+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

Does Divorce family Negatively Affect Children?

Final Paper “Answering” the Question
Components of the Final Paper
1. Introduction (approx. 1-3 pages): 15 points
a) The introduction should first briefly describe your topic of interest. For
example, if your practical question is “Will Cognitive Behavioral Therapy make
children less aggressive?”, you may want to begin your introduction with a
general statement regarding the use of CBT to reduce aggression in children
such as “Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is often utilized as a means of reducing
childhood aggression”
b) Next, the introduction should provide an explanation of why this topic is
important. For example, you might list the negative outcomes associated with
aggressive behavior in children. Then, you might briefly explain that CBT is often
utilized to reduce aggressive behavior because it (explain the proposed benefits
of CBT). Finally, you would state your research question and why answering this
question is important, “Thus, understanding whether CBT will make children less
aggressive is important because this therapy can potentially improve x behaviors
and related y outcomes.”
c) Lastly, you should briefly introduce and define the two approaches you used to
guide your understanding and analysis of this topic. For example, The Biological
Approach to Personality is especially important in understanding the potential
benefits of CBT on childhood aggression because this approach … (explain why
this approach is useful, i.e. does it provide a way of understanding the
developmental origins of aggressive behavior? You will be further elaborating
upon this information later in the paper). Do the same for the second approach.
Based on your practical question, you may be comparing/contrasting two
approaches. For example, “There are two main competing approaches to
understanding (whatever your question is), including the Psychoanalytic
Approach and the Biological Approach. Each approach defines and measures
this concept differently, thus these approaches may result in different findings
related to (whatever your question is).”
*All information and explanations provided should be based on peer-reviewed articles
and the textbook. All sources referenced must be cited in-text and on the “References”
page in accordance with APA guidelines. Students must PARAPHRASE the information
from the articles and textbook and should NOT USE DIRECT QUOTES.
2. Analyzing the Research (approx.3-6 pages): 28 points
The purpose of this section is to review the relevant research you used to define and
answer your question. The structure of this section in terms of which information you present
first, second, third etc. will vary depending on your practical question. Overall, this section
should include the following (again the order in which this information is presented is up to you):
●
●
Discussion and analysis of appropriate and pertinent, information from at least 4
peer-reviewed articles to support assertions, definitions,
recommendations etc. Specifically, discuss what this research tells us about the
question of interest. For example, is CBT beneficial in reducing aggression in
some children but not others? Why?
Identification of the Approach(es) employed in each peer-reviewed article (must
provide rationale for these assertions using information from the textbook)
*All information and explanations provided should be based on peer-reviewed articles
and the textbook. All sources referenced must be cited in-text and on the “References”
page in accordance with APA guidelines. Students must PARAPHRASE the information
from the articles and textbook and should NOT USE DIRECT QUOTES.
3. Conclusion (Answering the Question) (approx. 1-2 pages): 13 points
The purpose of this section is to “answer” the practical question based on the research
reviewed in the previous section. “Answer” the question by summarizing your analyses of the
main findings from the research reviewed. The structure of this section in terms of which
information you present first, second, third etc. will vary depending on your practical question.
Overall, this section should include the following (again the order in which this information is
presented is up to you):
●
Discuss what the research reviewed indicates. Depending on your practical question this
may include conclusions as to whether a certain therapy is beneficial for a specific
population, whether certain personality/other variable measurements are sufficient to
measure a given process, behavior, trait, outcome, etc.; whether a certain behavior,
personality trait, process, etc. can be modified….Again, this conclusion will be based on
your practical question and the literature reviewed.
*All information and explanations provided should be based on peer-reviewed articles and
the textbook. All sources referenced must be cited in-text and on the “References” page in
accordance with APA guidelines. Students must PARAPHRASE the information from the
articles and textbooks and should NOT USE DIRECT QUOTES.
4. Discussion (approx. ½- 1 page): 8 points
The final section of your paper should identify any limitations and provide recommendations for
practice or research based on the research reviewed, analysis of the research, and any existing
limitations.
● For example, were there any limitations in the research reviewed? Is there any
information not examined in the research reviewed that would be helpful in answering
the question? Why would this information be important?
●
Examples of recommendations might include the following (Again, these
recommendations will be based on your practical question and the literature you
reviewed):
â—‹ Professionals should employ/not employ a specific therapy/ treatment when
addressing a certain behavioral or psychological issue in a certain population and
explain why
â—‹ You may suggest that future research needs a better measurement for a specific
process, behavior, personality trait ect. and explain what this measure should
include and why
*All information and explanations provided should be based on peer-reviewed articles and
the textbook. All sources referenced must be cited in-text and on the “References” page in
accordance with APA guidelines. Students must PARAPHRASE the information from the
articles and textbooks and should NOT USE DIRECT QUOTES.
5. References: 6 points
You will need to include information from and cite at least FOUR peer-reviewed articles
as well as the textbook. In addition to providing APA citations for these sources
throughout the presentation (i.e. Author, Year), you will also need to include a
“References” section in accordance with APA guidelines.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
Fit your coursework
into your hectic life.
Make the most of your time by learning
your way. Access the resources you need to
succeed wherever, whenever.
et more from your time online with an easy-to-follow
• Gfive-step
learning path.
tay focused with an all-in-one-place, integrated
• Spresentation
of course content.
et the free MindTap Mobile App and learn
• G wherever
you are.
Break limitations. Create your
own potential, and be unstoppable
with MindTap.
MINDTAP. POWERED BY YOU.
cengage.com/mindtap
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Tenth Edition
Personality
Jerry M. Burger
Santa Clara University
Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions,
some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed
content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right
to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For
valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate
formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for
materials in your areas of interest.
Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product
text may not be available in the eBook version.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Personality, Tenth edition
© 2019, 2015 Cengage Learning, Inc.
Jerry M. Burger
Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage
Senior Vice President: Erin Joyner
Product Director: Marta Lee-Perriard
Product Manager: Erin Schnair
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by
any means, except as permitted by U.S. copyright law, without the
prior written permission of the copyright owner.
Project Manager: Seth Schwartz
Content Developer: Laura Lawrie, LD
Marketing Manager: Heather Thompson
Media Developer: Bonnie Yee
For product information and technology assistance, contact us at
Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706
For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all
requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions.
Manufacturing Planner: Karen Hunt
Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to
Intellectual Property Analyst: Deanna Ettinger
permissionrequest@cengage.com
Intellectual Property Project Manager: Nick
Barrows
Production Management and Composition:
Lumina Datamatics, Inc
Library of Congress Control Number: 2017945207
ISBN: 978-1-337-55901-0
Text and Cover Designer: Lisa Delgado
Sr. Art Director: Vernon Boes
Cengage Learning
Cover Image: DNY59/E+/Getty Images
Boston, MA 02210
20 Channel Center Street
USA
Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning
solutions with employees residing in nearly 40 different
countries and sales in more than 125 countries around the world.
Find your local representative at www.cengage.com.
Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by
Nelson Education, Ltd.
