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Hello, i need help writing 500 words discussion about communication following the instructions in the file which i will attach later. it is an easy topic and i will provide an example as well. just to let u know there is reading to take into consideration.

GOAL: Online Communication, Good or Bad
Discussion board assignments are not designed to simply provide your opinion. Posts and
comments should demonstrate your understanding of our text and other learnings. You
should critically tie your own life experience, or those of your peers into. your postings. You
may reference the text or other articles/information you find about a particular topic.
Each week you will complete an assignment and post it to the appropriate discussion board.
These assignments will provide writing prompts and challenge you to reflect upon and apply
our learnings to your communication patterns or communication patterns you see in the
world around you. You will post your response to the appropriate discussion board:
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Postings must be reflective, thoughtful and clear – please use correct grammar,
punctuation and scholarly tone.
Cite your sources and provide definitions or other supportive material from the textbook
and/or other sources as you deem important to getting your point across.
Remember, you are approaching these discussion boards as a scholar. Your opinion is
important, however, keep in mind you must support your option with ethos, pathos,
logos or mythos (persuasive evidence).
Posts should contain between 500-750 words, not including references.
It is not necessary to list the questions in the discussion board, restate your name or this
course name. These items will not apply toward the words count.
GOAL: Online Communication, Good or Bad
The Internet, social media and texting have changed the way that we communicate with
each other. This can both improve and hurt communication!
Visit the websites:
http://www.netlingo.com/dictionary/c.php (Links to an external site.)
http://wp.jumblejohttps://www.pinterest.com/ellentv/clumsy-thumbsy/ (Links to an external
site.)
Discuss, using your knowledge from our class readings and your personal experience, how
the the Internet, social media and texting impact your communication with others. Use key
terms from our text and apply them to your own personal story. Don’t forget to talk about
how these challenges can impact understanding across group lines. What challenges can arise
based on verbal and nonverbal communication patterns, etc.
In a few days, post comments to two (2) of your peer’s posts. Each post must reflects
thoughtful, related and critical feedback. Each post should contain at least 100 words and is
free from grammatical and spelling errors. Each post assimilates the commenter’s thoughts to
both the initial peer post AND the course content, through direct reference, in-text citations,
and/or references.
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 1
Why Study Intercultural Communication?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I.
Practical Reasons to Study Intercultural
Communication (ICC)
II.
What is Culture?
I. Why Study Intercultural
Communication?
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I. Some Practical Reasons to Study ICC
A.
Adjust to Global Workplace
Heterogeneity
B.
Adapt to Domestic Workforce
Diversity
C.
Engage in Creative Multicultural
Problem Solving
D.
Comprehend the Role of Technology
in Global Communication
I. Some Practical Reasons to Study ICC cont’d.
E. Facilitate Better Multicultural Health
Care Communication
F. Enhance Intercultural Relationship
Satisfaction
G. Foster Global & Intrapersonal Peace
H. Deepen Cultural Self-Awareness and
Other-Awareness
Jeopardy Time !
~ To see some facts related to the historical
landmark of reaching 7 billion people on planet
Earth, click here.
~ To see a video called “Seven Billion: Are You
Typical?” click here.
II. What is Culture?
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II. Culture: A Learned Meaning System
Culture is: a learned meaning system
• consists of patterns of …
• traditions, beliefs, values,
• norms, meanings, and symbols
• that are passed on from one generation
to the next & are shared to varying
degrees
• by interacting members of a community.
Culture is like an Iceberg:
Culture: An Iceberg Metaphor
Surface-level culture: Popular culture
Can you give examples of current U.S. popular culture
icons that are different from the ones listed in the
textbook?
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Culture: An Iceberg Metaphor
Intermediate-level culture: Cultural norms
How would you introduce yourself:
To your professor?
To your romantic partner’s friends?
Deep-level culture: Culturally shared traditions
How would you explain common U.S. traditions to a
visitor from another culture unfamiliar with them?
Parting Thoughts…
Culture is the widening
of the mind and spirit.
~ Jawarhalal Nehru
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 2
What is Intercultural Communication
Flexibility?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I.
