
relationship?
• How did Alex and Isabel handle the dialectical
tensions of autonomy and connectedness?
• How did they differ in terms of disclosing to their
parents about Isabel’s pregnancy?
II. Intercultural-Intimate Relationship
Attraction: Facilitating Factors
D. Online Disclosure of Affection
Do you stay in touch with your Facebook friends by
“liking” their posts, photos, or statuses?
E. Third-Party Matchmakers: Online and
Mobile Dating
Five phases of online dating:
1. Attention
2. Recognition
3. Interaction
4. Face-to-face meeting
5. Resolution
II. Intercultural-Intimate Relationship
Attraction: Facilitating Factors
E. Third-Party Matchmakers: Online
and Mobile Dating
• Have you tried match.com or eharmony.com?
How about pof.com (plenty of fish.com ☺)?
Take a look at this Indian matrimonial site:
• Did you notice that his parents created this posting?
How would you react if your parents did something
like this out of concern for you?
• What do you think of his complexion, caste, parents
info, diet, and annual income?!
II. Intercultural-Intimate Relationship
Attraction: Facilitating Factors
F. Intercultural/Interracial Romantic
Relationship Development
Interracial couples’ four stages of “racial”
awareness and awakening:
• Racial awareness
• Coping
• Identity emergence
• Relationship maintenance
II. Intercultural-Intimate Relationship
Attraction: Facilitating Factors
Some Intercultural-Intimate
Relationship Research
• Generation is predictor of interethnic relationships.
• Individuals with assimilated, bicultural, or marginal
identities have greater tendency to date outgroup
members.
• The “Romeo and Juliet” effect: The more
the families are against relationship, the
more the couple wants to rebel against
parents, thus finding each other more
attractive.
III. Intercultural-Intimate Conflict:
Obstacles and Stumbling Blocks
A. The Encounter: Prejudice and
Racism
Intercultural-intimate conflict:
Antagonistic friction or disagreement
between two romantic partners
caused, in part, by cultural or ethnic
group membership differences.
Have you observed prejudice or racism
toward interracial couples? What
occurred?
III. Intercultural-Intimate Conflict:
Obstacles and Stumbling Blocks
B.
Countering Racism and Prejudice:
Coping Strategies:
1. Ignoring or dismissing
2. Normalizing
3. Withdrawing
4. Educating
5. Confrontation
6. Prayer
7. Humor
IV. Raising Secure Bicultural Children
A. Bicultural Identity Struggles:
Four identity forms of bicultural
children:
1. Majority-group identifiers
2. Minority-group identifiers
3. Synthesizers
4. Dissaffiliates
IV. Raising Secure Bicultural Children:
Some suggestions:
Work out identity plan early – communicate with your
partner (e.g., religious faith, language, customs).
• Listen to your children’s identity experiences.
• Provide cultural enrichment opportunities.
• Be truthful about prejudice & racism issues.
• Nurture & support different identity facets.
• Provide safety net & maturation challenges. Realize that
children will grow up & choose their own identity path….
• Together: DRAW an ideal dream house….
•
IV. Raising Secure Bicultural Children
B. Cultivating a Secure Multifaceted
Identity
To help bicultural individuals:
• Know values and beliefs of each group.
• Positive attitude toward both groups.
• Confidence that one can live effectively within both
groups without compromising one’s individual
identity.
• Be grounded.
V. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
In managing diverse intimate relationship
issues, here are some helpful do-ables:
• Pay attention to culture-based challenges.
• Be mindful that individualists and collectivists
may hold different expectations.
• Be sensitive to your partner’s family reaction
issues.
• Be flexible in learning your partner’s
communication styles.
Parting Thoughts…
Living on borders and in margins,
keeping intact one’s shifting and multiple identity
and integrity,
is like trying to swim
in a new element, an “alien” element.
~ Gloria Anzaldua
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 9
How Can We Manage Intercultural Conflict
Flexibly?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural
Background Factors
II. Intercultural Conflict Process Factors
III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural
Background Factors
Intercultural conflict:
The implicit or explicit emotional struggle or
frustration between persons of different
cultures over perceived incompatible values,
norms, face orientations, goals, scarce resources,
processes, and/or outcomes in a communication
situation.
I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural
Background Factors
A. Culture-Based Conflict Lenses
Independent-self conflict
lens
Interdependent-self
conflict lens
Content conflict goal lens
Relational process lens
Win-lose conflict approach
Win-win relational approach
“Doing” angle
“Being” angle
Outcome-driven mode
Long-term compromising
negotiation mode
I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural
Background Factors
B. Intercultural Workplace Conflict Grid
• Uses two value dimensions (individualismcollectivism and power distance) to form
grid with four approaches.
• Complete my.blog 9.1 on page 183 to find
out your conflict lens… then think of the
pros & cons of each conflict style.
I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural
Background Factors
B. Intercultural Workplace Conflict Grid
I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural
Background Factors
View this video on intercultural conflict in
the workplace.
Discussion Questions:
• Compare and contrast the different verbal styles of
the people in this video.
• Use the workplace conflict grid to assess the different
conflict styles.
• What would be your specific intercultural teaching or
coaching strategies?
I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural
Background Factors
C. Intercultural Conflict Perceptions: Three
primary perception features of
intercultural conflict:
1. Conflict involves intercultural perceptions,
filtered through lenses of ethnocentrism and
stereotypes.
2. Ethnocentric perceptions add biases and
prejudice to conflict attribution process.
3. Attribution process further compounded by
different culture-based verbal and nonverbal
conflict styles.
I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural
Background Factors
D. Intercultural Conflict Goal Issues
1. Content goals
2. Relational conflict goals
3. Identity-based goals
E. Perceived Scarce Resources
1. Conflict resources
2. Tangible resources
3. Intangible resources
II. Intercultural Conflict Process Factors
A. Defining Conflict Styles:
Three approaches to studying conflict styles:
• Dispositional approach
• Situational approach
• Systems approach
II. Intercultural Conflict Process Factors
Five-style conflict grid
II. Intercultural Conflict Process Factors
Activity:
Draw an animal that depicts your
prototypical conflict style
Now assess your specific conflict style –
complete my.blog 9.3 on page 193
• Discuss your style with a partner.
• Think of the pros & cons of each conflict style
II. Intercultural Conflict Process Factors
B. Cross-Cultural Conflict Styles
• Face: Socially approved self-image and
other-image consideration issues.
• Facework: Verbal and nonverbal
strategies used to maintain, defend, or
upgrade our social self-image and attack
or defend (“save”) social images of others.
II. Intercultural Conflict Process Factors
B. Cross-Cultural Conflict Styles
Face-negotiation theory helps explain
how individualism-collectivism value
patterns influence use of diverse
conflict styles in different situations.
C. Cross-Ethnic Conflict Styles and
Facework
Can you guess the different kinds of conflict styles
used by African Americans, Asian Americans,
European Americans, Latino/a Americans, and
Native Americans on a general patterned level?
II. Intercultural Conflict Process Factors
• Media Activity: Spanglish film clip
Discussion Questions:
• What did you notice about the conflict scene
between John and Flor?
• Can you identify all the verbal and nonverbal clashes?