To learn more about Cengage Learning Solutions,
visit www.cengage.com
Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our
preferred online store www.cengagebrain.com
Printed in the United States of America
Print Number: 01   Print Year: 2017
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
To Marlene
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Brief Contents
Preface xvii
About the Author xix
1
What Is Personality? 1
2
Personality Research Methods 13
3
The Psychoanalytic Approach: Freudian Theory,
Application, and Assessment 33
4
The Freudian Approach: Relevant Research 59
5
The Psychoanalytic Approach: Neo-Freudian
­Theory, Application, and Assessment 81
6
The Neo-Freudian Theories: Relevant Research 109
7
The Trait Approach: Theory, Application,
and Assessment 134
8
The Trait Approach: Relevant Research 165
9
The Biological Approach: Theory, Application,
and Assessment 199
10
The Biological Approach: Relevant Research 227
11
The Humanistic Approach: Theory, Application,
and Assessment 252
12
The Humanistic Approach: Relevant Research 280
13
The Behavioral/Social Learning Approach: Theory,
Application, and Assessment 310
v
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
vi
Brief Contents
14
The Behavioral/Social Learning Approach:
­Relevant Research 340
15
The Cognitive Approach: Theory, Application,
and Assessment 375
16
The Cognitive Approach: Relevant Research 396
Appendix 415
Glossary 419
References 421
Name Index 487
Subject Index 505
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Contents
Preface xvii
About the Author xix
1
What Is Personality? 1
The Person and the Situation 2
Defining Personality 3
Six Approaches to Personality 4
Two Examples: Aggression and Depression 6
Personality and Culture 9
The Study of Personality: Theory, Application, Assessment,
and Research 11
Summary 12
2
Personality Research Methods 13
The Hypothesis-Testing Approach 15
Theories and Hypotheses 15
Experimental Variables 17
Manipulated Versus Nonmanipulated Independent
Variables 19
Prediction Versus Hindsight 21
Replication 21
The Case Study Method 22
Statistical Analysis of Data 24
Statistical Significance 25
Correlation Coefficients 25
Personality Assessment 28
Reliability 28
Validity 29
Summary 31
vii
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
viii
Contents
3 The Psychoanalytic Approach: Freudian Theory,
Application, and Assessment 33
Freud Discovers the Unconscious 34
The Freudian Theory of Personality 37
The Topographic Model 37
The Structural Model 38
Libido and Thanatos 39
Defense Mechanisms 40
Psychosexual Stages of Development 43
Getting at Unconscious Material 46
Application: Psychoanalysis 49
Assessment: Projective Tests 51
Some Popular Projective Tests 51
Evaluation of Projective Tests 53
Strengths and Criticisms of Freud’s Theory 55
Strengths 55
Criticisms 56
Summary 57
4
The Freudian Approach: Relevant Research 59
Dream Interpretation 60
The Meaning of Dream Content 61
The Function of Dreams 64
Interpreting the Evidence 65
Defense Mechanisms 65
Identifying and Measuring Defense Mechanisms 66
Developmental Differences 67
Defensive Style 69
Humor 70
Freud’s Theory of Humor 70
Research on Freud’s Theory of Humor 71
Hypnosis 74
What Is Hypnosis? 75
Hypnotic Responsiveness 78
Summary 80
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Contents
ix
5 The Psychoanalytic Approach: Neo-Freudian
Theory, Application, and Assessment 81
Limits and Liabilities of Freudian Theory 83
Alfred Adler 83
Striving for Superiority 84
Parental Influence on Personality Development 85
Birth Order 86
Carl Jung 87
The Collective Unconscious 88
Some Important Archetypes 88
Evidence for the Collective Unconscious 89
Erik Erikson 91
Personality Development Throughout the Life Cycle 92
Karen Horney 96
Neurosis 97
Feminine Psychology 100
Application: Psychoanalytic Theory and Religion 101
Assessment: Personal Narratives 103
Measuring Personality with Personal Narratives 103
Generativity and Life Stories 104
Strengths and Criticisms of Neo-Freudian Theories 105
Strengths 105
Criticisms 106
Summary 107
6
The Neo-Freudian Theories: Relevant Research 109
Anxiety and Coping Strategies 110
Coping with Anxiety 112
Types of Coping Strategies 112
How Effective Are Coping Strategies? 114
Coping Flexibility and Resilience 116
Psychoanalytic Concepts and Aggression 118
Frustration and Aggression 119
Displaced Aggression 121
Catharsis and Aggression 123
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
x
Contents
Attachment Style and Adult Relationships 124
Object Relations Theory and Attachment Theory 125
Adult Attachment Styles 126
Alternate Models and Measurement 128
Attachment Style and Romantic Relationships 129
Summary 132
7 The Trait Approach: Theory, Application,
and Assessment 134
The Trait Approach 135
Important Trait Theorists 137
Gordon Allport 137
Henry Murray 140
Factor Analysis and the Search for the Structure
of Personality 140
The Big Five 142
Ongoing Questions Related to the Big Five Model 147
The Situation Versus Trait Controversy 149
Criticism of the Trait Approach 149
In Defense of Personality Traits 151
Application: The Big Five in the Workplace 153
Assessment: Self-Report Inventories 155
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 156
Problems with Self-Report Inventories 156
Strengths and Criticisms of the Trait Approach 161
Strengths 161
Criticisms 161
Summary 163
8
The Trait Approach: Relevant Research 165
Achievement Motivation 166
Gender, Culture, and Achievement 168
Attributions 169
Achievement Goals 170
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Contents
xi
Type A, Hostility and Health 174
Type A as a Personality Variable 175
Hostility and Health 176
Social Anxiety 179
Characteristics of Socially Anxious People 181
Explaining Social Anxiety 183
Emotions 184
Emotional Affectivity 185
Affect Intensity 188
Emotional Expressiveness 190
Optimism and Pessimism 193
Dealing with Adversity 194
Optimism and Health 196
Summary 197
9
he Biological Approach: Theory, Application,
T
and Assessment 199
Hans Eysenck’s Theory of Personality 201
The Structure of Personality 201
A Biological Basis for Personality 203
Physiological Differences: Stimulation Sensitivity
and Behavioral Activation/Inhibition Systems 204
Temperament 208
Temperament and Personality 208
Inhibited and Uninhibited Children 210
Evolutionary Personality Psychology 213
Natural Selection and Psychological Mechanisms 214
Anxiety and Social Exclusion 215
Application: Children’s Temperaments and School 216
Temperament and Academic Performance 217
Matching Temperament and Teaching 218
Assessment: Brain Electrical Activity and Cerebral
Asymmetry 219
Measuring Brain Activity 219
Cerebral Asymmetry 220
Individual Differences in Cerebral Asymmetry 221
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
xii
Contents
Strengths and Criticisms of the Biological Approach 223
Strengths 223
Criticisms 224
Summary 225
10
The Biological Approach: Relevant
Research 227
Heritability of Personality Traits 228
Separating Environmental from Genetic Influences 229
Interpreting the Heritability Findings 234
Extraversion–Introversion 235
The Heritability of Extraversion 236
Extraversion and Preferred Arousal Level 238
Extraversion and Happiness 239
Evolutionary Personality Theory and Mate Selection 242
What Men Look for in Women 243
What Women Look for in Men 247
Conclusions and Limitations 250
Summary 251
11 The Humanistic Approach: Theory, Application,
and Assessment 252
The Roots of Humanistic Psychology 254
Key Elements of the Humanistic Approach 255
Personal Responsibility 255
The Here and Now 256
The Experience of the Individual 256
Personal Growth 257
Carl Rogers 257
The Fully Functioning Person 257
Anxiety and Defense 259
Conditions of Worth and Unconditional Positive Regard 260
Abraham Maslow 261
Motivation and the Hierarchy of Needs 261
Misconceptions About Maslow’s Need Hierarchy 265
The Study of Psychologically Healthy People 265
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Contents
xiii
The Psychology of Optimal Experience 267
Optimal Experience 267
Finding Happiness in Everyday Activities 268
Application: Person-Centered Therapy 270
Assessment: The Q-Sort Technique 272
Strengths and Criticisms of the Humanistic Approach 276
Strengths 276
Criticisms 277
Summary 278
12
The Humanistic Approach: Relevant Research 280
Self-Disclosure 281
Disclosure Reciprocity 283
Self-Disclosure Among Friends and Romantic Partners 284
Disclosing Men and Disclosing Women 285
Disclosing Traumatic Experiences 285
Loneliness 288
Chronically Lonely People 291
The Causes of Loneliness 293
Self-Esteem 294
Self-Esteem and Reaction to Failure 295
Contingencies of Self-Worth 297
Self-Esteem and Culture 300
Solitude 302
Time Alone 303
Individual Differences in Preference for Solitude 306
Summary 309
13 The Behavioral/Social Learning Approach:
Theory, Application, and Assessment 310
Behaviorism 311
Basic Principles of Conditioning 315
Classical Conditioning 315
Operant Conditioning 316
Social Learning Theory 320
Social-Cognitive Theory 322
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
xiv
Contents
Reciprocal Determinism 323
Imagination and Self-Regulation 324
Observational Learning 324
Application: Conditioning Principles and Self-Efficacy
in Psychotherapy 327
