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Title of the Paper
Your Name
Institution Name
Course Name
Faculty Member’s Name
Assignment Due Date
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Title of the Paper
Begin the paper here. Double space the entire document. Indent the first line by 1 tab key
(0.5 inches). University of Phoenix accepts 1 space after a period. The first paragraph is the
introduction in every paper and does not contain a subheading. Provide a brief overview of the
general topic and end with a preview of the topics discussed in the paper. Unless the paper is a
self-assessment analysis or a reflection paper, never write using first-person point of view: I, me,
my, mine, etc. Never write academic papers using second-person point of view: you, your, yours,
etc. Using editorial “we” and “our” is not acceptable. For more information on writing style and
grammar, review Ch. 4, “Writing Style and Grammar,” of Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association (7th ed.).
Provide an introductory paragraph to prepare the reader for the discussion, and the
introductory paragraph does not have a level heading (subheading).
In-Text Citations
Formatting of in-text citations throughout the paper varies, with options to ensure
readability and writing style. The following sections provide a brief overview of 2 types of intext citations: narrative and parenthetical. Review Ch. 8, “Works Credited in the Text,” of
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) for more information
regarding the formatting of personal communications, block quotations, secondary sources, and
citing several sources to support a single claim.
Narrative Citations
Narrative citations are citations in which the author or authors are listed as part of the
sentence. For example, in the following phrase, “Alexander and Smith (2019) examined…,”
notice that “and” is used between authors’ names in narrative citations. Also, always use past
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tense verbs when associated with a citation because the source was published prior to the date
used in the paper. If 3 or more authors are being cited, for example a source written by Thomas,
Dickinson, and Harrison, list the first author and then include “et al.” so that the structure is as
follows: “Thomas et al. (2018) stated…”
Parenthetical Citations
A parenthetical citation is a citation in which the writer presents the statement followed
by the citation. For example, in the following phrase, “The writing process requires…
(Alexander & Smith, 2019),” notice an ampersand (&) is used between names in parenthetical
citations. A parenthetical citation for 3 or more authors requires only the first author’s last name
and the addition of et al. so that the structure is as follows: “Improvement strategies for writing
include… (Thomas et al., 2018).”
The examples shown in the narrative and parenthetical citations sections are paraphrases.
Paraphrases are the writer’s interpretation of an author’s statement. None of the exact words used
by the author should appear in a paraphrase. Direct quotations occur when the writer copies the
exact words used by an author. To properly acknowledge the sentence as a direct quotation,
quotation marks must surround the quoted material and a page number or paragraph number (if
pages are not marked) must appear in the citation. Examples of this format are: Alexander and
Smith (2019) stated “Insert quotation” (p. 423) and “The guidelines for writing an academic
paper require…” (Alexander & Smith, 2019, para. 6). The use of direct quotations in scholarly
writing is discouraged, as the ability to paraphrase indicates critical-thinking skills.
Headings
Headings identify paragraph topics. The centered “Headings” shown above is classified
as a Level 1 heading. Following the introduction, the body of the paper begins with a Level 1
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heading. Level 2 headings are formatted flush left, as shown in the “Narrative Citations” section
above and reflect subtopics of the Level 1 heading. Many papers use only Level 1 headings
throughout, yet most papers use a combination of Level 1 and Level 2 headings. More complex
topics may require additional headings. For guidance with headings, refer to Section 2.27,
“Heading Levels” of Ch. 2, “Paper Elements and Format,” of Publication Manual of the
American Psychological Association (7th ed.).
Conclusion
The final Level 1 heading in every paper is for the conclusion section and eliminates the
need to add “in summary” or “in conclusion” as the start of the final paragraph. In the
conclusion, the writer summarizes the key points made in the paper with no new information or
analysis. The conclusion is simply a recap of the most notable information presented in the
paper.
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References
Note: The following provides examples for formatting different pieces of literature. According
to APA guidelines, the reference page is not sub-divided by type of literature, but it has been
provided in this format for ease of reference as you use this template. All references are in
alphabetical order according to authors’ last names. All references listed in the reference list
must have an in-text citation from that source in the body of the paper. For additional reference
formatting examples, see Ch. 10, “Reference Examples,” of the Publication Manual of the
American Psychological Association (7th ed.). For APA tutorials on formatting citations and
references, please access the Doctoral Writing Resources page on MyPhoenix.
When using this “References” template page, replace these references with your own, and
remove the content type headings and this paragraph.
Journal Article Example
Ainsworth, S., & Purss, A. (2009). Same time, next year? Personnel Review, 38(3), 217–235.
https://doi.org/10.1108/00483480910943304
Authored Book Example
Bateman, T. S., & Snell, S. A. (2007). Management: Leading and collaborating in a competitive
world (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Chapter in an Edited Book Example
Eatough, V., & Smith, J. (2008). Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In C. Willig & W.
Stainton-Rogers (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research in psychology (pp.
179–195). Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781848607927.n11
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Appendix A
Locating DOI Numbers or Links for Journal Articles
Digital object identifiers (DOI) is a new system and articles have been, or are in the
process, of being identified with a DOI number. As an author, one of your responsibilities is to
see if an article has been assigned a DOI number, and if not, provide a direct link to the article,
instead of providing “Retrieved from.(secured database).” Using a DOI and avoiding secured
database URLs allows individuals interested in researching 1 of your references to have easier
article access.