• What conflict goals were involved in the incident?
Cite some specific examples.
III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills
A. Facework Management
• Self-oriented face-saving behaviors:
Attempts to regain or defend one’s image
after threats to face or face loss.
• Other-oriented face-giving behaviors:
Attempts to support others’ face claims and
work with them to prevent further face loss
or help them restore face constructively.
Giving face means not humiliating others in
public.
III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills
B. Mindful Listening
A face-validation and power-sharing skill;
listening with focused attentiveness to
cultural and personal assumptions
expressed.
• Involves learning to listen responsively, or
ting (Chinese: “attending mindfully with our
ears, eyes, and a focused heart”).
•
III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills
B. Mindful Listening
III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills
Mindless Listening
Ethnocentric lens
Reactive approach
Selective hearing
Defensive posture
“Struggle against”
Judgmental attitude
Emotional outbursts
Coercive power
Positional differences
Fixed objectives
Win-lose/lose-lose outcome
Mindful Listening
Ethnorelative lens
Proactive/choice approach
Attentive listening
Supportive posture
“Struggle with”
Mindful reframing
Vulnerability shared
Shared power
Common interests
Creative options
Win-win synergy
III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills
C. Cultural Empathy
Perspective-take accurately the self-experiences
of others and convey your understanding
responsively.
D. Mindful Reframing
How you “frame” conflict via neutrally-toned
language may soften conflict defensiveness.
E. Adaptive Code-Switching
Purposefully modifying one’s verbal and
nonverbal behaviors in conflict interaction.
III. Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills
Reframing Skills Activity
ï‚— How did these conflicts go? How helpful do you
think the reframing statements were to the
conflict? Did any partners end up with win–win
solutions?
 Coaches: how did it feel to try to reframe “in the
moment?“
ï‚— Conflict parties: Do you believe you reacted
differently to your partner’s reframed statement
rather than how you would have reacted to the
original statement? How?
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
To deal with conflict in a collectivistic culture,
individualists need to do the following:
1. Be mindful of mutual face-saving premises,
especially delicate balance of humiliation and pride,
respect and disrespect, and shame and honor
issues.
2. Practice patient, mindful observation and limit
“why?” questions.
3. Practice mindful listening skills, attend to other’s
identity and relational expectation issues.
Remember listen can become silent and vice versa
by rearranging the letters.
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
In conflict situations in an individualistic
culture, collectivists need to do the
following:
1. Use assertive conflict behavior and state a clear
thesis, then systematically develop key points.
2. Use “I” statements and more “why?” questions.
3. Engage in active listening skills (rephrasing and
perception checking); do not rely solely on
nonverbal signals or count on other people to
gauge personal reactions.
Parting Thoughts…
Conflict = Chaos = Danger + Opportunity
Learn to listen to the identity stories, yearnings,
and nuances behind the fighting words.
~ Stella Ting-Toomey
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 8
What Causes us to Hold Biases Against
Outgroups?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I.
Human Perception Tendencies: Some
General Principles
II. Biased Intergroup Filters:
Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes
III. Marking Ingroup/Outgroup
Membership Boundaries
IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice,
Discrimination, and Racism
V. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
I. Human Perception Tendencies: Some
General Principles
Human perception:
• Process of selecting cues quickly from the
environment, organizing them into a coherent
pattern and labeling that pattern, and
interpreting that pattern in accordance with
our expectation.
Quick three-step process:
• Selective attention
• Selective organization and labeling
• Selective interpretation.
Perception Test
YouTube Perception Test
How many times does the team wearing
white pass the basketball?
II. Biased Intergroup Filters:
Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes
A. Ethnocentrism and Communication
Ethnocentrism: derived from two Greek
words:
Ethno: “one’s own ethnic or cultural group”
Centrism: “One’s own group should be
looked upon as the center of the world”
Degrees of ethnocentrism:
• Distance of disparagement (high ethnocentrism)
• Distance of avoidance (moderate ethnocentrism)
• Distance of indifference (low ethnocentrism)
II. Biased Intergroup Filters:
Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes
Developmental Model of Intercultural
Sensitivity (DMIS)
Developed by Janet Bennett & Milton Bennett
A Popular Intercultural Training Model:
• Three states of ethnocentrism
• Three states in development of ethnorelativism
II. Biased Intergroup Filters:
Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes
Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity
II. Biased Intergroup Filters:
Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes
Stereotype content model (SCM):
Formed along two dimensions:
• Perception of warmth dimension
• Perception of competence dimension
II. Biased Intergroup Filters:
Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes
A Two-Dimensional Stereotype Content Model
II. Biased Intergroup Filters:
Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes
Stereotyping is inevitable; key is to distinguish
between inflexible and flexible stereotyping.
• Inflexible stereotyping: holds onto negative
stereotypes by operating on automatic pilot.
• Flexible stereotyping: “mindfully minding our
mind.”
II. Biased Intergroup Filters:
Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes
Table 8.1
Inflexible Stereotyping
Flexible Stereotyping
Automatic pilot reaction
Mindful of categorization
Rigid categories
Open-ended categories
Premature closure
First best-guesses
Polarized evaluations
Loose interpretations
Information distortion
Information openness
Unwilling to change
categories
Willingness to change
categories
II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism
and Stereotypes
Click here to view UCLA student Alexandra Wallace’s
rant on Asian students in the library
• What are your interpretations?
• Apology accepted? Forgive & forget? Forgive but not
forget?
Click here to view Jimmy Wong’s reaction to
Alexandra Wallace
• What did you think of Wong’s response to Alex?
II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism
and Stereotypes
B. Stereotypes and Communication
Stereotypes:
• Exaggerated pictures about a group of people on
the basis of inflexible beliefs and expectations
about the characteristics or behaviors of the group.
• What are some factors that shape stereotypes?
Click here to view a clip from The Color of Friendship
III. Marking Ingroup-Outgroup
Membership Boundaries
Ingroup and Outgroup Attribution Differences
III. Marking Ingroup-Outgroup
Membership Boundaries
A. Us versus Them
Social identity theory:
Study of ingroup, outgroup membership,
how emotional attachment to social group
plays key role in forming social/personal
identity.
Ingroup: feel connected to.
Outgroup: feel emotionally and psychologically
detached.
III. Marking Ingroup/Outgroup
Membership Boundaries
B. Group Membership Struggle
C. Intergroup Attribution Biases
Attributions: the explanations—the meanings
of why people behave as they do.
• Fundamental attribution error
• Principle of negativity
• Favorable self-bias and other-derogation
principle
• Self-effacement bias
III. Marking Ingroup/Outgroup
Membership Boundaries
Media Analysis: Crash film clip
Reflection Questions:
• Where did the wife acquire her fear and
biases?
• Do you think stereotypes—both negative and
positive—have their place? How so?
• Where do we learn our stereotypes?
IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice,
Discrimination, and Racism
Prejudice:
Describes an individual’s feelings and
predispositions toward outgroup members in a
pejorative or negative direction, but can also
mean the opposite: One can be indiscriminately
for or against members of a particular group.