Behavioral Explanations of Psychological Disorders 327
Using Conditioning Principles in Psychotherapy 329
Self-Efficacy 331
Assessment: Behavior Observation Methods 333
Direct Observation 334
Self-Monitoring 334
Observation by Others 336
Strengths and Criticisms of the Behavioral/Social Learning
Approach 336
Strengths 336
Criticisms 337
Summary 338
14
The Behavioral/Social Learning Approach:
Relevant Research 340
Gender Roles 341
Individual Differences: Masculinity and Femininity 343
Gender Type and Well-Being 345
Gender Type and Interpersonal Relationships 346
Social Pressure to Act Masculine or Feminine 349
Unmitigated Agency and Unmitigated Communion 350
Observational Learning of Aggression 352
Bandura’s Four-Step Model 352
Mass Media Aggression and Aggressive Behavior 356
Violent Video Games 358
Learned Helplessness 360
Learning to Be Helpless 361
Learned Helplessness in Humans 362
Some Applications of Learned Helplessness 362
Locus of Control 366
Locus of Control and Well-Being 367
Locus of Control and Health 370
Summary 373
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Contents
15
xv
he Cognitive Approach: Theory, Application,
T
and Assessment 375
Personal Construct Theory 376
Personal Construct Systems 377
Inadequate Personal Constructs 379
Cognitive Personality Variables 380
Cognitive Representations of the Self 381
Self-Schemas 381
Possible Selves 386
Application: Cognitive (Behavior) Psychotherapy 387
Rational Emotive (Behavior) Therapy 388
Assessment: The Repertory Grid Technique 391
Strengths and Criticisms of the Cognitive Approach 394
Strengths 394
Criticisms 394
Summary 395
16
The Cognitive Approach: Relevant Research 396
Cognitions and Aggression 397
General Aggression Model 397
Reactive Aggression in Boys 400
Gender, Memory, and Self-Construal 402
Emotional Memories 402
Memories About Relationships 404
Cognitions and Depression 407
Negative Schemas 408
Negative Cognitive Style 411
Summary 414
Appendix 415
Glossary 419
References 421
Name Index 487
Subject Index 505
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Preface
T
his is the 10th edition of this book. There is something magical—or at least noteworthy—about the number 10. It’s the basis of our numerical system, probably
because we have 10 fingers and 10 toes. Each birthday and anniversary that can be
divided by 10 takes on greater significance than the one just before or just after it. And
10 editions of a textbook by the same author represent a professional lifetime of chronicling the ongoing development of an academic field. When I thumb through earlier
editions, I am struck by how much the book has changed over its lifetime—changes
that reflect, among other things, the vibrancy of the field. And yet, the essence of the
book—the structure, the philosophy—has remained intact. That balance between
change and stability is also at the heart of this most recent edition; that is, number 10.
What’s New?
As in previous revisions, each chapter has been updated to reflect new research findings
and new developments in the field. More than 300 references have been added to this
edition. I’ve devoted more space to topics that have generated an increasing amount of
research in recent years. For example, the section on anxiety and coping (Chapter 6)
now includes a discussion of research on resilience, and the section on gender roles
(Chapter 14) has been rewritten to include, among other topics, a discussion of the
effects of social pressure to act masculine or feminine. I’ve also reduced or eliminated
coverage of topics that seem to have fallen out of favor with personality researchers.
The discarded topics include the application of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to job satisfaction (previously in Chapter 11) and self-discrepancies (previously in Chapter 15).
What’s the Same?
The philosophy that guided the organization and writing of the first nine editions
remains. I wrote this book to organize within one textbook the two approaches typically taken by instructors of undergraduate personality courses. Many instructors focus
on the great theories and theorists—a chapter each on Freud, Jung, Rogers, Skinner,
and so on. Students in these classes gain insight into the structure of the mind and
issues of human nature, as well as a background for understanding psychological disorders and psychotherapy. However, these students are likely to be puzzled when they
pick up a current journal of personality research only to find they recognize few, if any,
of the topics. Other instructors emphasize personality research. Students in these
classes learn about current studies on individual differences and personality processes.
But they probably see little relationship between the abstract theories they may touch
upon in class and the research topics that are the focus of the course.
xvii
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
xviii
Preface
However, these two approaches to teaching the course do not represent separate
disciplines that happen to share the word personality in their titles. Indeed, the structure of this book is designed to demonstrate that the classic theories stimulate research
and that research findings often shape the development and acceptance of the theories. Limiting a student’s attention to either theory or research provides an unnecessarily narrow view of the field.
Something else that remains from the earlier editions is my belief that students
learn about research best by seeing programs of research rather than a few isolated
examples. Twenty-six research programs are covered in the seven research chapters in
this edition. In each case, I have tried to illustrate how the questions being investigated are connected to a larger theory, how early researchers developed their initial
hypotheses and investigations, and how experimental findings lead to new questions,
refined hypotheses, and ultimately a greater understanding of the topic. Through this
process, students are exposed to some of the problems researchers encounter, the fact
that experimental results are often equivocal, and a realistic picture of researchers
who don’t always agree on how to interpret findings.
I also have preserved the structure used in previous editions for the theory chapters. Each of these chapters contains a section on application and a section on assessment. The application sections demonstrate how the sometimes abstract theories
relate to everyday concerns and issues. Students discover in the assessment sections
that how each approach to understanding personality brings with it unique assumptions and problems when attempting to measure relevant personality constructs.
I’ve retained the personality tests students can take and score themselves. There
are now 14 “Assessing Your Own Personality” boxes scattered throughout the book.
I’ve discovered in my own teaching that discussions about, for example, social anxiety
are more engaging after students discover how they score on a social anxiety test. This
hands-on experience not only gives students a better idea of how personality assessment works but also often generates a little healthy skepticism about relying too heavily on such measures. I’ve also retained the biographies of prominent personality
theorists in this edition. Feedback from students indicates that knowing something
about the person behind the theory helps to make the theory come alive. My students
often speculate about how a theorist’s life affected the development of his or her theory. Students and instructors tell me that they like the In the News boxes I introduced
six editions ago. I also have received positive feedback about the Appendix, a new
addition to the ninth edition that allows students to combine all the information they
gain about themselves from the personality inventories into one comprehensive picture. Consequently, these features have been retained in this edition.
Acknowledgments
Thanks are extended to all the people who helped with the production of this book.
And, as always, I thank Marlene, whose understanding and support through all 10
editions have made this book possible.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
About the Author
Jerry M. Burger is a professor of psychology at Santa Clara
University. He is the author of more than a hundred journal
articles and book chapters and has published two books: Desire
for Control: Personality, Social and Clinical Perspectives and
Returning Home: Reconnecting with Our Childhoods. He has been
on the editorial board of several academic journals, including the
Journal of Personality and the Personality and Social Psychology
Bulletin, and has served as an associate editor for the
“Personality Processes and Individual Difference” section of the
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. In his spare time, he
likes to run, read, and write. You can send comments about the
book to him at jburger@scu.edu.
xix
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
3
1
What Is Personality?
The Person and the Situation
Defining Personality
Six Approaches to Personality
Personality and Culture
The Study of Personality: Theory, Application,
Assessment, and Research
DNY59/E+/Getty Images
Summary
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
2
Chapter 1 / What Is Personality?
