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Running Head: Research Questions and Alignment Summary
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
Samantha Powell
University of Phoenix
RES/709
Rodney Luster
June 27, 2022
1
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
Proposed Dissertation Title
1. Program of Study (DBA, DHA, DM, EDD): including specialization, when applicable
2. Background of the Problem and Problem Statement
Remote working has brought a lot of problems to organizations. Some of the
challenges include managing projects, poor collaboration among workers, building and
maintaining tasks, and tracking various tasks and productivity, among other challenges
(Brooks, 2021). Gigi and Sangeetha (2020) pointed out that companies with higher
remote working experience low customer loyalty and profitability levels compared to
other companies. Remote working is considered one of the major factors that lower
workers’ motivation levels. Many sectors implemented the working from home policy,
especially during the Covid-19 pandemic. The primary purpose of this policy was to
prevent its spread. Despite the pandemic being contained, remote working is still
prevalent in many organizations. Indeed, the US has experienced a doubling of remote
workers over the last two decades based on its potential to increase flexibility (Kossek,
Thompson, and Lautsch, 2015). The dramatic shift has brought about questions about its
effect on employee motivation. Motivation among workers in a particular organization
plays an instrumental role in dictating the productivity and well-being of individuals;
therefore, this issue needs to be addressed.
The primary problem is that remote working inhibits social and group
interactions, resulting in lower motivation levels through loneliness and isolation of
employees. Remote working has suddenly become the new way of working in various
sectors; therefore, there is plenty of literature on this issue. The primary purpose of this
study on remote working is to address the impact of remote work on employee
2
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
3
motivation. Motivation is instrumental in having high-producing workers working from
home (Zamani et al., 2021). Past studies have indicated that working from home
increases the motivation of employees (Zamani et al., 2021). However, this might not be
the case. Working from home offers workers the flexibility they need; they decide what
time is best for them to work, increasing their production.
However, when employees work from home, positive work experience is not
visible; therefore, their motivation to work is affected. Remote working predisposes
workers to unrealistic performance expectations and numerous online meetings;
therefore, their motivation is significantly affected (Zamani et al., 2021). Additionally,
the pressure to meet deadlines also results to stress among workers. On the other hand,
it’s vital to note that a work-life conflict emerges due to remote working. Among female
workers, it might not be easy to work due to domestic responsibilities. What we do not
yet know about this phenomenon is how organizations will deal with this issue. This
study explores how remote working inhibits social and group interactions, resulting in
lower motivation levels through employees’ loneliness and isolation.
3. Purpose Statement
Bhumika (2020) studied the relationship between work-life balance and emotional
exhaustion among workers working from home due to the Covid-19 pandemic. This
paper will examine remote working and how it leads to lower motivation levels. The
focus will be on both private and public institutions.
4. Research Question
Q1. How is remote working affecting social and group interactions?
Q2. How is remote work among employees causing a decline in productivity at work?
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
4
Q3. Are there positive impacts due to working from home?
Q4. What measures can be implemented to ensure that working from a home employee is
highly motivated?
Research Method
For this research, I choose to use qualitative research for data collection and
analysis. The purpose of the research will be to understand the impact that remote
working has on the motivation of the employees and their ability to complete diverse
tasks. The thesis statement shows that remote working reduces the level of motivation
that employees have and that impacts their productivity negatively. The use of qualitative
research will help me use both observation and interviews in the data collection process.
These two methods are the most promising in getting me the type of information I want
and helping me understand other employees’ views on working from home.
Additionally, the method is effective in helping with the development of theories
that explain various phenomena. The current research aims to develop a theory
explaining the connection between working from home and levels of employee
motivation. Using words to explain the research is also critical and has motivated me to
use the research method. I will need to explain the different motivation levels and use
worlds as the most effective tool to help achieve that goal. Lastly, qualitative research
will help me complete my research because it allows for subjective analysis of research
which goes a long way in helping promote the development of ideas based on the
research group I will be considering. I support the use of qualitative research as it helps
answer the research questions that I have.
5. Research Design
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
5
Various qualitative research designs can be utilized in particular research. Some
of them include ethnographic, grounded theory, case study, etc. the most suitable
qualitative design method for my research is a case study. Case studies as a research
design have been instrumental in researching social behavior in society. Using a case
study is in line with my research for several reasons. Through a case study, a particular
researcher can explore a particular issue in-depth (Crowe et al., 2011). Through this
approach, my research will have an in-depth analysis of the issue at hand
Using this research design is instrumental when a researcher wants to understand
a particular issue affecting society. The issue in my research is that remote work inhibits
both social and group interaction, leading to lower motivation levels due to loneliness and
isolation. Through the use of this research design, this problem will be addressed
effectively. It’s essential to note that a case study being a qualitative research design is
the most used compared with others (Yazan, 2015). As pointed out by Yin, they explore
or describe events (Crowe et al., 2011). In contrast, experimental design tests hypotheses
when a researcher manipulates dependent or independent variables.