Four explanations for development of prejudice:
• Exploitation theory
• Scapegoating theory
• Authoritarian personality approach
• Structural approach
IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice,
Discrimination, and Racism
B. Prejudiced Remarks . . .or Innocent Jokes?
Click here to watch a clip on how some ingroup members
treat their own members like outgroup members.
Where to draw the line question is difficult to
answer. . .
Click here to move toward the conscious competence
stage with respect to stereotyping, prejudice and
discrimination.
(*Caution – these clips contain offensive language).
IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice,
Discrimination, and Racism
C. Four Discriminatory Practices
Discrimination:
Verbal and nonverbal actions that carry out
prejudiced attitudes. Four practices:
• Isolate discrimination:
• Small-group discrimination
• Direct institutional discrimination
• Indirect institutional discrimination
IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice,
Discrimination, and Racism
D. Different Types of Racism
Racism involves three principles:
• Feelings of superiority based on biological or racial
differences;
• Strong ingroup preferences and the rejection of
outgroups, different in customs or beliefs; and
• Doctrine that conveys special advantage to those in
power.
Three basic examples of racism:
• Racial profiling
• Perpetuating stereotypic images
• Hate crimes
V. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
• Be honest about your own biases.
• Understand where you learn your stereotypes.
• Seek accurate identity membership knowledge.
• Get involved in diverse identity communities.
• Cultivate constructive, intergroup contacts.
• Work on positive, interdependent task goals.
• Personalized the relationships & build trust.
• Learn to listen and share…
Parting Thoughts…
In spite of everything I still believe that people are
really good at heart.
I simply can’t build up my hopes on a foundation
consisting of confusion, misery and death.
~ Anne Frank
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 7
What are the Different Ways to Communicate
Nonverbally Across Cultures?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I. The Impact of Nonverbal Communication
II. Forms of Nonverbal Communication
III. Boundary Regulations: Four Broad
Themes
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
I. The Impact of Nonverbal Communication
A. Nonverbal Communication:
Message exchange process involving the use
of nonlinguistic and paralinguistic cues which
are expressed through multiple
communication channels in a particular
sociocultural setting.
• Nonlinguistic cues e.g., eye contact, smiles, touch etc.
• Paralinguistic cues e.g., tone, pitch, volume, pace etc.
• Multiple channels e.g., facial expressions, gestures etc.
• Sociocultural setting e.g., cultural norms, etc.
I. The Impact of Nonverbal Communication
B. One Code, Countless Interpretations
C. Verbal and Nonverbal Comparisons
Nonverbal cues relate to verbal messages
in five different ways:
1. Repeat
2. Contradict
3. Substitute
4. Complement
5. Accent
I. The Impact of Nonverbal Communication
Application Exercise: Intercultural
Nonverbal Communication: Fun
Nonverbal Quiz.
How many answers did you get right?
II. Forms of Nonverbal Communication:
A. Physical Appearance: Artifacts and clothing
B. Paralanguage: Sounds and tones
C. Facial expressions: Kinesics, SADFISH, and
cultural display rules
D. Gestures: four categories of hand gestures
1. Emblems
2. Illustrators
3. Regulators
4. Adaptors
E. Haptics—touch behavior, high-, low-,
moderate-contact cultures
II. Forms of Nonverbal
Communication:
Can you identify
the emotions?
III. Boundary Regulations: Four broad
themes
A.
Regulating Interpersonal Boundaries
Proxemics: study of space.
Intimate zone: 0–18 inches. Reserved for those closest
to us.
Personal zone: 18–48 inches. Closer friends, some
acquaintances.
Social zone: 48 inches to 12 feet.
Public zone: 12 feet or more.
III. Boundary Regulations
President Bush meets Saudi Arabian royalty,
Prince Abdullah
What can you gather about their spatial
zones?
III. Boundary Regulations
A. Regulating Interpersonal Boundaries:
Marking Boundaries + Expressing Respect or Deference
• Cultural Norms & Rules
• Meanings
• Appropriateness
President Obama Bows and
Shakes Hands In Japan To
Emperor Akihito and
Empress Michiko
III. Boundary Regulations: Four broad
themes
B. Environmental Boundaries:
claimed sense of space and emotional
attachment we share with others in our
community.
C. Psychological Boundaries
1. Intrapersonal space: need for information
privacy or psychological silence between the self
and others.
2. Privacy regulation is important in individualistic
cultures, not perceived as critical in collectivistic
cultures.
III. Boundary Regulations: Four broad
themes
D. Regulating Time: attitudes we
have about time.
Chronemics: how people in different
cultures structure, interpret, and
understand the time dimension.
Two patterns of time govern different
cultures:
• Monochronic-time schedule
• Polychronic-time schedule
III. Boundary Regulations
Media Analysis: Gran Torino film clip
DISCUSSION:
• What is your initial reaction to this clip?
• Can you identify all of the nonverbal
violations experienced by both Walt and the
Hmong’s family?
• Have you experienced any international
nonverbal faux pas?
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
Nonverbal points to consider in communicating
across cultures:
A. Be flexible when you observe and identify
nonverbal display rules.
B. Attempt a deeper-than-surface explanation for
the behavior.
C. Monitor your own nonverbal behavior.
D. Be adaptive and sensitive to appropriate
nonverbal display rules for emotions in a
particular culture.
E. Be less judgmental and more tentative in
interpreting others’ nonverbal signals.
Parting Thoughts…
Our first impressions are
generated by our experiences
and our environment,
which means that we
can change our
first impressions . . .
by changing the experiences
that comprise
those impressions.
~ Malcolm Gladwell
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 12
How Can We Become Ethical Intercultural
Communicators?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I. Intercultural Communication Ethics:
Contemporary Issues
II. Multiple Ethical Positions: Assessing Pros
and Cons
III. Becoming Ethical and Flexible
Intercultural Communicators
I. Intercultural Communication Ethics:
Contemporary Issues
Ethics: set of principles of conduct that
governs behavior of individuals and
groups; a set of standards that uphold the
community’s expectations concerning
“right” and “wrong” conduct.
I. Intercultural Communication Ethics:
Contemporary Issues
Discussion Questions:
• From where did you learn your ethical
position?
• Does it differ from that of the larger
culture to which you belong? How?
I. Intercultural Communication Ethics:
Contemporary Issues
Global Standard Procedure and Local
Justice Issues:
Five-phase ethical decision-making model:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Problem recognition
Information search
Construction of alternatives
Decision making choice
Implementation
I. Intercultural Communication Ethics:
Contemporary Issues
Media Activity: Click here to view the
Kenyan tradition of ‘beading’
Discussion Questions:
• Can you apply the five-phase ethical decisionmaking model to this ethical dilemma?
• Can you brainstorm some creative alternative
solutions for this dilemma?
• How would you go about approaching
traditional Kenyans to explain your views of
their practice?
I. Intercultural Communication Ethics:
Contemporary Issues
B. Corporate Responsibility and Local
Customary Practice
Ethical algorithm formula for local cultural
hiring practices.
• Two conflict types: moral reasoning (a) related to
and (b) not related to economic development in
country.
• Two questions:
(1) Is it possible to conduct business successfully
without undertaking the practice? and
o (2) Is practice a violation of fundamental international
human rights?
o
I. Intercultural Communication Ethics:
Contemporary Issues
C. Cultural Value Clash & Communication
Preference
“Universalistic” or “impartial” value
orientation: believe a set of consistent
rules should apply to all individuals,
regardless of relationship types or
circumstances.