A
few years ago, without warning, a devastating tornado touched down in the
suburbs of Oklahoma City. The 1.3-mile-wide tornado plowed a 17-mile path
through the community, leaving piles of rubble and debris where minutes earlier
homes, schools, hospitals, and businesses had been standing. Wind speeds reached as
high as 210 miles per hour. By the time the storm lifted 50 minutes later, a large
part of Moore, Oklahoma, and other nearby cities had been destroyed. More than
12,000 homes were damaged, many of them completely obliterated by the storm.
­Twenty-four people were dead, including 10 children.
In the days that followed, residents discovered the extent of their losses, considered how their lives were changed, and helped those who had lost the most. While
the community grieved, condolences and concern for the victims and their families
poured in from public officials and citizens from across the country.
Powerful events have a way of bringing out similar reactions in people. Someone
might point to this tragedy to illustrate how much alike each of us really is, how all
people are basically the same. Yet if we look a little more closely, even in this situation, we can see that not everyone reacted in the same way. Some people joined rescue teams to search through the piles of bricks and boards. Others pitched tents on
their lawns vowing to protect what remained of their possessions. Some opened their
homes to strangers who no longer had a home of their own. Others expressed anger
at officials who had failed to build storm shelters in the basements of the elementary schools where children had died. Some dropped off food, clothing, diapers, and
checks at quickly assembled donation centers. Others struggled to cope with the emotional aftermath of the storm and a growing sense of helplessness. Many turned to
religion to find meaning and comfort, but some struggled to find the hand of God in
so much suffering. Some residents who had lost everything vowed to rebuild. O
­ thers
decided it was time to leave.
In many ways, the reactions to the Oklahoma tornado are typical of people who
are suddenly thrown into a unique and tragic situation. At first, the demands of the
situation overwhelm individual differences, but soon each person’s characteristic way
of dealing with the event and the emotional aftermath begins to surface. The more
we look, the more we see that people are not all alike. The closer we look, the more
we begin to see differences among individuals. These characteristic differences are
the focus of this book. They are part of what we call personality. Moreover, personality psychologists have already studied many of the topics and issues that surfaced
in the Oklahoma tragedy. Emotions, coping with stress, religion, anxiety, feelings of
helplessness, and many other relevant topics are covered in various places in this book.
The Person and the Situation
I
s our behavior shaped by the situation we are in or by the type of person we are?
In the Oklahoma tornado tragedy, did people act the way they did because of the
events surrounding them, or were their reactions more the result of the kind of people
they were before the incident? This is one of the enduring questions in psychology.
The generally agreed-upon answer today is that both the situation and the person
contribute to behavior. Certainly, how we act depends on the situation. Depending
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Defining Personality
“The
­ utstanding
o
characteristic
of man is
his individuality. There
was never a
person just
like him,
and there
never will be
again.”
Gordon Allport
3
on where we are and what is happening, each of us can be outgoing, shy, aggressive,
friendly, depressed, frightened, or excited. But it is equally apparent that not everyone
at the same party, the same ball game, or the same shopping center behaves identically. The debate among psychologists has now shifted to the question of how the
situation influences behavior as well as how behavior reflects the individual.
We can divide the fields of study within psychology along the answer to this question. Many psychologists concern themselves with how people typically respond to
environmental demands. These researchers recognize that not everyone in a situation
reacts the same. Their goal is to identify patterns that generally describe what most
people will do. Thus, a social psychologist might create different situations in which
participants encounter someone in need of help. The purpose of this research is to
identify the kinds of situations that increase or decrease helping behavior. But personality psychologists turn this way of thinking completely around. We know there are
typical response patterns to situations, but what we find more interesting is why Peter
tends to help more than Paul, even when both are presented with the same request.
You may have heard the axiom, “There are few differences between people,
but what differences there are, really matter.” That tends to sum up the personality ­psychologists’ viewpoint. They want to know what makes you different from the
person sitting next to you. Why do some people make friends easily, whereas ­others
are lonely? Why are some people prone to bouts of depression? Can we predict who
will do well in the business world and who will fall short? Why are some people
introverted, whereas others are so outgoing? Each of these questions is explored in
this book. Other topics covered include how your personality is related to hypnotic
responsiveness, reactions to stress, how well you do in school, and even your chances
of having a heart attack.
This is not to say that situations are unimportant or of no interest to personality psychologists. Indeed, as discussed in Chapter 7, many of the questions posed by
personality researchers concern how a certain kind of person behaves in a particular
situation. However, the emphasis of this book is on what makes you different from the
next person—that is, your personality. Before addressing that question, let’s start by
defining “personality.”
Defining Personality
A
nyone who has been in college a while can probably anticipate the topic of the
first lecture of the term. The philosophy professor asks, “What is philosophy?”
The first class meeting in a communication course centers on the question, “What
is communication?” Those who teach geography, history, and calculus have similar
lectures. And so, for traditional and practical reasons, psychology professors too begin
with the basic question, “What is personality?”
Although a definition follows, bear in mind that psychologists do not agree on
a single answer to this question. In fact, personality psychologists are engaged in an
ongoing and perhaps never-ending discussion of how to describe human personality
and what topics belong within this subfield of psychology (Fajkowska & DeYoung,
2015; McAbee & Connelly, 2016; Yang et al., 2014). As you will see, each personality
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
4
Chapter 1 / What Is Personality?
theorist covered in this book has a different idea about what personality psychologists
ought to study. Whereas one theorist points to unconscious mechanisms, another
might look at learning histories, and still another at the way people organize their
thoughts. Although some students might find this lack of agreement frustrating, let
me suggest from the outset that these different viewpoints provide a rich and exciting
framework within which to explore the complexities of the individual.
Personality can be defined as consistent behavior patterns and intrapersonal
­processes originating within the individual. Several aspects of this simple definition
need elaboration. Notice that there are two parts to it. The first part is concerned
with ­consistent patterns of behavior. Personality researchers often refer to these
as individual ­d ifferences. The important point here is that personality is consistent. We can identify these consistent behavior patterns across time and across
situations. We expect someone who is outgoing today to be outgoing tomorrow.
Someone who is competitive at work is also quite likely competitive in sports.
We acknowledge this consistency in character when we say, “It was just like her
to do that” or “He was just being himself.” Of course, this does not mean that an
extraverted person is boisterous and jolly all the time, on solemn occasions as well
as at parties. Nor does it mean people cannot change. But if personality exists and
behavior is not just a reflection of whatever situation we find ourselves in, then we
must expect some consistency in the way people act.
The second part of the definition concerns intrapersonal processes. In contrast
to interpersonal processes, which take place between people, intrapersonal processes
include all the emotional, motivational, and cognitive processes that go on inside of us
that affect how we act and feel. Thus, you will find that many personality psychologists
are interested in topics like depression, information processing, happiness, and denial.
It also is important to note that, according to the definition, these consistent
behavior patterns and intrapersonal processes originate within the individual. This is
not to say that external sources do not influence personality. Certainly, the way p
­ arents
raise their children affects the kind of adults the children become. And, of course, the
emotions we experience are often a reaction to the events we encounter. The point is
that behavior is not solely a function of the situation. The fear we e­ xperience while
watching a frightening movie is the result of the film, but the different ways we each
express or deal with that fear come from within.
Six Approaches to Personality
W
hat are the sources of consistent behavior patterns and intrapersonal processes? One reason for the length of this book is that personality psychologists have answered this question in many different ways. To help make sense of the
wide range of personality theories proposed over the past century, we’ll look at six
general approaches to explaining personality. These are the psychoanalytic approach,
the trait approach, the biological approach, the humanistic approach, the behavioral
/social learning approach, and the cognitive approach. Although the fit is not always
perfect, each of the major theories of personality can be placed into one of these six
general approaches.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Six Approaches to Personality
5
Why so many theories of personality? Let me answer this question by way of
a­ nalogy. Nearly everyone has heard the story about the five blind men who encounter
an elephant. Each feels a different part of the animal and then tries to explain to the
others what an elephant is like. The blind man feeling the leg describes the elephant
as tall and round. Another feels the ear and claims an elephant is thin and flat, whereas
another, holding onto the trunk, describes the animal as long and slender. The man
feeling the tail and the one touching the elephant’s side have still different images.