Defining Intercultural Communication:
A Process Model
II. Practicing Intercultural Communication
Flexibility
III. Developing Intercultural Communication
Flexibility
IV. Deepening Intercultural Process Thinking
I. Defining ICC: A Process Model
Intercultural communication:
• symbolic exchange (digital, analogic)
• process (transactional, irreversible)
• cultural community
• negotiate shared meanings (content, relational,
identity meaning)
• interactive situation (relational, psychological,
physical)
• embedded societal system (multilayered
context)
I. Defining ICC: A Process Model
Person A’s
cultural
frame of
reference
Person B’s
cultural
frame of
reference
II. Practicing Intercultural Communication
Flexibility
Introduction Section:
1. Flexible and inflexible intercultural
communication
2. Ethnocentric and ethnorelative
mindset
II. Practicing ICC Flexibility
Ethnocentric mindset…
– Stuck in own cultural worldviews, using our own
cultural values as standards to evaluate others’
behaviors.
– Viewing our cultural way of living as “natural” and
what’s going on in other cultures as “unnatural.”
– Evaluating the communication norms of our own
cultural group as more “proper.”
– Acting in a conscious or unconscious manner
in favor of the ingroup standard to the exclusion of
outgroup standard.
II. Practicing ICC Flexibility
Ethnorelative mindset…
– Understanding behavior from the other
person’s cultural frame of reference.
– Suspending ethnocentric, reactive judgments
and engaging in a systematic cross-cultural
comparative analysis.
– Promoting a respectful, inclusive climate via
competent communication skills practice.
II. Practicing ICC Flexibility
A. Three Content Components:
Knowledge, Attitude, and Skills
B. Three Criteria:
Appropriateness, Effectiveness, and
Adaptability
III. Developing Intercultural Communication
Flexibility
A.
Staircase Model: Four Stages of Flexible
Intercultural Communication
1. Unconscious incompetence: blissfully ignorant
2. *Conscious incompetence: semi-awareness
3. Conscious competence: “full mindfulness”
4. Unconscious competence: “mindlessly mindful”
* Pretty Woman – Which stage are the women in at the store on
Rodeo Drive? What lesson did Julia Roberts teach them?
III. Developing ICC Flexibility
III. Developing ICC Flexibility
Movie Analysis: Outsourced film clip
Questions to think about:
ï‚— Which stage of the staircase model is Aunty-ji
operating from? How did Todd react to Aunty-ji’s
comments?
 Did you find Aunty-ji’s questions too intrusive? What
culture-sensitive information can you use to justify her
questioning?
ï‚— At what point in the clip did Todd switch from
unconscious incompetence to conscious
incompetence?
ï‚— Apply the three content components (knowledge,
attitude, and skills) from your chapter to help Todd and
Puro reach the conscious competency stage.
III. Developing ICC Flexibility
B.
A Mindful Perspective: Flexible Communicators:
• Attune to their own internal assumptions, values,
and expectations.
• Attend to alternative assumptions, values, and
expectations of the cultural strangers.
• Learn to understand unfamiliar behaviors from
multiple cultural angles.
• Are committed to shift communication styles
when appropriate to the persons, goals, and
cultural context = ICC Flexibility.
NACIREMA Application Exercise
Instructions:
— Need 3 – 5 volunteers to take a walk outside and be
prepared to visit a new culture.
— Inside the classroom: Get ready to play. Will give
you the Nacireman cultural values and rules.
— Enjoy! Play out and dramatize your new roles.
IV. Deepening Intercultural Process Thinking
Realize that ICC often involves these principles:
•
Mismatched expectations stem from group differences.
•
Involves degrees of biased intergroup perceptions,
overgeneralizations, stereotypes.
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Simultaneous decoding and encoding of verbal/nonverbal
messages.
•
Multiple goal transactions: content, relational, identity.
•
Calls for understanding of diverse communication
approaches and styles.
•
Often involves well-meaning culture bumps or clashes.
•
Always takes place in context and in embedded systems.