• “Particularistic” value orientation: nature of
relationship or situation guides decision.
•
II. Multiple Ethical Positions: Assessing
Pros and Cons
Three ethical positions used to assess
ethical violations in diverse cultures:
A. Ethical Absolutism Position
B. Ethical Relativism Position
C. Ethical Universalism Position
II. Multiple Ethical Positions: Assessing
Pros and Cons
A. Ethical Absolutism Position
• Emphasizes principles of right and wrong
(good and bad behavior) in accordance
with a set of assumed universally fixed
standards regardless of cultural differences.
• Universality: one set of consistent
standards guides behavior on a global level,
and cultural context is minimized. The
standards, however, are often reflective of
dominant or power-holder cultural group
lens.
II. Multiple Ethical Positions: Assessing
Pros and Cons
B. Ethical Relativism Position
• Emphasizes the importance of understanding
cultural context and its underlying traditions,
beliefs, and value patterns in judging conduct.
• Relativists emphasize that ethical/unethical
practices should be understood from
cultural insiders’ viewpoint.
II. Multiple Ethical Positions: Assessing
Pros and Cons
C. Ethical Universalism Position
• Emphasizes importance of deriving inclusive
universal ethical standards and then placing
ethical judgments against these derived, allencompassing standards.
• Judgments require knowledge about
underlying similarities across cultures and
about the unique features of a culture and
involve collaborative dialog, open attitudes,
and hard work from all cultural/ethnic and
marginalized groups and voices.
II. Multiple Ethical Positions: Assessing
Pros and Cons
Ethical
Absolutism
Ethical
Relativism
Ethical
Universalism
Pros
Fixed standards Takes role of
for all practices culture
seriously
Involves
collaborative
dialog, open
attitudes
Cons
Culturally
imposed
perspective by
dominant
culture, and
nondominant
cultures are
marginalized.
Requires hard
work from all;
most using this
position are
“imposed
ethics,” relying
heavily on
Eurocentric
moral
philosophies
Encourages too
much cultural
flexibility,
may perpetuate
intolerable
cultural
practices by
being too
culturally
accepting
II. Multiple Ethical Positions: Assessing
Pros and Cons
D. Meta-Ethics Contextualism Position:
An Alternative 4th Position:
Meta-ethics: ethical way of thinking that
transcends particular ideologies; the
application of ethics is understood only
through systematic analysis of the multiple
layers of the ethical dilemma
• Strength: emphasizes fact-finding and layered
interpretations, takes into serious consideration
importance of culture, context, persons, etc.
• Problem: time-consuming approach
III. Becoming Ethical and Flexible
Intercultural Communicators
A meta-ethical decision is a discovery
process—into our own values,
inconsistencies—and prompts us to
gather multiple-level information.
• Can you think of creative solutions other than
the ones investigated?
• Is there a way to prevent similar ethical
dilemmas or pressures from arising in the
future in this culture?
III. Becoming Ethical and Flexible
Intercultural Communicators
B. Becoming Flexible: Final Passport
Do-Ables
• Practice parallel thinking.
• Responsibility for peace lies with each of
us—starts with inner peace.
• Dynamic flexibility: integrating
knowledge, open-minded attitude,
culture-sensitive skills, and communicating
ethically with culturally dissimilar others.
Final Parting Thoughts…
An intercultural life is a creative life that demands both
playfulness and mindfulness in transforming one’s
intercultural journey into a discovery process.
~ Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva Chung
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 6
What is the Connection between Verbal
Communication & Culture?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I. Human Language: Distinctive Features
and Rule Patterns
II. Appreciating Diverse Language
Functions
III. Verbal Communication Styles: A
General Framework
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
Do you know…
• The Top-3 Countries with the Most Native
English-Language Speakers?
•
The Top-3 Countries with the Most Native
Spanish-Language Speakers?
•
The Top-3 Most Widely-Spoken Languages
Worldwide?
(Ethnologue Database, 2010-11)
I. Human Language: Distinctive Features
and Rule Patterns
Language:
An arbitrary, symbolic system that labels
and categorizes objects, events, groups,
people, ideas, feelings, experiences, and
many other phenomena.
Can you guess how many languages exist
worldwide?
I. Human Language: Distinctive Features
and Rule Patterns
A. Distinctive Language Features
• Arbitrariness: sounds and symbols
Ω A  €
∞
• Abstractness: concrete to abstract levels
• Meaning-Centeredness: denotative and
connotative levels of meaning
• Creativity: productivity, displacement, etacommunicative
I. Human Language: Distinctive Features
and Rule Patterns
B. Multiple Rule Patterns
• Phonological Rules: Smallest unit of a word
• Morphological Rules: Multiple sounds
• Syntactic Rules: Grammar
• Semantic Rules: Meaning
• Pragmatic Rules: Contextual rules
II. Appreciating Diverse Language
Functions
Click here to find out the “Meaning of Love”
From 7 Billion Others from YouTube
II. Appreciating Diverse Language Functions
A. Cultural Worldview Function
•
Linear worldview vs. Relational worldview
B. Everyday Social Reality Function
C. Cognitive Shaping Function
•
•
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: “the shaper of ideas”
Strong Form vs. Weak Form
D. Group Membership Function
•
Code switching (Click to view related video)
E. Social Change Function
II. Appreciating Diverse Language
Functions: Cultural Worldview Function
Linear Worldview
Relational Worldview
Rational thinking
Connected thinking
Objective reasoning
Context-based reasoning
Facts and evidence
Context and relationship
Polarized interpretation
Continuum interpretation
Analytical dissecting mode
Holistic big-picture mode
Tangible outcome
Long-term relational
outcome
II. Verbal Communication Styles:
A General Framework
LCC Patterns
HCC Patterns
Individualistic values
Collectivistic values
Linear logic
Spiral logic
Direct verbal style
Informal verbal style
Indirect verbal style
Understated or animated
tone
Formal verbal style
Verbal assertiveness or
talkativeness
Verbal reticence or silence
Verbal self-enhancement
style
Self-humbling style
Matter of fact tone
II. Verbal Communication Styles: A General Framework
LCC – HCC Application Analysis:
• The Joy Luck Club: Film Clip
• Roommates Video
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:
Compare and contrast the different verbal styles of the
people in the videos.
• What did the low-context communicator say/do? What did
the high-context communicator say/do?
• What recommendations do you have for these
communicators to make this conversation go better?
•
II. Verbal Communication Styles: A General Framework
Beliefs Expressed in Talk and Silence
• Silence is interpreted and evaluated differently across
cultures and between persons.
• How do you interpret silence?
Take a look at how the Japanese people use
silence to mean different things…
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
When using your native language with a nonnative
speaker, to be flexible verbal communicators, try
to practice the following guidelines:
– Practice intercultural empathy
– Learn to paraphrase and perception check
– Use multiple modes of presentation
– Practice language variation usage
– Pay attention to nonverbal tone of voice
– Understand basic differences of LCC and HCC patterns
– Use nonverbal gestures to complement
– Master the language pragmatic rule function
Parting Thoughts…
If you talk to a man
in a language he understands,
that goes to his head.