The point to this story, of course, is that each man knows only a part of the whole animal. Because there is more to the elephant than what he has experienced, each man’s
description is correct but incomplete.
In one sense, the six approaches to personality are analogous to the blind men.
That is, each approach does seem to correctly identify and examine an important
aspect of human personality. Psychologists who subscribe to the psychoanalytic approach
argue that people’s unconscious minds are largely responsible for important differences in their behavior styles. Other psychologists, who favor the trait approach, identify where a person might lie along a continuum of various personality characteristics.
Psychologists advocating the biological approach point to inherited predispositions and
physiological processes to explain individual differences in personality. In contrast,
those promoting the humanistic approach identify personal responsibility and f­eelings
of self-acceptance as the key causes of differences in personality. Behavioral/social
learning theorists explain consistent behavior patterns in terms of conditioning and
expectations. Those promoting the cognitive approach look at differences in the way
people process information.
It’s tempting to suggest that by simply combining all six approaches, we can obtain
an accurate picture of why people act the way they do. Unfortunately, the blind men
analogy can only be stretched so far. Although different approaches to a given question in personality often vary only in emphasis—with each providing a legitimate,
compatible explanation—in many instances, the explanations from two or more
approaches may be entirely incompatible. Thus, people who work in the field often
align themselves with one or another of the six approaches as they decide which of the
competing explanations makes the most sense to them.
Returning to the blind men and the elephant, suppose someone were to ask how
an elephant moves. The man feeling the trunk might argue that the elephant slithers
along the ground like a snake. The one holding the elephant’s ear might disagree,
­saying that the elephant must fly like a bird with its big, floppy wings. The man touching the leg would certainly have a different explanation. Although in some instances
more than one of these explanations might be accurate (e.g., a bird can both walk and
fly), it should be obvious that at times not every theory can be right. It also is possible
that one theory may be correct in describing one part of human personality, whereas
another theory may be correct in describing other aspects.
No doubt some theories will resonate with you more than others. But it is worth
keeping in mind that each approach has been developed and promoted by a large
number of respected psychologists. Although not all these men and women are correct about every issue, each approach has something of value to offer in our quest to
understand what makes each of us who we are.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
6
Chapter 1 / What Is Personality?
Two Examples: Aggression and Depression
To get a better idea of how the six approaches to understanding personality provide
six different, yet legitimate, explanations for consistent patterns of behavior, let’s look
at two common examples. Aggressive behavior and the suffering that comes from
depression are widespread problems in our society, and psychologists from many
­different perspectives have looked into their causes.
Example 1: Aggression
Unfortunately, there are many people in the world today who frequently act in an
aggressive manner. People arrested for assault often have a history of violence that
goes back to playground fights in childhood. Why are some individuals consistently
more aggressive than others? Each of the six approaches to personality provides at
least one answer. As you read these answers, think about an aggressive person you
have encountered or read about. Which of the six explanations seems to do the best
job of explaining that person’s behavior?
The classic psychoanalytic explanation of aggression points to an unconscious
death instinct. That is, we are all said to possess an unconscious desire to self-destruct.
However, because people with a healthy personality do not hurt themselves, these
self-destructive impulses may be turned outward and expressed against others in the
form of aggression. Other psychoanalysts argue that aggression results when we are
blocked from reaching our goals. A person who experiences a great deal of frustration,
perhaps someone who is constantly falling short of a desired goal, is a likely candidate
for persistent aggressive behavior. However, in most cases, the person is unaware of
the real reasons for the aggression.
Personality theorists who follow the trait approach focus on individual differences and the stability of aggressive behavior (Bettencourt, Talley, Benjamin, &
Valentine, 2006). For example, one team of researchers measured aggressiveness in
­8-year-old children (Huesmann, Eron, & Yarmel, 1987). The investigators interviewed the ­participants again when the participants were 30 years old and discovered
that the children identified as aggressive in elementary school were the most likely
to have become aggressive adults. Children who pushed and shoved their classmates
grew into adults who abused their spouses and engaged in violent criminal behavior.
Personality psychologists from the biological perspective point to a genetic predisposition to act aggressively (Miles & Carey, 1997). That is, some people may be
born with aggressive dispositions that, depending on their upbringing, result in their
becoming aggressive adults. Other psychologists explain aggression in terms of evolutionary theory (Shackelford & Hansen, 2014). For example, the fact that men tend
to be more aggressive than women might be explained by the male’s inherited need
to exercise control over rivals so that he can survive and pass along his genes. Other
researchers from this approach look at the role hormones and neurotransmitters play
in aggressive behavior (Berman, McCloskey, Fanning, Schumacher, & Coccaro, 2009;
Klinesmith, Kasser, & McAndrew, 2006).
Psychologists who take a humanistic approach to personality explain aggression
in yet another way. These theorists deny that some individuals are born to be aggressive. In fact, many argue that people are basically good. They believe all people can
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Six Approaches to Personality
7
become happy, nonviolent adults if allowed to grow and develop in an enriching and
encouraging environment. Problems develop when something interferes with this
natural growth process. Aggressive children often come from homes in which basic
needs are not met adequately. If the child develops a poor self-image, he or she may
strike out at others in frustration.
The behavioral/social learning approach contrasts in many ways with the humanistic view. According to these psychologists, people learn to be aggressive the same
way they learn other behaviors. Playground bullies find that aggressive behavior is
rewarded. They get to bat first and have first choice of playground equipment because
other children fear them. People also become aggressive from watching m
­ odels.
­Children may learn from observing aggressive classmates that hurting others is
sometimes useful. As discussed in Chapter 14, many people are concerned that the
aggressive role models children routinely watch on television may be responsible for
increasing the amount of violence in society.
Cognitive psychologists approach the question of aggressive behavior from yet
another perspective. Their focus is on the way aggressive people process information. Certain cues in the environment, such as images of guns and fighting, often
trigger a network of aggressive thoughts and emotions. When aggressive thoughts
are highly accessible, people are more likely to interpret situations as threatening and
respond to those perceived threats with violence. Although most of us ignore unintended insults and accidental bumps in the hallway, individuals with highly accessible
aggressive thoughts are likely to respond with threats of violence and angry shoves.
Now, let’s return to the original question: Why do some people show a consistent pattern of aggressive behavior? Each of the six approaches to personality offers
a different explanation. Which is correct? One possibility is that only one is correct
and that future research will identify that theory. A second possibility is that each
approach is partially correct. There may be six (or more) different causes of aggressive behavior. Still a third possibility is that the six explanations do not contradict
one another but rather differ only in their focus. That is, it’s possible that aggressiveness is relatively stable and reflects an aggressive trait (the trait approach). But
it might also be the case that some people tend to interpret ambiguous events as
threatening (the cognitive explanation) because of past experiences in which they
were assaulted (the behavioral/social learning explanation). These people may have
been born with a tendency to respond to threats in an aggressive manner (the biological approach). But perhaps if they had been raised in a nonfrustrating environment (the psychoanalytic approach) or in a supportive home in which their basic
needs were met (the humanistic approach), they would have overcome their aggressive tendencies. The point is that each approach appears to contribute something to
our understanding of aggression.
Example 2: Depression
Most of us know what it is like to be depressed. We have all had days when we feel
a little blue or melancholy. Like many college students, you may also have suffered
through longer periods of intense sadness and a general lack of motivation to do anything. However, some people seem more prone to depression than others. Once again,
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
8
Chapter 1 / What Is Personality?
Photo courtesy of Emily Murphy
each of the six approaches to personality has a different explanation for ­individual
­differences in depression.