Through the use of this qualitative research design, the ‘how,’ ‘what’ and ‘why’
questions are addressed. Qualitative research designs such as case studies develop or
refine a particular theory. A researcher must be careful when selecting the most
appropriate research design. One of the important questions is whether research will
involve controlling variables or whether the main objective is to understand a particular
problem better. For my research, the latter is required in the end; using a case study is the
most suitable qualitative design to address the research questions.
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
6
A case study enables a researcher to conduct intensive research on a particular
issue, an individual group, or a community. The issue in my research is about remote
working inhibiting social and group interaction, leading to lower motivation. Essentially
the problem is addressing a particular group of employees; hence case study is the most
appropriate research design to employ. As stated earlier, case studies answer the ‘how,’
‘what’ and ‘why’ issues. My research questions fall within this vicinity. My research
questions are: How is remote working affecting social and group interactions? How is
remote work among employees causing a decline in productivity at work? Are there
positive impacts due to working from home? What measures can be implemented to
ensure that working from a home employee is highly motivated? This indicates that a
case study is the most suitable research design to address these questions.
When using a case study, it is essential to employ multiple sources to collect vital
information. Yin (2009) noted that using multiple sources contributed to triangulation.
Breadth and depth are achieved in a particular study when multiple sources of
information are employed (Yazan, 2015). On the other hand, the research questions
should be phrased to address a particular issue; they should align with the problem
statement and the purpose of a particular study. Advantages and limitations are associated
with using case studies as a qualitative research design. Researchers have differed on the
use of cases study. Some argue that they provide more realistic responses than when a
researcher uses a statistical survey. However, it’s vital to note that psychologists, social
scientists, and anthropologists often employ this research design.
Case study research design is essential in research because particular careful can
test a particular theory. The other problem that emerges when this research is employed is
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
7
bias. Essentially, a particular researcher might end up employing their biased view
affecting the research results and making it lack credibility. Researchers should ensure
they put their subjective opinions aside when conducting a particular study. In some
instances, case studies employ few subjects hence bringing the issue of generalization.
Some researchers note that some case studies are very long, and when data is not
managed correctly, particular research might become irrelevant. This study design
addresses social issues and problems. My research addresses motivation as an issue;
therefore, a case study is the most appropriate research design.
6. Various qualitative research designs can be utilized in particular research. Some of them
include ethnographic, grounded theory, case study, etc. the most suitable qualitative
design method for my research is a case study. Case studies as a research design have
been instrumental in researching social behavior in society. Using a case study is in line
with my research for several reasons. Through a case study, a particular researcher can
explore a particular issue in-depth (Crowe et al., 2011). Through this approach, my
research will have an in-depth analysis of the issue at hand
Using this research design is instrumental when a researcher wants to understand
a particular issue affecting society. The issue in my research is that remote work inhibits
both social and group interaction, leading to lower motivation levels due to loneliness and
isolation. Through the use of this research design, this problem will be addressed
effectively. It’s essential to note that a case study being a qualitative research design is
the most used compared with others (Yazan, 2015). As pointed out by Yin, they explore
or describe events (Crowe et al., 2011). In contrast, experimental design tests hypotheses
when a researcher manipulates dependent or independent variables.
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
8
Through the use of this qualitative research design, the ‘how,’ ‘what’ and ‘why’
questions are addressed. Qualitative research designs such as case studies develop or
refine a particular theory. A researcher must be careful when selecting the most
appropriate research design. One of the significant questions is whether research will
involve controlling variables or whether the main objective is to understand a particular
problem better. For my research, the latter is required in the end; using a case study is the
most suitable qualitative design to address the research questions.
A case study enables a researcher to conduct intensive research on a particular
issue, an individual group, or a community. The issue in my research is about remote
working inhibiting social and group interaction, leading to lower motivation. Essentially
the problem is addressing a particular group of employees; hence case study is the most
appropriate research design to employ. As stated earlier, case studies answer the ‘how,’
‘what’ and ‘why’ issues. My research questions fall within this vicinity. My research
questions are: How is remote working affecting social and group interactions? How is
remote work among employees causing a decline in productivity at work? Are there
positive impacts due to working from home? What measures can be implemented to
ensure that working from a home employee is highly motivated? This indicates that a
case study is the most suitable research design to address these questions.