If you talk to him in his language,
that goes to his heart.
~ Nelson Mandela
Learn a new language
and get a new soul.
~ Czech Proverb
UNDERSTANDING
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
This page intentionally left blank
UNDERSTANDING
INTERCULTURAL
COMMUNICATION
S E C O N D E DITION
Stella Ting-Toomey
CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY AT FULLERTON
Leeva C. Chung
UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO
NEW YORK
OXFORD
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
Oxford University Press, Inc., publishes works that further Oxford University’s
objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education.
Oxford New York
Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi
Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi
New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto
With offices in
Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece
Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore
South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam
Copyright © 2012, 2005 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
For titles covered by Section 112 of the US Higher Education Opportunity Act,
please visit www.oup.com/us/he for the latest information about
pricing and alternate formats.
Published by Oxford University Press, Inc.
198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016
http://www.oup.com
Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without the prior permission of Oxford University Press.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Ting-Toomey, Stella.
Understanding intercultural communication / Stella Ting-Toomey, Leeva C. Chung. —
2nd ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-19-973979-0 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. Culture shock. 2. Language and culture. 3. Cross-cultural orientation. I. Chung,
Leeva C., 1965- II. Title.
GN345.6.T57 2011
303.48’2—dc23
2011021033
987654321
Printed in the United States of America
on acid-free paper.
D E D I C AT I O N T O O U R B E L O V E D PA R E N T S
獻給我最親愛的父母親
To my loving parents: Ting Chun Yen and Wang Shu Chin, this book is dedicated to you. For all your love, sacrifices, resilient spirit, and a lifetime of hard work—I thank you for teaching me caring, considerateness, and
adaptability wherever I go. I love you and appreciate your “letting go” of me at a young age and letting me come
to America and study. Whatever I’ve acomplished, I’m an extension of your love and gentle grace.
丁允珠
—Stella Ting-Toomey Wun Chu
To my visionary parents: Chung Dai Tau and Pang Duk Wai, this book is dedicated to you—allowing me the
freedom to find my voice, inspiring me through your creative energy, and teaching me to trust intuition and flow,
despite life’s uncertainties. For all of your love—I thank you both.
程麗華
—Leeva Chung (Ching) Lai Wah
This page intentionally left blank
BRIEF CONTENTS
PREFACE
xvii
CHAPTER
1
Why Study Intercultural Communication?
CHAPTER
2
What Is Intercultural Communication Flexibility?
3
CHAPTER
3
What Are the Essential Cultural Value Patterns?
CHAPTER
4
What Are the Keys to Understanding Cultural
and Ethnic Identities? 64
CHAPTER
5
What Is Culture Shock?
CHAPTER
6
What Is the Connection Between Verbal Communication
and Culture? 110
CHAPTER
7
What Are the Different Ways to Communicate Nonverbally
Across Cultures? 1 3 0
CHAPTER
8
What Causes Us to Hold Biases Against Outgroups?
157
CHAPTER
9
How Can We Manage Intercultural Conflict Flexibly?
179
CHAPTER
10
What Are the Challenges in Developing an
Intercultural-Intimate Relationship? 204
CHAPTER
11
What Are the Communication Issues Facing a Global Identity?
CHAPTER
12
How Can We Become Ethical Intercultural Communicators?
22
38
91
267
297
AUTHOR INDEX
311
SUBJECT INDEX
317
REFERENCES
GLOSSARY
vii
228
250
This page intentionally left blank
CONTENTS
PREFACE
xvii
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
PA R T I
CHAPTER
1
xxii
xxiii
F U N D A M E N TA L C O N C E P T S I N I N T E R C U LT U R A L
C O M M U N I C AT I O N 1
Why Study Intercultural Communication? 3
Practical Reasons to Study Intercultural Communication
Adjusting to Global Workplace Heterogeneity
Adapting to Domestic Workforce Diversity
5
5
7
Engaging in Creative Multicultural Problem Solving
8
Comprehending the Role of Technology in Global Communication
Facilitating Better Multicultural Health Care Communication
Enhancing Intercultural Relationship Satisfaction
Fostering Global and Intrapersonal Peace
11
13
Deepening Self-Awareness and Other-Awareness
Culture: A Learned Meaning System
9
10
14
15
Surface-Level Culture: Popular Culture 16
Intermediate-Level Culture: Symbols, Meanings, and Norms
18
Deep-Level Culture: Traditions, Beliefs, and Values 19
Stamping Your Intercultural Passport
CHAPTER
2
21
What Is Intercultural Communication Flexibility?
Defining Intercultural Communication: A Process Model
ix
24
22
x
CONTENTS
Intercultural Communication Process: Overall
Characteristics 2 4
Intercultural Communication: Meaning Characteristics
Practicing Intercultural Communication Flexibility
27
28
Three Content Components: Knowledge, Attitude, and Skills
28
Three Criteria: Appropriateness, Effectiveness, and Adaptability
29
Developing Intercultural Communication Flexibility 30
A Staircase Model
30
An Essential Hook: A Mindful Perspective
Deepening Intercultural Process Thinking
32
33
Process Consciousness: Underlying Principles
33
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables 37
CHAPTER
3
What Are the Essential Cultural
Value Patterns? 3 8
Functions of Cultural Values
40
Analyzing Cultural Values
40
Identity Meaning Function
40
Explanatory Function
41
Motivational Function
42
Ingroup–Outgroup Evaluative Function
Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions
Discovering Cultural Values
42
43
43
Identity: Individualism–Collectivism Value Pattern
44
Power: Small–Large Power Distance Value Pattern
48
Uncertainty: Weak–Strong Uncertainty Avoidance Value Pattern
Sex Roles: Feminine–Masculine Value Pattern
Additional Value Orientation Patterns
52
Value Orientations: Background Information
Meaning: Activity Value Orientation
51
52
53
Destiny: People–Nature Value Orientation
Time: Temporal Value Orientation
56
Individual Socialization Development
57
54
Independent versus Interdependent Self-Construal
Horizontal versus Vertical Self-Construal
59
Internal versus External Locus of Control
59
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
62
58
50
Contents
CHAPTER
4
What Are the Keys to Understanding Cultural and
Ethnic Identities? 64
Family and Gender Socialization
66
Families Come in Different Shapes 66
Gender Socialization and Interaction Patterns
69
Group Membership: Intercultural Boundary Crossing
The Process of Acculturation and Enculturation
Systems-Level Factors
70
70
71
Individual-Level Factors
74
Interpersonal Face-to-Face and Network-Level Factors 75
Mass Media–Level Factors
76
Group Affiliation and Identity Formation
Cultural Identity Conceptualization
76
77
Ethnic Identity Conceptualization
79
Ethnic–Racial Identity Change Process
81
Cultural–Ethnic Identity Typological Model 82
Racial–Ethnic Identity Development Model
Multiracial and Biracial Identity
83
84
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables 86
PA R T I I
CHAPTER
5
C R O S S I N G C U LT U R A L A N D C O M M U N I C AT I O N
B O U N D A R I E S A D A P T I V E LY 8 9
What Is Culture Shock? 91