According to Sigmund Freud, the founder of the psychoanalytic approach,
­depression is anger turned inward. That is, people suffering from depression hold
unconscious feelings of anger and hostility. They may want to strike out at family
members, but a healthy personality does not express such feelings overtly. Psychoanalysts argue that each of us has internalized the standards and values of society, which
typically discourage the expression of hostility. Therefore, these angry feelings are
turned inward, and people take it out on themselves. As with most psychoanalytic
explanations, this process takes place at an unconscious level.
Trait theorists are concerned with identifying depression-prone individuals.
Researchers find that a person’s general emotional level today is a good indicator of
that person’s emotions in the future. People who experience an episode of depression
during their teen years are likely to have recurring episodes in adulthood (Kovacs,
Obrosky, & George, 2016). One study found that depression levels in 18-year-olds
could be predicted from looking at participants’ behavior from as early as 7 years of
age (Block, Gjerde, & Block, 1991).
Biological personality psychologists point to evidence that some people may
inherit a genetic susceptibility to depression (McGue & Christensen, 1997). A person
What causes depression? Depending on which approach to personality you adopt,
you might explain depression in terms of anger turned inward, a stable trait, an
­inherited predisposition, low self-esteem, a lack of reinforcers, or negative thoughts.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Personality and Culture
9
born with this vulnerability faces a much greater likelihood than the average individual
of reacting to stressful life events with depression. Because of this ­inherited tendency,
these people often experience repeated bouts of depression throughout their lives.
Humanistic personality theorists explain depression in terms of self-esteem. That
is, people who frequently suffer from depression are those who have failed to develop
a good sense of their self-worth. A person’s level of self-esteem is established while
growing up and, like other personality concepts, is fairly stable across time and situations. The ability to accept oneself, even one’s faults and weaknesses, is an important
goal for humanistic therapists when dealing with clients suffering from depression.
Psychologists from the behavioral/social learning approach point to learning ­histories
as a cause of depression. Behaviorists argue that depression results from a lack of positive reinforcers in a person’s life. That is, you may feel down and unmotivated because
you see few activities in your life worth doing. A more extensive b
­ ehavioral model of
depression, covered in Chapter 14, proposes that depression develops from experiences
with aversive situations over which people have l­ittle control. This theory maintains that
exposure to uncontrollable events creates a ­perception of helplessness that is generalized
to other situations and may develop into classic symptoms of depression.
Cognitive personality psychologists argue that some people are prone to episodes
of depression because of the way they process information. Depressed individuals
have negative thoughts about themselves, are pessimistic about the future, and tend
to interpret events in a negative manner. Cognitive psychologists maintain that some
individuals use a depressive filter to interpret and process information. Depressed
people can easily recall unhappy experiences and are prepared to see the world in the
most depressing terms possible.
Which of these accounts of depression strikes you as the most accurate? If you
have been depressed, was it because of your low self-esteem, because you experienced an uncontrollable situation, or because you tend to look at the world through
a depressing lens? As in the aggression example, more than one of these approaches
may be correct. You may have found that one theory could explain an experience
you had with depression last year, whereas another seems to better account for a
more recent bout. In addition, the theories can at times complement each other.
For example, p
­ eople might interpret events in a depressing way because of their low
self-esteem.
One more lesson can be taken from these two examples: You need not align
­yourself with the same approach to personality when explaining different phenomena.
For example, you may have found that the cognitive explanation for aggression made
the most sense to you, but that the humanistic approach provided the best account
of depression. This observation demonstrates the main point of this section: Each
of the six approaches has something to offer the student interested in understanding
personality.
Personality and Culture
P
sychologists have increasingly recognized the important role culture plays in
understanding personality. To some students, this observation at first seems
inconsistent with the notion of personality as distinct from situational influences
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
10
Chapter 1 / What Is Personality?
on ­behavior. However, psychologists now recognize that many of the a­ ssumptions
people in ­Western developed countries make when describing and studying
­p ersonality may not apply when dealing with people from different c­ ultures
(­B enet-Martinez & Oishi, 2008; Cheung, van de Vijver, & Leong, 2011). It is
not just that different experiences in different cultures affect how personalities
develop. Rather, psychologists have come to see that people and their personalities
exist within a cultural context.
Perhaps, the most important distinction cross-cultural researchers make is between
individualistic cultures and collectivist cultures (Triandis, 2001). ­I ndividualistic
­cultures, which include most Northern European countries and the United States,
place great emphasis on individual needs and accomplishments. People in these
­cultures like to think of themselves as independent and unique. In contrast, people in
collectivist cultures are more concerned about belonging to a larger group, such as a
family, tribe, or nation. These people are more interested in cooperation than competition. They obtain satisfaction when the group does well rather than from individual
accomplishments. Many Asian, African, Central American, and South American countries fit the collectivist culture description.
Concepts commonly studied by personality psychologists in individualistic countries often take on very different meanings when examined in collectivist cultures.
For example, research reviewed in Chapter 12 suggests that the Western notion of
­self-esteem is based on assumptions about personal goals and feelings of uniqueness that may not apply to people in many other countries (Markus & Kitayama,
2010). Similarly, Western psychologists studying achievement motivation sometimes
try to predict who will get ahead in academic or business situations. However, this
­definition of achievement and success is not shared universally. In some collectivist
­cultures, ­success means cooperation and group accomplishments. Personal recognition may even be frowned upon. We also need to consider the culture a person comes
from when identifying and treating psychological disorders (Benish, Quintana, &
Wampold, 2011; Draguns, 2008; Ibaraki & Hall, 2014). For example, behavior that
suggests excessive dependency or an exaggerated sense of self in one culture might
reflect good adjustment in another.
In short, it is worth remembering that most of the theories and much of the
research covered in this book are based on observations in individualistic ­cultures.
In fact, most of this work was conducted in the United States, the country that
was found in one study to be the most individualistic of 41 nations examined
(Suh, D
­ iener, Oishi, & Triandis, 1998). This does not mean the research should be
­dismissed. Rather, we should keep in mind that whether a particular description
applies to people in all cultures remains an open question. In some cases, such as the
research on dream content presented in Chapter 4 and the studies on marriage patterns ­presented in Chapter 10, investigators find nearly identical results across very
different cultural groups. In other cases, such as in the self-esteem and achievement
examples, they find important differences among cultures. Identifying the cultural
limitations or universality of various phenomena provides additional insight into the
nature of the concepts we study.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
The Study of Personality: Theory, Application, ­Assessment, and Research
11
The Study of Personality: Theory, Application,
­Assessment, and Research
I
“There can
scarcely be
anything
more familiar
than human
behavior.
Nor can
there be anything more
important.
Nonetheless,
it is certainly
not the thing
we understand best.”
B. F. Skinner
Jerry Burger
f you spend a few minutes looking through the table of contents, you will notice
that this book is divided into sections. Each section presents one of the different
approaches to personality, although the psychoanalytic approach is divided into two
sections, Freudian and neo-Freudian. Within each of these seven sections, you will
find the four components necessary for a complete understanding of personality—
theory, application, assessment, and research.
The first chapter of each section begins with a presentation of theory. Each of
the personality theorists covered in these pages presents a comprehensive model for
how human personality is structured and how it operates. Next comes an example of
how psychologists apply the theory and research findings to questions that directly
affect people’s lives. These applications include psychotherapy, education, religion,
and ­performance at work. The first chapter of each section ends with a discussion of
how psychologists from that approach measure the personality constructs of interest
to them. You will also notice as you make your way through this book that ­examples
of personality assessment are scattered throughout. If you take the time to try each of
It’s difficult to make it through college without taking a personality test somewhere along the way. One reason that self-report inventories are frequently
used in personality research can be seen here—researchers can quickly collect
information from a large number of people.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
12
Chapter 1 / What Is Personality?
these inventories, not only will you obtain a better understanding of how p
­ sychologists
from the different approaches measure personality, but you will also gain insight into
your own personality. As you complete each inventory, you can record your scores in
the Appendix of this book.