When using a case study, it is essential to employ multiple sources to collect vital
information. Yin (2009) noted that using multiple sources contributed to triangulation.
Breadth and depth are achieved in a particular study when multiple sources of
information are employed (Yazan, 2015). On the other hand, the research questions
should be phrased to address a particular issue; they should align with the problem
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
9
statement and the purpose of a particular study. Advantages and limitations are associated
with using case studies as a qualitative research design. Researchers have differed on the
use of cases study. Some argue that they provide more realistic responses than when a
researcher uses a statistical survey. However, it’s vital to note that psychologists, social
scientists, and anthropologists often employ this research design.
Case study research design is essential in research because careful research can be
able to test a particular theory. The other problem that emerges when this research is
employed is bias. Essentially, a particular researcher might end up employing their biased
view affecting the research results, ad making it lack credibility. Researchers should
ensure they put their subjective opinions aside when conducting a particular study. In
some instances, case studies employ few subjects hence bringing the issue of
generalization. Some researchers note that some case studies are very long, and when
data is not managed correctly, particular research might become irrelevant. This study
design addresses social issues and problems. My research addresses motivation as an
issue; therefore, a case study is the most appropriate research design.
Framework
A self-efficacy theory is essential in this study for determining how self-efficacy
promotes the high performance of remote working. Employees with high remote-work
self-efficacy are more likely to know and believe that they have more capabilities to
perform all tasks. It is also possible to get good outcomes from such an employee with
minimum burnout. This theory also demonstrates the employee’s ability to be more
judgmental when carrying out tasks for remote work. In this case, the remote workers can
know the efforts to put in their work and when to seek help from their superior, and in
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
10
this case, it is hard for them to experience stress unless the work manager does not
provide a more flexible schedule.
7. Significance of the Study
The purpose of this research for scholars is to determine the progress made by
other scholars on this topic and the gaps that must be filled in the research. Scholars can
use previous studies to determine the future of remote work and how it could transform
the medical industry (Lund, Madgavkar, Manyika, & Smit, 2020). Leaders in my
profession could also learn from this research how they could positively implement
remote work where necessary. Leaders can learn how to make a schedule appropriate for
the remote workers to deliver the best results effectively. Leaders will also learn the
proper support they will offer their workers to help them perform their best. Practitioners
also learn ways they can improve their performance even through remote working and
how they can manage work stress and burnout. The study is also significant because it
provides measures that can be useful to ensure that all work done from home is efficient
as defined by the goals expected. The performance of a company from the remote
workers will identify how efficient the remote working is in improving performance.
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
11
References
Bhumika, B. (2020). Challenges for work-life balance during COVID-19 induced nationwide
lockdown: Exploring gender difference in emotional exhaustion in the Indian setting.
Gender in Management: An International Journal, 35(7/8), 705-718.
https://doi.org/10.1108/gm-06-2020-0163
Brooks, A. (2021). 10 Common Remote Work Challenges (+ Solutions).
https://www.ventureharbour.com/remote-work-challenges-solutions/
Crowe, S., Cresswell, K., Robertson, A., Huby, G., Avery, A., & Sheikh, A. (2011). The case
study approach. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11(1).
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-11-100
Gigi, G. S., & Sangeetha, M. (2020). Impact of remote working on employees in IT industry.
Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government| Vol, 26(2), 538.
https://doi.org/10.47750/cibg.2020.26.02.072
Kossek, E. E., Thompson, R. J., & Lautsch, B. A. (2015). Balanced workplace flexibility:
Avoiding the traps. California Management Review, 57(4), 5-25.
https://doi.org/10.1525/cmr.2015.57.4.5
Lund, S., Madgavkar, A., Manyika, J., & Smit, S. (2020). What’s next for remote work: An
analysis of 2,000 tasks, 800 jobs, and nine countries. Retrieved from McKinsey &
Company: https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/future-of-work/whats-next-forremote-work-an-analysis-of-2000-tasks-800-jobs-and-nine-countries
Yazan, B. (2015). Three approaches to case study methods in education: Yin, Merriam, and
stake. The Qualitative Report. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2015.2102
Yin, r. K. (2009). Research design and methods (5th ed.). SAGE.
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
12
Zamani, N. F., Ghani, M. H., Radzi, S. F., Rahmat, N. H., Kadar, N. S., & Azram, A. A. (2021).