Unpacking Culture Shock
93
Characteristics of Culture Shock
93
Pros and Cons of Culture Shock
95
Approaching Culture Shock: Underlying Factors
Initial Tips to Manage Culture Shock
98
Intercultural Adjustment: Developmental Patterns
The U-Curve Adjustment Model
Reentry Culture Shock
98
100
The Revised W-Shape Adjustment Model
Culture Shock: Peaks and Valleys
95
101
106
10 6
Reentry Culture Shock: Surprising Elements
107
Resocialization: Different Returnees’ Profiles
108
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
109
xi
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
6
What Is the Connection Between Verbal
Communication and Culture? 110
Human Language: Distinctive Features and Rule Patterns
Distinctive Language Features
Multiple Rule Patterns
112
112
115
Appreciating Diverse Language Functions 118
The Cultural Worldview Function
118
The Everyday Social Reality Function
119
The Cognitive Shaping Function 120
The Group Membership Identity Function
The Social Change Function
121
122
Verbal Communication Styles: A General Framework
123
Defining Low-Context and High-Context Interaction Patterns
Direct and Indirect Verbal Styles
125
Self-Enhancement and Self-Humbling Verbal Styles
Beliefs Expressed in Talk and Silence
127
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
CHAPTER
7
126
128
What Are the Different Ways to Communicate
Nonverbally Across Cultures? 130
The Impact of Nonverbal Communication
132
Making Sense of Nonverbal Communication
One Code, Countless Interpretations 134
Verbal and Nonverbal Comparisons
Forms of Nonverbal Communication
134
135
Physical Appearance 1 35
Paralanguage
137
Facial Expressions
Gestures
1 41
Haptics
144
Boundary Regulations
138
1 45
Regulating Interpersonal Boundaries
Environmental Boundaries
146
Psychological Boundaries
147
Regulating Time
146
148
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
152
133
123
Contents
PA R T I I I
CHAPTER
8
M A N A G I N G C H A L L E N G E S I N I N T E R C U LT U R A L
R E L AT I O N S H I P S F L E X I B LY 1 5 5
What Causes Us to Hold Biases Against
Outgroups? 1 5 7
Human Perception Tendencies: Some General Principles
Selective Attention
159
159
Selective Organization and Labeling
160
Selective Interpretation 160
Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes
Ethnocentrism and Communication
Stereotypes and Communication
161
161
165
Stereotypes: We Are What We Watch
167
Marking Ingroup–Outgroup Membership Boundaries
168
Us versus Them 1 6 8
Group Membership Struggles
169
Intergroup Attribution Biases
170
Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism
Prejudice: Multiple Explanations and Functions
171
171
Prejudiced Remarks or Innocent Jokes? 172
Four Discriminatory Practices
Different Types of Racism
173
175
Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
CHAPTER
9
177
178
How Can We Manage Intercultural Conflict
Flexibly? 1 7 9
Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background Factors
Culture-Based Conflict Lenses
181
Intercultural Workplace Conflict Grid
182
Intercultural Conflict Perceptions
187
Intercultural Conflict Goal Issues
187
Perceived Scarce Resources
189
Intercultural Conflict Process Factors
Defining Conflict Styles
190
190
Cross-Cultural Conflict Styles
195
Cross-Ethnic Conflict Styles and Facework
196
181
xiii
xiv
CONTENTS
Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills
Facework Management
Mindful Listening
199
Cultural Empathy
201
198
198
Mindful Reframing 201
Adaptive Code-Switching
202
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
CHAPTER
202
10 What Are the Challenges in Developing an
Intercultural-Intimate Relationship? 204
Developing Intercultural-Intimate Relationships:
Invisible Challenges
206
Cultural–Ethnic Membership Values
206
Love Expectations and Expressions
Autonomy–Connection Issues
207
208
Communication Decoding Issues
210
Intercultural-Intimate Relationship Attraction: Facilitating Factors 211
Perceived Physical Attractiveness
Perceived Similarity
211
212
Cross-Cultural Self-Disclosure Comparisons
Online Disclosure of Affection
213
216
Third-Party Matchmakers: Online and Mobile Dating
Intercultural–Interracial Romantic Relationship Development

218
Intercultural-Intimate Conflict: Obstacles and Stumbling Blocks
220
The Encounter: Prejudice and Racism
220
Countering Racism and Prejudice: Coping Strategies
Relational Transgressions and Terminations
Raising Secure Bicultural Children
Bicultural Identity Struggles
222
223
224
224
Cultivating a Secure, Multifaceted Identity
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
CHAPTER
216
225
226
11 What Are the Communication Issues Facing a Global
Identity? 2 2 8
Wired and On: The Roar of the Internet
230
The Internet as Our Central Station
230
Wired Communication
231
Contents
The Transformation of Local and Global Identities
The Lens of Television: Identity Imitation
Global Television Impact
232
233
235
Be Hip, Be Hot, and Pop Culture Impact
236
Outsourced Beats: You Are What You Can Dance To
You Are What You Wear: Pop Culture as Fashion
Who and What Are e.netizens?
236
237
238
Defining the Background of e.netizens
240
Characteristics of an e.netizen Identity
240
The Dialectical Pulls of an e.netizen 241
Spatial Zone Dialectics
Temporal Dialectics
242
2 43
The Tipping Point: Communication Pattern Changes 244
Gadget Communication Patterns: Fast and Furious 244
Sharing Intimate Partners with a Gadget
Language Styles: Text, Tweet, Talk
245
245
Communicating to Be Social Change Agents
Present but Virtual
247
Personal Identities in Flux: The Global Face
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
CHAPTER
246
247
248
12 How Can We Become Ethical Intercultural
Communicators? 250
Intercultural Communication Ethics: Contemporary Issues
252
Global Standard Procedure and Local Justice Issues 252
Corporate Responsibility and Local Customary Practice
Cultural Value Clash and Communication Preference
Multiple Ethical Positions: Assessing Pros and Cons
Ethical Absolutism Position
256
Ethical Relativism Position
257
Ethical Universalism Position
254
255
255
257
Meta-Ethics Contextualism Position
258
Becoming Ethical Intercultural Communicators: Questions to
Consider
259
Becoming Flexible: Final Passport Do-Ables
In Conclusion . . . 2 6 5
261
xv
xvi
CONTENTS
267
GLOSSARY
297
AUTHOR INDEX
311
SUBJECT INDEX
317
REFERENCES
PREFACE
T
his text, Understanding Intercultural Communication, Second Edition, is written for you to
increase your appreciation, knowledge, and skills about intercultural communication.
With increased globalization and demographic changes in the United States, it is inevitable
that you will be communicating with people who are culturally different. Developing constructive, quality intercultural relationships can make life enriching and exciting to ourselves
and to people around us.
This book is an introductory text designed for undergraduate students, teachers, and
practitioners who are searching for a user-friendly text on the fundamentals of intercultural
communication. With the lens of flexible intercultural communication, we thread through
an abundance of intercultural material with a very practical theme.
This book emphasizes a strong value-orientation perspective and its effect on intercultural encounters. It also addresses the complex role of cultural–ethnic identity and global–
local identity and their relationship to intercultural contacts in our increasingly pluralistic
U.S. society.