Finally, the second chapter within each of the seven sections is devoted entirely
to research relevant to that approach. Personality psychology is, after all, a science.
Each research chapter is organized around a few topics that have been studied extensively by personality psychologists, such as social anxiety, gender roles, and ­loneliness.
As you will see, sometimes this research tests principles and assumptions central to
the theory; other times researchers are interested in exploring some of the concepts
introduced by the personality theory. By examining a handful of research topics in
depth for each of the approaches, you will see how theories generate research and
how the findings from one study typically lead to new questions and more research.
Summary
1. Personality psychology is concerned with the differences among people.
Although there is no agreed-upon definition, personality is defined here
as consistent behavior patterns and intrapersonal processes originating
within the individual.
2. For convenience, the many theories of personality are divided into six
general categories: the psychoanalytic, trait, biological, humanistic,
behavioral/social learning, and cognitive approaches. Each approach
provides a different focus for explaining individual differences in behavior. The six approaches can be thought of as complementary models for
understanding human personality, although occasionally they present
competing accounts of behavior.
3. Personality psychologists need to consider the culture from which an
individual comes. Most of the findings reported in this book are based
on research in individualistic cultures, such as the United States. However, these results don’t always generalize to people in collectivist
cultures.
4. A thorough understanding of human personality requires more than
the study of theory. Consequently, we’ll also examine how each of the
approaches is applied to practical concerns, how each deals with personality assessment, and some of the research relevant to the issues and
topics addressed by the theories.
Key Terms
collectivist culture (p. 10)
individualistic culture (p. 10)
personality (p. 4)
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
3
2
Personality Research
Methods
The Hypothesis-Testing Approach
The Case Study Method
Statistical Analysis of Data
Personality Assessment
DNY59/E+/Getty Images
Summary
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
14
Chapter 2 / Personality Research Methods
N
ot long ago, “Desperate in Dallas” wrote to a newspaper advice columnist
about her husband’s 16-year-old cousin, who was living with them. The boy
didn’t want to work, didn’t want to go to school, and generally was a very messy
houseguest. What was she to do? The columnist explained to “Desperate” that the
boy’s real problem was the rejection he had received from his parents earlier in
his life. These early childhood experiences were responsible for the boy’s lack of
motivation. Within the next few weeks, the adviser also explained to “Wondering
in Boston” that a 5-year-old boy became aggressive from watching too many violent programs on television. She told “Anonymous in Houston” that her 5-year-old
daughter was going to be a leader, and “Intrigued in Norfolk” that, although some
people are routinely incapacitated with minor aches and pains, others are capable of
ignoring them.
In each of these examples, the columnist was explaining why a certain person engages in consistent behavior patterns—that is, the causes of that person’s
personality. Millions of people seem to think this columnist has something to
say about human behavior. But how does she know? Experience? Intelligence? A
keen insight into human nature? Perhaps. In a way, advice columnists represent
one avenue for understanding personality—through expert opinion. We could say
the columnist is similar to the great personality theorists who studied the works
of others, made their own observations, and then described what they saw as the
causes of human behavior. As you will see in Chapter 3, Sigmund Freud proposed
many groundbreaking ideas about personality. He read widely about what his contemporaries were saying, worked and consulted with some of the great thinkers of
the day, and carefully observed his patients. From information gathered from all
these ­avenues, Freud developed a theory of personality that he spent the rest of his
career promoting.
Although more scholarly than a columnist’s one-paragraph diagnosis, Freud’s
writings often evoke a similar response: How does he know? Freud’s ideas are
intriguing, and his arguments at times persuasive, but most personality psychologists want more than an expert’s viewpoint before they accept a personality theory. They want ­empirical research. They want studies examining key predictions
from the theory. They want some hard numbers to support those predictions. This
is not because an expert’s ideas are of no value. Quite the contrary, the views and
observations of personality theorists form the backbone of this book. But theories
alone provide only part of the picture. Understanding the nature of human personality also requires an examination of what psychologists have learned from rigorous
empirical investigations.
This chapter presents a brief introduction to psychological research with an
emphasis on issues particularly relevant for personality. We begin with a description of some basic concepts associated with the hypothesis-testing approach to
research. Next, we look at a research procedure that has played a significant role
in the history of personality psychology—the case study method. We then touch
briefly on what you will need to know about statistical analysis of data. Finally,
because personality psychologists often rely on personality assessment, we quickly
review some of the concepts associated with measuring individual differences
in personality.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
The Hypothesis-Testing Approach
15
The Hypothesis-Testing Approach
E
ach of us on occasion speculates about the nature of personality. You may have
wondered why you seem to be more self-conscious than other people, why a family member is depressed so often, or why you have so much trouble making friends.
In the latter case, you may have watched the way popular students interact with the
people they meet and compared their behavior with the way you act around strangers. You may have even tried to change your behavior to be more like theirs and then
watched to see if this affected how people react to you.
In essence, the difference between this process and that used by personality
­psychologists lies only in the degree of sophistication. Like all of us, these researchers speculate about the nature of personality. From observations, knowledge about
­previous theory and research, and careful speculation, they generate hypotheses about
why certain people behave the way they do. Then, using experimental methods, they
collect data to see if their explanations about human behavior are correct. Like pieces
in a large jigsaw puzzle, each study makes another contribution to our understanding
of personality. However, by the time you get to the end of this book, it should be clear
that this is one puzzle that will never be finished.
Theories and Hypotheses
Most personality research begins with a theory—a general statement about the relationship between constructs or events. Theories differ in the range of events or phenomena they explain. Some, such as the major personality theories discussed in this
book, are very broad. Psychologists have used Freud’s psychoanalytic theory to explain
topics as diverse as what causes psychological disorders, why people turn to religion,
and why certain jokes are funny. However, personality researchers typically work with
theories considerably narrower in application. For example, they might speculate
about the reasons some people are more motivated to achieve than others or about
the relationship between a parent’s behavior and a child’s level of self-esteem. It might
be useful to think of the larger theories, such as Freud’s, as collections of more specific
theories that share certain assumptions about the nature of human personality.
A good theory possesses at least two characteristics. First, a good theory is
­parsimonious. Scientists generally operate under the “law of parsimony”—that is, the
simplest theory that can explain the phenomenon is the best. As you will see throughout this book, several theories can be generated to explain any one behavior. Some can
be quite extensive, including many concepts and assumptions, whereas others explain
the phenomenon in relatively simple terms. Which theory is better? Although it
sometimes seems that scientists enjoy wrapping their work in fancy terms and e­ soteric
concepts, the truth is that if two theories can account for an effect equally well, the
simpler explanation is preferred.
Second, a good theory is useful. More specifically, unless a theory can generate testable hypotheses, it will be of little or no use to scientists. Ideas that cannot
be tested are not necessarily incorrect. It’s just that they do not lend themselves to
­scientific investigation. For example, throughout history some people have explained
­psychological disorders in terms of invisible demons taking over a person’s body.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
16
Chapter 2 / Personality Research Methods
This may or may not be a correct statement about the causes of disorders. But unless
this explanation is somehow testable, the theory cannot be examined through scientific methods and therefore holds little value for scientists.
However, theories themselves are never tested. Instead, investigators derive from
the theory hypotheses that can then be tested in research. A hypothesis is a formal
prediction about the relationship between two or more variables that is logically
derived from the theory. For example, many psychologists are interested in individual
differences in loneliness (Chapter 12). That is, they want to know why some people
frequently suffer from feelings of loneliness, whereas others rarely feel lonely. One
theory proposes that lonely people lack the social skills necessary to develop and
maintain satisfying relationships. Because this is a useful theory, many predictions
can be derived from it, as shown in Figure 2.1. For example, if the theory correctly
describes a cause of loneliness, we might expect consistently lonely people to make
fewer attempts to initiate conversations than those who are not lonely. Another prediction might be that these lonely people have a poor idea of how they are being
Theory: Loneliness is caused by lack of social skills.
