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AES Model and Guide for
Summarizing, Analyzing,
Evaluating, and Synthesizing
Information
DOC/714S
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AES Model
What is it?
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What is the AES Model?
Analysis
Evaluation
Synthesis
An iterative process for success in the ACCESS program sequence
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What is the AES Model? (Continued)
By understanding the AES model, you will be able to:
Prepare your papers more effectively​.
Become a better critical reader​.
Easily make sense of your faculty member feedback​.
Become a more effective critical and creative thinker​.
Prepare yourself to become a more effective researcher​.
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3-Stage Model
Synthesis
Core Task: To put back
together and create
something new
Evaluation
Core Task: To make a
conclusion based on
empirical data and a clear
rationale
Analysis
Core Task: To identify
and break into parts for
identification and
comparison
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Different Types of Thinking
Critical Thinking
(Deductive Reasoning)
Analysis
Critical
Evaluation
Creative
Synthesis
Creative Thinking
Design Thinking
(Abductive Reasoning)
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An Iterative Process Over Time
Creative
Synthesis
Critical
Evaluation
Analysis
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Key Questions
Analysis
What are the main ideas being made in each article?
Is it possible to compare/contrast?
What groupings/sequence might exist?
What alternative/contradictory ideas exist?
Critical
Evaluation
What metric/criterion will I apply?
What evidence exists?
What does the evidence suggest?
What is my evaluation process?
What assumptions/limitations/alternative views might exist?
Creative
Synthesis
How might I integrate these ideas?
How could I reframe the main points or the context?
What metaphor might I employ?
What new questions might I ask? (e.g., What might be…? What if…?)
© 2021 University of Phoenix
AES Model Guide
Summarizing, Analyzing, Evaluating, and Synthesizing Information
© 2021 University of Phoenix
Summary
When you summarize, you restate information without adding your personal
interpretation. For example, if you read a book, summarizing might include restating
the plot, the characters, the scenery, etc., without sharing your opinion of the book.
When you summarize
Do
Don’t
• Briefly restate important
information.
• Include relevant details.
• Don’t explain the meaning of the
information or provide your
opinion.
Synonyms for summarizing:
• Report
• Retell
• Describe
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Analysis
Analysis involves breaking a text apart, looking at the pieces, and then adding your
own interpretations. In the analysis portion, the writer goes beyond simply describing
something and adds a personal perspective for the reader to consider.
When you analyze:
Do
Don’t
• Look for relationships, trends,
and patterns for the purpose of
explaining and interpreting.
• Create your own understanding.
• Add your personal perspective
or interpretation.
• Make judgments.
• Repeat information.
Synonyms for analyzing:
• Consider
• Interpret
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Evaluation
After breaking down the pieces by looking for relationships, trends, and patterns, and
creating your own understanding, it is time to discuss your opinion.
When you discuss your opinion:
Do
Don’t
• Clearly state personal
judgments or opinions.
• State a determination of value
(valid/invalid,
relevant/irrelevant).
• Defend your evaluation with
evidence from the literature.
• Present vague or unclear
opinions or ideas.
• Present a discussion of the
value, including strengths and
weaknesses.
• Neglect to cite relevant sources.
Synonyms for evaluation:
• Judge
• Defend
• Support
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Synthesis
After you have analyzed and evaluated information, it is time to synthesize the
information. Synthesizing means considering all of the information you have read and
analyzed from different sources to form a new idea of your own.
When you synthesize:
Do
Don’t
• Consider information from all
sources.
• Take separate ideas and put
them together to create
something new.
• Consider information from only 1
source.
• Simply restate/summarize.
Synonyms for synthesis:
• Create
• Construct
• Develop
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