A study of work from home motivation among employees. International Journal of Asian
Social Science, 11(8), 388-398. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.1.2021.118.388.398
13
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
Appendix A
Change Matrix: Week 3 Feedback
A reflective practitioner looks back at their work and the work process and considers
how they can improve. The revision matrix provides the opportunity to experience being a
reflective practitioner during the doctoral journey. Critical thinking, a necessary skill for
scholarly writing, incorporates the need to be a reflective practitioner as learning from personal
experiences and others help answer the question: Can anything be improved? Can anything be
done better?
Review the feedback from your instructor and record the instructor’s feedback in the first
column. In the second column, state the feedback provided in your own words. In the third
column, explain what you have done to address the feedback and include APA Manual page
numbers as appropriate.
Use Microsoft® Word formatting features to add rows to the template
The information in the table is examples. Please delete before providing your responses.
Student (e)Signature: __________________________________ Date: ___________________
Faculty Feedback
(Include comment numbers,
as appropriate)
Avoid unnecessary
words/phrases.
Remember, the goal is to
provide information as
concisely and precisely as
possible. Please review the
APA Manual.
Faculty Feedback in My
Own Words
I will practice it first by
reading good dissertations
and paying attention to the
use of transitions,
expressions, and overall
writing style. Also, I will
remove all phrases and
redundant words in my paper
My Detailed and Specific
Action Plan to Integrate
Faculty Feedback in My
Revised Essay
(Include APA manual page
numbers, as appropriate)
I removed all phrases and
redundant words that are not
essential or too
conversational in tone. I
replaced them with simple
declarative sentences (APA,
2020, pp. 113-114).
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
Comment MH1: Too
conversational in tone and
doesn’t add to the discussion.
Be concise and specific. You
may find it helpful to read the
first 5-10 pages of a
dissertation to understand
“how” concise and specific
scholarly writing is.
14
that are not essential or are
too conversational.
I will expose myself to some
good texts and learn by
example and imitation.
Appendix B
Week 4: Alignment of Problem and Purpose Statements
Explain how your purpose statement aligns with the problem statement.
The problem statement in this research addresses one issue. The purpose statement in this
research flows from the problem statement. The purpose statement has indicated the primary
purpose of the research. The method has also been shown whereby it is qualitative research.
Additionally, literature from scholarly sources will be employed. The problem is that remote
working inhibits motivation among workers, the purpose of this research is to determine how this
is made possible.
Appendix C
Change Matrix: Week 4 Feedback
Review the feedback from your instructor and record the instructor’s feedback in the first
column, including comment numbers as appropriate. In the second column, a state in your own
words the feedback provided. In the third column, explain what you have done to address the
feedback and include APA Manual page numbers as appropriate.
Use Microsoft® Word formatting features to add rows to the template.
The information in the table is examples. Please delete before providing your responses.
Student (e)Signature: __________________________________ Date: ___________________
15
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
Faculty Feedback
Avoid unnecessary
words/phrases.
Remember, the goal is just to
provide information as
concisely and precisely as
possible. Please review the
APA Manual.
Comment MH1: Too
conversational in tone and
doesn’t add to the discussion.
Be concise and specific. You
may find reading the first 510 pages of a dissertation
helpful to understand “how”
concise and specific scholarly
writing is.
Faculty Feedback in My
Own Words
I will practice it first by
reading good dissertations
and paying attention to the
use of transitions,
expressions, and overall
writing styles. Also, I will
remove all phrases and
redundant words in my paper
that are not essential or are
too conversational.
I will expose myself to some
good texts and learn by
example and imitation.
My Detailed and Specific
Action Plan to Integrate
Faculty Feedback in My
Revised Essay
I removed all phrases and
redundant words that are not
essential or too
conversational in tone. I
replaced them with simple
declarative sentences (APA,
2020, pp. 113-114).
Appendix D
Week 5: Research Questions Alignment Summary
The research Questions align with the study’s purpose. This study explores how remote
working inhibits social and group interactions resulting in lower motivation levels through
loneliness and isolation of employees. The research question will be crucial to realizing the
study’s purpose. Writing a research question is a very vital step in any research. It can be
compared to developing a problem statement. Formulating the right questions in particular
research is vital because it enables a researcher to explore existing uncertainty in a particular
area. A great research question forms the basis of thorough research. Research question(s) will
identify a particular problem being studied and guide the methodology used (Ratan et al., 2019).