This text is distinctive because of its well-balanced emphasis on both international
intercultural communication issues and U.S. domestic diversity issues. Our pedagogical approach to this book emphasizes a student-empowering philosophy via a tight
integration of culture-sensitive knowledge, attitude checkpoints, and pragmatic communication skills necessary to develop intercultural communication flexibility in diverse
contexts.
SPECIAL FEATURES
The second edition of Understanding Intercultural Communication is a book with many special
hooks and original features. For example, it offers first-time students the following:
•
A comprehensive introduction to all the important concepts of intercultural
communication.
xvii
xviii
PREFACE
A sound knowledge base of contemporary intercultural communication research areas
that reflect multiple theoretical viewpoints.
• A wide-angle lens to learn about intercultural and interethnic communication concepts
drawn from diverse disciplines.
• A theory-practice emphasis via the use of timely, real-life news stories and case studies to
connect with key concepts in each chapter—starting from Chapter 2 and ending with
Chapter 12.
• A text with accessible language so that students, teachers, and practitioners of intercultural communication can enjoy reading the book in an interactive manner.
• Simple tables and figures to highlight various important intercultural and intergroup
communication ideas.
• An intercultural “do-able” checklist at the end of each chapter to remind students to practice flexible intercultural communication skills in everyday interactions.
•
We have also updated many of the favorite features from the first edition and added several
new special features in this second edition:
Beginning with Chapter 2, each chapter opens with a real-life news event or personal case
story to motivate students to reflect on and explore the connection between the story and
chapter concepts.
• Top Five Jeopardy boxes throughout the text to increase students’ global, pop culture, and
domestic diversity literacy.
• Blog Post personal narratives, stories, and poems throughout the text to connect abstract
intercultural concepts and principles with meaningful understanding.
• my.blog enjoyable mini-assessments that promote self-awareness and self-empowerment
and also encourage interaction with classmates through deeper dialog.
• Live-Chat or L-Chat realistic workplace or interpersonal scenes to illustrate the dynamic,
pulsating intercultural message exchange process.
• Hit-or-Miss mini-quizzes and mix-and-match questions on current global, international,
online, and intercultural issues.
• Blog Pic photos to transport students to globally and culturally different communities
where they will experience culture shock or cultural ambiguity.
• A well-designed Instructor’s Manual with many active learning exercises and activities
plus instructional tips for managing challenging topics in the intercultural classroom.
• A captivating Interactive Student Study Guide that encourages students to read the actual
text, reflect on and dialog about the interactive discussion questions, and, on their own,
continue their intercultural learning journey by checking out the suggested Web sites,
movies, books, and many other global and intercultural resource treasures.
•
WRITING THIS SECOND EDITION: ASSUMPTIONS AND CHANGES
Five initial assumptions guided the development of the second edition of this text. First, we
patiently waited to work on the second edition to harvest the continually maturing insights
of the intercultural–interethnic research field and the booming contemporary trends related
Preface
to intercultural communication. We believe that the time is ripe now (theoretically and practically, for example, updating all Jeopardy Boxes on top five trends in the domestic, intercultural, and international arenas), after a five-year interval, to update this book with fresh
research ideas, new perspectives, and the latest global trends and statistics (see, for example,
Chapter 11). Second, we wanted students to enjoy learning about the various concepts of
intercultural communication. Thus, we have intentionally integrated a carefully chosen set
of current, international news cases and real-life personal stories to highlight various intercultural concepts. Third, we wanted to signal to students that there is no one right way to
practice competent intercultural communication in the twenty-first century—instead, there
are many adventures awaiting them and exciting opportunities to connect with globally and
culturally different others. Thus, the recurrent theme in this text is intercultural communication flexibility. Fourth, we would like our students to develop a strong global and cultural
consciousness via a self-empowered learning process—internalizing the inspiring individual
stories and accounts and developing their own personal narratives, explaining them with
the aid of the text’s concepts. Fifth, we wanted to have fun writing this book together—as a
way of celebrating our friendship on a continuous and light-hearted basis. As we approach
the ending journey of writing this text, we believe that we have realized our goals with joy
and exhilaration!
What are the changes or “news” in this Understanding Intercultural Communication,
Second Edition? Based on the thoughtful feedback of students, instructors, reviewers,
researchers, and practitioners using this text, and in conjunction with our own teaching
and training experiences using this text in the United States, Mexico, Canada, France, Germany, Portugal, Switzerland, South Africa, China, Hong Kong, Japan, and South Korea,
we now identify the top twenty changes or selected highlights. In this innovative second
edition, we’ve:
Throughout the entire text, called attention to the important role of technology in impacting the intercultural communication message exchange process;
• Updated reasons for studying intercultural communication in Chapter 1;
• Introduced the vital concept of “culture” more quickly by moving its definition from
Chapter 2 to Chapter 1;
• Rearranged the “intercultural communication flexibility” theme from Chapter 1 to
Chapter 2 and discussed the theme with more depth;
• Included the “motivational” value function in Chapter 3 and updated some of the value
dimensions with the GLOBE project research results (see Chapter 3);
• Updated the complex discussion on “multiracial and biracial identity” in Chapter 4;
• Integrated more culture shock stories in Chapter 5 and eliminated some secondary concepts concerning the culture shock “hostility” stage;
• Combined Chapters 6 and 7 into one coherent chapter: Chapter 6 on What Is the Connection Between Verbal Communication and Culture?;
• Illustrated the nonverbal chapter (Chapter 7) with many fascinating global nonverbal
examples and new facial nonverbal photos;
•
xix
xx
PREFACE
Throughout the entire book, updated all photos taken from various countries and reflected individuals from different walks of life, which we now call the Blog Pic special
feature;
• Updated many of the poignant personal stories and illuminating examples throughout
various chapters, which we now label as the Blog Post special feature;
• Introduced a popular training model, the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) in Chapter 8, on the “biases against outgroups” motif and provided a wealth
of current news examples on “E.S.P.” (ethnocentrism, stereotypes, and prejudice);
• Explained a new intercultural workplace conflict model in Chapter 9 and also emphasized the importance of adaptive code-switching in managing conflict flexibly via lively
dialog examples in the Live-Chat, or L-Chat,a special boxed feature;
• Inserted sections on online and mobile dating and “relational transgressions and terminations” in Chapter 10 on “intercultural-intimate relationship” challenges and emphasized the bicultural/biracial identity struggles of multiracial kids;
• Updated the entire Chapter 11 on the theme of “global–local dialectical identity” and its
impact on intercultural communication and the accompanying communication change
patterns in various nations or cultures;
• Revitalized the final chapter, Chapter 12, on the motif of “becoming flexible and ethical
intercultural communicators” via the introduction of new concepts, and streamlined a
set of ethical guidelines and questions to guide students to formulate their own principled ethical stance;
• Throughout the text, updated the popular Jeopardy Boxes (plus also changed from the
top ten trends to the top five trends so that students can digest the information more enjoyably) and included intercultural and global statistics up to May 2011;
• Retained the favorite self-assessment know thyself feature and renamed it as my.blog special feature in this edition;
• Created a new special feature called Hit-or-Miss to invite interactive learning through fun
global knowledge quizzes and mix-and-match questions; and
• Added more than 250 new references and deleted some outdated ones.