Sometimes finding a DOI number or a direct link can be challenging. When you see
“Search ProQuest” in a link, then you know the link is to a secured database that most people
will not have access to. There are 2 areas to search for DOI numbers. They usually lead to
locating a DOI number.
Follow these instructions to locate a DOI number:
1. Access Crossref.
2. In the search bar, select the Search metadata tab.
3. Copy and paste or type in the article title into the search bar and select the Enter key.
4. Review the search results.
a. If your desired article has been assigned a DOI number, the article and DOI will
usually be the first item listed in the results. Consider bookmarking this website to
quickly look up DOI numbers for future articles.
b. If your article doesn’t return a search result, the article has not been assigned a
DOI number yet. Refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological
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Association (7th ed.) for alternate options. You must provide an easily accessible
link for every journal article.
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Appendix B
Paragraphing with the MEAL Plan
Refer to the MEAL Plan method.1
M: Main Idea
Every paragraph should have 1 main idea. If you find that your paragraphs have more
than 1 main idea, separate your paragraphs so that each has only 1 main point. The idea behind a
paragraph is to introduce an idea and expand upon it. If you veer off into a new topic, begin a
new paragraph.
E: Evidence or Examples
Your main idea needs support, either in the form of evidence that buttresses your
argument or examples that explain your idea. If you don’t have any evidence or examples to
support your main idea, your idea may not be strong enough to warrant a complete paragraph. In
this case, reevaluate your idea and see whether you even need to keep it in the paper.
A: Analysis
Analysis is the heart of academic writing. While your readers want to see evidence or
examples of your idea, the critical part of your idea is your interpretation of your evidence or
examples: how you break them apart, how you compare them to other ideas, how you use them
to build a persuasive case, how you demonstrate their strengths or weaknesses, and so on.
Analysis is especially important if your evidence (E) is a quotation from another author. Always
follow a quotation with your analysis of the quotation, demonstrating how that quotation helps
you to make your case. If you let a quotation stand on its own, the quotation’s author will have a
stronger voice in your paragraph (and maybe even your paper) than you will.
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Adapted from “Paragraphing: The MEAL Plan,” by Duke University, 2006
(https://twp.duke.edu/sites/twp.duke.edu/files/file-attachments/meal-plan.original.pdf).
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L: Link
Links help your reader see how your paragraphs fit together. When you end a paragraph,
try to link it to something else in your paper, such as your thesis or argument, the previous
paragraph or main idea, or the following paragraph. Creating links will help your reader
understand the logic and organization of your paper, as well as the logic and organization of your
argument or main points.2
Example Using Each Letter of the MEAL Plan:
M: Supporters and opponents of the death penalty have justified their beliefs on a number of
grounds.
E: Supporters, for instance, argue that the death penalty is the ultimate specific deterrent in that
someone who is put to death will never be able to murder again (Pataki, 1997).
A: The threat of being put to death for an offense may also act as a general deterrent, promoting
a safer community (van den Haag & Conrad, 1983).
Further, some argue that the death penalty provides retribution and answers individual and
society needs to punish offenders (Fein, 1993) and that the death penalty is cheaper than life
imprisonment.
L: Based on these arguments, supporters believe that the justice system has a duty to impose the
death penalty on certain offenders (van den Haag & Conrad, 1983).
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Adapted from “Paragraphing: The MEAL Plan,” by Duke University, 2006
(https://twp.duke.edu/sites/twp.duke.edu/files/file-attachments/meal-plan.original.pdf).
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Sample Paragraph:
Supporters and opponents of the death penalty have justified their beliefs on a number of
grounds. Supporters, for instance, argued the death penalty is the ultimate specific deterrent as
someone who is put to death will never be able to murder again (Pataki, 1997). The threat of
being put to death for an offense may also act as a general deterrent, promoting a safer
community (van den Haag & Conrad, 1983). Further, Fein (1993) argued the death penalty
provides retribution, answers individual and societal needs to punish offenders, and is cheaper
than life imprisonment. Based on these arguments, supporters believe the justice system has a
duty to impose the death penalty on certain offenders (van den Haag & Conrad, 1983).
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Week 1 Program Statement
Part 1: All Students
Write a brief statement indicating your degree program and the research topic you are considering.
Submit your Part 1 assignment.
The enrolled program is Doctor in Health Admin.
Week 1 – Event Synthesis
Refer to the article you read in Wk 1 Discussion 2 – Critically Reflective Practice, “Critically Reflective
Practice,” located in the University Library.
Locate a minimum of 1 additional peer-reviewed article on perspective switching, differing
perspectives, or another relevant topic.
Identify 1 of the following types of events of your choice and 1 example of the event to use for this
assignment:
• An event that affected more than 1 person
• An event that has occurred in society to more than 1 person
• An event that has occurred in your professional field to more than 1 person
Use the Student Paper Template to write a 500- to 700-word synthesized discussion on the chosen
event and describe how the event could be perceived from each of Brookfield’s 4 lenses. Consider
using Level I headings for each of Brookfield’s 4 lenses to organize your discussion.
Format citations and references according to APA 7th edition guidelines.
To adhere to APA style, do not use first-person perspective.

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