Additionally, it leads to the creation of a hypothesis. The research questions for this study
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
16
support a focused, arguable thesis. Additionally, The RQ’s help is the construction of a logical
argument.
Various characteristics define a vital research question; this study’s research questions
have attained these characteristics. Some of the characteristics include: detailing the problem
statement, refining the issue under study, adding focus to a particular study’s problem statement,
guiding data collection, and finally, setting the context of detailed research (Ratan et al., 2019).
Research question(s) dictate a particular study design. If the purpose of a research question is
investigating incidences of a particular disease, the survey will be utilized. The research
questions for this study will dictate the study design employed. The research questions for this
study are great because they provide deep insight into the problem under discussion. The
research questions will set out what needs to be answered. Additionally, they enable a researcher
to foresee potential challenges during a particular study, saving time. The research questions
align with the study’s purpose as they help address the research problem.
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
17
References
Ratan, S., Anand, T., & Ratan, J. (2019). Formulation of research question – Stepwise approach.
Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons, 24(1), 15.
https://doi.org/10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_76_18
18
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
Appendix E
Change Matrix: Week 5 Feedback
Review the feedback from your instructor and record the instructor’s feedback in the first
column, including comment numbers as appropriate. In the second column, a state in your own
words the feedback provided. In the third column, explain what you have done to address the
feedback and include APA Manual page numbers as appropriate.
Use Microsoft® Word formatting features to add rows to the template.
The information in the table is examples. Please delete before providing your responses.
Student (e)Signature: __________________________________ Date: ___________________
Faculty Feedback
I see all the implementations,
and I must say exceptional
work! I like the questions as
well. I want you to look at my
examples now under
announcements -purpose
statement and try to write one
complete sentence that starts
the purpose statement section.
Comment MH1: Too
conversational in tone and
doesn’t add to the discussion.
Be concise and specific. You
may find it helpful to read the
first 5-10 pages of a
dissertation to understand
“how” concise and specific
scholarly writing is.
Faculty Feedback in My
Own Words
I will practice it first by
reading good dissertations
and paying attention to the
use of transitions,
expressions, and overall
writing style. Also, I will
remove all phrases and
redundant words in my paper
that are not essential or are
too conversational.
I will expose myself to some
good texts and learn by
example and imitation.
My Detailed and Specific
Action Plan to Integrate
Faculty Feedback in My
Revised Essay
I removed all phrases and
redundant words that are not
essential or too
conversational in tone. I
replaced them with simple
declarative sentences (APA,
2020, pp. 113-114).
19
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
Appendix F
Change Matrix: Week 6 Feedback
Review the feedback from your instructor and record the instructor’s feedback in the first
column, including comment numbers as appropriate. In the second column, state the feedback
provided in your own words. In the third column, explain what you have done to address the
feedback and include APA Manual page numbers as appropriate.
Use Microsoft® Word formatting features to add rows to the template as needed.
The information in the table is examples. Please delete before providing your responses.
Student (e)Signature: __________________________________ Date: ___________________
Faculty Feedback
(Include comment numbers,
as appropriate)
To submit both correctly.
Excellent work here. Your
revisions are also solid; great
work, and so proud of your
progress! You’ve met all the
necessary components and
expectations of the
assignment.
Comment MH1: Too
conversational in tone and
doesn’t add to the discussion.
Be concise and specific. You
may find reading the first 510 pages of a dissertation
helpful to understand “how”
concise and specific scholarly
writing is.
Faculty Feedback in My
Own Words
I will practice it first by
reading good dissertations
and paying attention to the
use of transitions,
expressions, and overall
writing style. Also, I will
remove all phrases and
redundant words in my paper
that are not essential or are
too conversational.
I will expose myself to some
good texts and learn by
example and imitation.
My Detailed and Specific
Action Plan to Integrate
Faculty Feedback in My
Revised Essay
(Include APA manual page
numbers, as appropriate)
I removed all phrases and
redundant words that are not
essential or too
conversational in tone. I
replaced them with simple
declarative sentences (APA,
2020, pp. 113-114).
20
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
Appendix G
Change Matrix: Week 7 Feedback
Review the feedback from your instructor and record the instructor’s feedback in the first
column, including comment numbers as appropriate. In the second column, state the feedback
provided in your own words. In the third column, explain what you have done to address the
feedback and include APA Manual page numbers as appropriate.
Use Microsoft® Word formatting features to add rows to the template as needed.
The information in the table is examples. Please delete before providing your responses.
Student (e)Signature: __________________________________ Date: ___________________
Faculty Feedback
Avoid unnecessary
words/phrases.