•
BOOK DESIGN AND ORGANIZATION
This book is organized in three sections. The first section (Chapters 1–4) lays the foundational framework and concepts of intercultural communication. The reasons for studying intercultural communication and practicing flexible intercultural skills are articulated.
Major research areas, such as cultural value patterns (e.g., individualism–collectivism) and
cultural–ethnic identity, are explored—especially through the reflections of many cultural
voices and personal stories.
The second section (Chapters 5–7) emphasizes the process of crossing cultural boundaries and the dynamic process of intercultural verbal and nonverbal exchange encounters.
Topics such as developmental culture shock, language functions, and diverse cultural verbal
Preface
styles, as well as fun topics such as nonverbal space violations and cross-cultural hand gestures are discussed and accompanied by lively intercultural examples.
The third section (Chapters 8–12) focuses on intercultural–interpersonal relationship
development contexts. Important factors such as E.S.P. (i.e., ethnocentrism, stereotypes, and
prejudice) are discussed in depth. Practical knowledge and skills to manage intercultural
conflict flexibly are proposed. Many animated conflict Live-Chat dialogs and interpersonal
examples are used to illustrate the development of intimate intercultural relationships. The
contemporary topic of the development of a morphing global–local identity is addressed
through a new concept we coined the “e.netizen” individual. We discuss the impact of technology and pop culture and its effect on our shifting value patterns. Finally, a cornerstone
theme, becoming an ethical and flexible intercultural communicator, rounds out the book.
Throughout this book, personal stories, poems, news cases, blog pics, fun quizzes, global trend statistics, ethical dilemmas, and practical skill “do-ables” are offered to empower
students to engage in active learning and to master the foundational concepts of intercultural communication. At the same time, we strive to give first-time students an accurate and
enjoyable basic text to learn about intercultural communication. We want students to come
away with a special appreciation for the mindful efforts and the artful skills it takes to communicate across cultures adaptively and flexibly. We want them to also resonate with the
identity struggles in various forms as expressed by the diverse voices of multiple individuals
in many of the special feature stories.
As we and you begin traversing the landscape of this book, we hope we have succeeded in
motivating students and teachers to discover and to explore together: the unfamiliar worlds
and some unfamiliar words, the slippery slopes and the diverse terrains, and the vulnerable
faces and the amazing voices that struggle to be affirmed and listened to—from within and
beyond the classroom instructional setting.
xxi
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Dr. Stella Ting-Toomey is a professor of human communication
at California State University at Fullerton (CSUF). She received
her Ph.D. at the University of Washington in 1981. She teaches
courses in intercultural communication, intercultural conflict theory and practice, and intercultural communication training applications. Stella is the 2008 recipient of the 23-campus wide CSU
Wang Family Excellence Award, and the 2007–08 recipient of the
CSU-Fullerton Outstanding Professor Award. Stella has published
numerous books and over 100 articles/chapters on the topics of
intercultural conflict competence and cultural and ethnic identity
negotiation process. Her publications have appeared in the International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Communication Monographs, Human Communication Research,The International
Journal of Conflict Management, and Communication Research, among others. Two recent book titles are The Sage Handbook of Conflict Communication (with John G. Oetzel) and Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively (Sage; with John
G. Oetzel). Stella has held major leadership roles in international communication associations and has served on
numerous editorial boards. She has lectured widely throughout the United States, Asia, and Europe on the theme of
mindful intercultural communication practice. She has also designed and conducted over 150 intercultural training
programs for corporations, universities, and social service organizations. Understanding Intercultural Communication,
Second Edition, (coauthored with Leeva C. Chung) is her sixteenth book. Stella is an ardent Lakers basketball fan and
she plays the piano for fun. She also enjoys walking through the quiet morning campus with her iPod Shuffle blasting beautiful classical music in her ears. Those are her blissful moments.
Dr. Leeva C. Chung is a professor at the University of San Diego
(USD). She received her Ph.D. at the University of Oklahoma
in 1998. At USD, she teaches in both the Department of Communication Studies and the Department of Ethnic Studies and
has won numerous teaching and mentoring awards on campus,
most recently the 2011 Davies Award of Teaching Excellence. In
addition to teaching abroad, Leeva teaches courses in intercultural communication, ethnic identity, global teams, among others.
Her research interests include cultural, ethnic and global identity, aging across cultures, and pop culture. Her recent publications
include book chapters in Cross-Cultural Psychology: A Contemporary
Reader and Best Practices in Experiential and Service Learning. Leeva
has also published articles in the Global Media Journal, Journal for
Intercultural Communication Research, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Communication Research Reports,
and Communication Reports. In the San Diego community, she serves as a founding member of the San Diego Asian
Film Foundation Festival. Leeva is proud to be a native San Franciscan and Giants fan.
xxii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I
f it takes a village to write a book and an entire symphony to make beautiful music, then
crafting Understanding Intercultural Communication, Second Edition, has been an orchestrated celebration. We are grateful to the many individuals who encouraged and motivated us
to bring this work to fruition. First and foremost, we want to thank our many students who
have contributed their voices and shared their intercultural experiences with us. Without
their unique voices, this book would have been quite abstract. We also want to thank our
colleagues and our respective departments at the California State University at Fullerton
(CSUF) and the University of San Diego (USD) for providing a supportive environment in
which to conduct our writing.
Second, we want to thank John Challice, Vice President and Publisher at Oxford University Press, for his enormous patience and good humor in waiting for the birth of this second
edition. Thank you to Mark Haynes, Caitlin Kaufman, Kate McClaskey, Theresa Stockton,
and the entire production staff at Oxford for their professional help and their determination
to make this book the “shining star” in the intercultural market. We also want to thank our
anonymous reviewers for their astute comments and thoughtful suggestions in preparation
for the second edition of this text.
We are also indebted to the reviewers who reviewed the previous first edition book:
Myrna Cornett-DeVito, Emporia State University; Robbin D. Crabtree, Fairfield University;
Fernando Delgado, University of Wisconsin–River Falls; Tina M. Harris, University of Georgia; Armeda C. Reitzel, Humboldt State University; Diana Rios, University of Connecticut;
Arvind Singhal, Ohio University; and Candice Thomas-Maddox, Ohio University, Lancaster.
We are also thankful for the informal feedback and random conversations from intercultural scholars, instructors, practitioners, and students who contributed many useful insights
that guided this revision.
On an individual level, our deepest gratitude and appreciation goes to ALEX FLECKY:
your unflappable demeanor when all things go chaotic, your razor-sharp eye in reviewing
and proofreading each chapter, and your exceptional organizational skills in keeping track
of all the special features in the text are astonishing to behold. We appreciate your poised
xxiii
xxiv
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
friendship, sweet kindness, and your grace in moving us forward with faith that we will see
the light at the end of the tunnel.
We also extend our special appreciation to Peter Lee, who helped us in preparing the
tables and figures in the first edition and additional figures in the second edition. We also
thank Ngao for his assistance and feedback with our new figures in this edition. A big …
Purchase answer to see full
attachment

  
error: Content is protected !!