IV. Deepening Intercultural Process Thinking
Mindfulness
Flexibility
Parting Thoughts…
A traveler without observation
is like a bird without wings…
~ Author unknown
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 3
What are the Essential Cultural Value Patterns?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I. Functions of Cultural Values
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions
III. Additional Value Orientations
IV. Individual Socialization Development
V. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
I. Functions of Cultural Values
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I. Functions of Cultural Values
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Analyzing Cultural Values
Identity Meaning Function
Explanatory Function
Motivational Function
Ingroup–Outgroup Evaluative
Function
Click here to watch how Best Buy demonstrates how it
takes its cultural values and uses them throughout the
different countries in which it operates.
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions
IDENTITY:
Individualism
Collectivism
POWER:
Small Power
Distance
Large Power
Distance
Weak
UNCERTAINTY: Uncertainty
Avoidance
Strong
Uncertainty
Avoidance
SEX ROLES:
Masculine
Feminine
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions:
Individualism–Collectivism Value Pattern
Individualistic Cultures Collectivistic Cultures
“I” Identity
“We” Identity
Nuclear family
Extended family
Privacy regulation
Relational harmony
Individual competition
Teamwork
Personal competence
Ingroup emphasis
Direct comm. patterns
Indirect comm. patterns
Independent self
Interdependent self
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions:
Small–Large Power Distance Value Pattern
Small Power Distance
Large Power Distance
Emphasize interpersonal
equality
Children may contradict
parents
Emphasize status based
difference
Children should obey
parents
Younger people are smart
Older people are wise
Teachers ask for feedback
Teachers lecture
Subordinates expect
consultation
Subordinates expect
guidance
Informal comm. patterns
Formal comm. patterns
Horizontal self
Vertical self
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions:
Weak-Strong Uncertainty Avoidance Value Pattern
Strong Uncertainty
Weak Uncertainty
Avoidance
Avoidance
Uncertainty is valued
Uncertainty is a threat
Family is dynamic and changing
Reinforce family rules
High mobility in relationships
Low mobility in relationships
Challenges are welcome
Routines are welcome
Encourage risk-taking
Encourage clear procedure
Conflict can be positive
Conflict is negative
High tolerance for ambiguity
Low tolerance for ambiguity
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions:
Feminine-Masculine Value Pattern
Feminine Cultures
Masculine Cultures
Flexible sex roles
Complementary sex roles
Emphasize nurturance
Emphasize achievement
Both genders take initiative
Males take initiative
Social adjustment is critical
Academic performance is
critical
Work in order to live
Live in order to work
Fluid gender communication
“Masculine” toughness vs.
Overlapped gender roles
“feminine” softness
Clear masculine/feminine
gender roles
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions:
Media Activities
My Big Fat Greek Wedding film clip:
Connect with the different value dimensions
Japanese Snowboarder: Values
During the 2008 Winter Olympics a Japanese
snowboarder received a large backlash from
his home country after wearing his
country’s uniform “inappropriately.”
Click here to watch video.
The Last Samurai film clip:
Click here to watch this clip about Feminine/ Masculine
Cultures
II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions:
Self-Assessment Discussion
Four-Dimensional Values Inventory (DVI)
What Factors Shape Your Values’ Development?
ï‚— Increase Your Self-Awareness of Value Dimensions
on Multiple Levels: Cultural/Ethnic, Workplace,
Family, and Personal Self.
ï‚— Dyadic Discussion: Increase Your Awareness of
Differences and Similarities between SELF and
OTHER. . .
ï‚—
III. Additional Value Orientation Patterns
IV. Individual Socialization Development
A. Independent versus Interdependent
Self-Construal
B. Horizontal versus Vertical SelfConstrual
C. Internal versus External Locus of
Control
V. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
Flexible intercultural communicators:
Practice the O-D-I-S Method:
O=
Observe verbal and nonverbal
signals attentively.
D=
Describe specific behaviors with a
minimum of distortion.
I=
Generate multiple interpretations
of the unfamiliar behaviors.
S=
Suspend ethnocentric evaluation,
perform open-ended evaluation.
Values Exploration Exercise
“PARABLE” Application Exercise
ï‚— Individual Decision Ranking
ï‚— Group Discussion
ï‚— Group Decision Consensus Ranking
ï‚— In-Class Writing Assignment
Parting Thoughts…
Only if we understand can we care.