Prediction: Lonely people don’t initiate as many
conversations as nonlonely people.
Prediction: Lonely people have less accurate perceptions
of how people see them than nonlonely people.
Prediction: Lonely people make more socially inappropriate
statements than nonlonely people.
Test: Have judges count the number of inappropriate
statements made by lonely and nonlonely people
in a conversation with a stranger.
Test: Ask roommates of lonely and nonlonely people
to evaluate the frequency of inappropriate
statements.
Test: Construct a test of the rules governing appropriate
and inappropriate social statements; administer
the test to lonely and nonlonely people.
Figure 2.1 Example of the Hypothesis-Testing Approach
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
The Hypothesis-Testing Approach
17
perceived by others. Yet another prediction might maintain that lonely people make
more socially inappropriate statements than nonlonely people during conversations.
Each of these predictions can be tested. For example, we might test the last
prediction by recording conversations lonely and nonlonely people have with new
acquaintances. Judges could evaluate the conversations in terms of number of appropriate responses, number of appropriate questions, and so on. If people who identify
themselves as lonely make fewer appropriate responses during the conversation, the
prediction is confirmed. We then say we have support for the theory. But notice that
the theory itself is not tested directly. In fact, theories are never proved or disproved.
Rather, a theory is more or less supported by the research and therefore is more or less
useful to scientists trying to understand the phenomenon. The more often research
confirms a prediction derived from a theory, the more faith psychologists have that
the theory accurately describes the nature of things. However, if empirical investigations consistently fail to confirm predictions, we are much less likely to accept the
theory. In these cases, scientists typically generate a new theory or modify the old one
to better account for the research findings.
Experimental Variables
Jerry Burger
Good research progresses from theory to prediction to experiment. The basic
­elements of an experiment are the experimental variables, which are divided into
two types: independent variables and dependent variables. An independent variable
Many personality researchers conduct laboratory studies to test their hypotheses.
These investigations typically take place in university settings, often with undergraduate students as participants and graduate students as experimenters.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
18
Chapter 2 / Personality Research Methods
determines how the groups in the experiment are divided. Often this is manipulated
by the experimenter, such as when participants are randomly assigned to different
experimental conditions. An independent variable might be the amount of a drug each
group receives, how much anxiety is created in each group, or the type of story each
group reads. For example, if level of anxiety is the independent variable, a researcher
might tell Group A that they will give a speech in front of a dozen critical people,
Group B that they will give a speech in front of a few supportive people, and Group C
nothing about a speech. Because each of the groups created by the independent
­variable receives a slightly different treatment, some researchers refer to the independent variable as the treatment variable.
A dependent variable is measured by the investigator and used to compare the
experimental groups. In a well-designed study, differences among groups on the
dependent variable can be attributed to the different levels of the independent
­variable. Returning to the anxiety example, suppose the researcher’s hypothesis was
that people reduce anxiety about upcoming events by obtaining as much information
about the situation as possible. The researcher might use level of anxiety as the independent variable, creating high-, moderate-, and low-anxiety conditions. The three
groups might be compared on how many questions they ask the experimenter about
the upcoming event. In this case, the number of questions is the dependent variable.
The results of such an experiment might look like this:
Average number of questions
High
Anxiety
5.44
Moderate
Anxiety
3.12
Low
Anxiety
1.88
If the experiment has been designed correctly, the investigator will attribute
the difference in the dependent variable (the number of questions) to the different
­levels of the independent variable (anxiety). Because experimenters want to say that
­differences in the dependent variable are the result of the different treatment each
of the groups received, some researchers refer to the dependent variable as the outcome variable.
However, most personality research is more elaborate than this example indicates. Researchers typically use more than one independent variable. In the information-seeking example, an experimenter might want to further divide participants
into groups according to how shy they typically are. The researcher might predict
that anxiety leads to a search for information, but only among p
­ eople who are not
shy. Researchers in this hypothetical study might use two independent variables
to divide participants into groups. They might randomly assign participants to
either an anxiety (anticipates speech) or a no-anxiety group, and within each of
these groups identify those who are shy and those who are not. If the dependent
­v ariable remains the number of questions asked of the experimenter, the results
might turn out like those shown in Figure 2.2. This figure illustrates what is called
an interaction. That is, how one independent variable affects the dependent variable depends on the other independent variable. In this example, whether anxiety
leads to an increase in questions depends on whether the participant is high or
low in shyness.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
The Hypothesis-Testing Approach
Figure 2.2 An
19
5
Number of Questions Asked
Interaction Between Two
Independent Variables
4
3
2
1
0
No-Anxiety
Condition
Nonshy Participants
Anxiety
Condition
Shy Participants
Manipulated Versus Nonmanipulated Independent Variables
Sometimes personality researchers randomly assign participants to conditions, such
as putting them into anxiety or no-anxiety groups. However, other times they simply identify which group the participant already belongs to, such as whether the
person is shy or not shy. The significance of this difference is illustrated in the
­following example.
Suppose you are interested in the effect violent television programs have on the
amount of aggression people display in real life. You recruit two kinds of ­participants—
those who watch a lot of violent TV shows and those who watch ­relatively few. You
then put the participants in a situation in which you count the number of times
­participants say something or act in a hurtful way toward other people. Consistent
with the hypothesis, you find that people who watch a lot of violent television are
more aggressive than those who watch relatively little violent TV. You might be
tempted to conclude that watching violent television programs causes people to be
more aggressive. However, based on this study alone, your conclusion must be tempered. For example, it’s possible that some people watch violent TV shows ­precisely
because they are aggressive. Perhaps, they are more entertained by programs that
include shootings, stabbings, and other violent acts. Thus, although the findings are
consistent with the hypothesis, statements about cause and effect must be qualified.
This example illustrates the fundamental difference between research using
manipulated independent variables and research using nonmanipulated independent
variables. An investigator who uses a manipulated independent variable begins with
a large number of participants and randomly assigns them to experimental groups.
That is, each person has an equally likely chance of being assigned to Condition A as
to Condition B (or C, or D, etc.). Investigators know all participants are not exactly
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
20
Chapter 2 / Personality Research Methods
“Personality
is so complex a thing
that every
legitimate
method
must be
employed in
its study.”
Gordon Allport
alike at the beginning of the study. Some are naturally more aggressive than others,
some more anxious, some more intelligent. Each has different life experiences that
might affect what he or she does in the study. However, by using a large number of
participants and randomly assigning them to conditions, researchers assume that all
these differences will even out. Thus, although within any given condition we will
find ­people who are typically high or low in aggressiveness, each condition should
have the same average level of aggressiveness at the beginning of the experiment.
The researcher then introduces the independent variable. For example, one group
might be shown 30 minutes of violent television programming, another group might
watch a baseball game, and still another group might sit quietly and watch no television. Because we assume participants in each condition are nearly identical on average
at the start of the study, any differences among the groups after watching the program
can be attributed to the independent variable. That is, if participants who watched
the violent TV shows are more aggressive than those who watched the nonviolent
shows or those who watched no TV, we can conclude with reasonable confidence that
watching the violent TV shows likely caused the participants to act more aggressively.
This procedure contrasts with one that uses nonmanipulated variables. A
­ onmanipulated independent variable (sometimes referred to as a subject variable)
n
exists without the researcher’s intervention. For example, researchers might divide people into high self-esteem and low self-esteem groups, or into first-born, ­middle-born,
or last-born categories. In these cases, the investigator does not randomly assign
­participants to a condition. Returning to the earlier example, the researcher who compared frequent and infrequent television viewers did not manipulate participants into
those two categories. Rather, each participant already belonged to one of the groups,
and the researcher simply had to determine which group that was.
The problem researchers face …
Purchase answer to see full
attachment

  
error: Content is protected !!