Only if we care will we help.
Only if we help shall they be saved.
~ Jane Goodall
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 4
What are the Keys to Understanding Cultural
& Ethnic Identities?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I. Family and Gender Socialization
II. Group Membership: Intercultural
Boundary Crossing
III. Group Affiliation and Identity Formation
IV. Ethnic–Racial Identity Change Process
V. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
An Application Exercise
Who Am I?
and
Who Are YOU?
I. Family and Gender Socialization
Identity: reflective self-conception or self-image
that we derive from family, gender, cultural,
ethnic, and individual socialization processes.
“Social identities” cultural, ethnic, gender,
sexual orientation, social class, age,
disability, or professional identity.
“Personal identities” unique attributes we
associate with our individuated self
in comparison with others.
I. Family and Gender Socialization
A. Families Come in Different Shapes
1. Types of families: diverse types
2. Two family types: personal and positional
B. Gender Socialization and Interaction
Patterns
1. Gender identity: Meanings and
interpretations concerning gender images
2. Expectations concerning “femaleness” and
“maleness” in our socialization process
II. Group Membership: Intercultural
Boundary Crossing
A. The Process of Acculturation & Enculturation
Acculturation: incremental identity-related
change process of immigrants and refugees
in a new environment from a long-term
perspective.
Enculturation: sustained, primary
socialization process of
individuals in their original home
culture wherein they have
internalized their cultural values.
II. Group Membership: Intercultural
Boundary Crossing
B. Systems-level Factors
C. Individual-level Factors
D. Interpersonal F2F and Network-Level
Factors
E. Mass Media–Level Factors
III. Group Affiliation and Identity Formation
A. Cultural Identity Conceptualizations
Cultural identity
Cultural identity salience
B. Ethnic Identity Conceptualizations
Ethnic identity
Ethnic value content
Ethnic identity salience
Click here to find out about the origin of the Hapa identity.
IV. Ethnic–Racial Identity Change Process
A. Cultural–Ethnic Identity Typological Model
1. Ethnic-oriented identity or traditional option:
Identifies strongly with ethnic traditions and values,
identifies weakly with dominant culture’s values.
2. Assimilated identity:
Identifies weakly with ethnic traditions and values;
identifies strongly with larger culture’s values, norms.
3. Bicultural identity or integrative option:
Identifies strongly with ethnic traditions and also
with the values and practices of larger society.
4. Marginal identity state:
Disconnected ties with both ethnic group and larger
society, often experiences alienation, invisibility.
IV. Ethnic–Racial Identity Change Process
A. Cultural–Ethnic Identity Typological Model
10
IV. Ethnic–Racial Identity Change Process
B. Racial–Ethnic Identity Development Model
IV. Ethnic–Racial Identity Change
Process
my.blogs 4.2 and 4.3
Assess your Cultural Identity and Marginal
Identity on p. 78
Assess your Ethnic Identity and Bicultural
Identity on p. 80
IV. Ethnic–Racial Identity Change Process
C. Multiracial and Biracial Identity
Social identity complexity theory
a. Intersection:
Compound identity with 2 (or more) social
membership categories cross to form a single,
claimed identity.
b. Dominance:
Individual adopts one major social identity.
c. Compartmentalization:
Shifting of social identity category serving as
basis of identification based on context or
situation.
d. Merger:
Deep awareness of the complex multifaceted
spheres of identity memberships and the
importance of multiple ingroups.
V. Intercultural Reality Check:
Do-Ables
A. Practice Mindful Listening
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•
•
Thoughtful attention to both verbal and
nonverbal messages.
Check responsively for accuracy.
Involves a consciously competent shift of
perspective. (How do things look from the other’s
identity perspective?)
B. Practice Identity Validation Skills
•
•
•
Use verbal and nonverbal confirming messages.
Recognize group- and person-based identities.
Validate other people’s experiences as real.
Parting Thoughts. . .
He who knows others
is learned;
He who knows himself
is wise.
~ Lao Tzu

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