Remember, the goal is to
provide information as
concisely and precisely as
possible. Please review the
APA Manual.
Comment MH1: Too
conversational in tone and
doesn’t add to the discussion.
Be concise and specific. You
may find reading the first 510 pages of the dissertation to
help to understand “how”
concise and specific scholarly
writing is.
Your choice of the qualitative
method makes sense for this
particular study. Some
reasonable justifications you
mentioned as well for this.
Everything looks good thus
Faculty Feedback in My
Own Words
I will practice it first by
reading good dissertations
and paying attention to the
use of transitions,
expressions, and overall
writing style. Also, I will
remove all phrases and
redundant words in my paper
that are not essential or are
too conversational.
I will expose myself to some
good texts and learn by
example and imitation.
I will read through the entire
dissertation to ensure that all
grammar and spelling
mistakes are corrected. I will
also ensure that even as
everything makes sense, there
My Detailed and Specific
Action Plan to Integrate
Faculty Feedback in My
Revised Essay
I removed all phrases and
redundant words that are not
essential or too
conversational in tone. I
replaced them with simple
declarative sentences (APA,
2020, pp. 113-114).
I corrected all grammar and
spelling mistakes that were
present in my dissertation and
read through my entire work
to ensure everything had a
smooth and reasonable flow.
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
far, and I am so happy that
we made it to the end by
getting things sharpened for
you. I’m so excited to see
how you progress through
different classes and your
dissertation writing.
21
should be a clear flow
throughout my dissertation
Appendix H
Paragraphing with the MEAL Plan
M – Main Idea
Every paragraph should have one main idea. If you find that your paragraphs have more than one
main idea, separate your paragraphs so that each has only one central point. The idea behind a
paragraph is to introduce an idea and expand upon it. If you veer off into a new topic, begin a
new paragraph.
E – Evidence or Examples
Your main idea needs support, either in evidence that buttresses your argument or examples that
explain your idea. If you don’t have any evidence or examples to support your main idea, your
idea may not be strong enough to warrant a complete paragraph. In this case, re-evaluate your
idea and see whether you even need to keep it on the paper.
A – Analysis
The analysis is the heart of academic writing. While your readers want to see evidence or
examples of your idea, the real “meat” of your idea is your interpretation of your evidence or
examples: how you break them apart, compare them to other ideas, and use them to build a
persuasive case, demonstrate their strengths or weaknesses, and so on. The analysis is critical if
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
22
your evidence (E) is a quote from another author. Always follow a quote with your analysis of
the quote, demonstrating how that quote helps you to make your case. If you let a quote stand on
its own, then the author of that quote will have a stronger voice in your paragraph (and maybe
even your paper) than you will.
L – Link
Links help your reader to see how your paragraphs fit together. When you end a paragraph, try to
link it to something else in your paper, such as your thesis or argument, the previous paragraph
or main idea, or the following paragraph. Creating links will help your reader understand the
logic and organization of your paper, as well as the logic and organization of your argument or
main points.
Reference
Duke University (2006). Paragraphing: The MEAL plan. Retrieved from
https://twp.duke.edu/sites/twp.duke.edu/files/file-attachments/meal-plan.original.pdf
Research Questions and Alignment Summary
23
Example Using Each Letter of the MEAL Plan:
M – Supporters and opponents of the death penalty have justified their beliefs
on several grounds.
E – Supporters, for instance, argue that the death penalty is the ultimate deterrent in that
someone who is put to death will never be able to murder again (Pataki, 1997).
A – The threat of being put to death for an offense may also act as a general deterrent, promoting
a safer community (van den Haag & Conrad, 1983).
Further, some argue that the death penalty provides retribution and answers individual and
societal needs to punish offenders (Fein, 1993) and that the death penalty is cheaper than life
imprisonment.
L – Based on these arguments, supporters believe that the justice system must impose the death
penalty on certain offenders (van den Haag & Conrad, 1983).
Sample Paragraph:
Supporters and opponents of the death penalty have justified their beliefs
on several grounds. Supporters, for instance, argued the death penalty is the ultimate specific
deterrent as someone who is put to death will never be able to murder again (Pataki, 1997). The
threat of being put to death for an offense may also act as a general deterrent, promoting a safer
community (van den Haag & Conrad, 1983). Further, Fein (1993) argued the death penalty
provides retribution, answers individual and societal needs to punish offenders, and the death
penalty is cheaper than life imprisonment. Based on these arguments, supporters believe the
justice system must impose the death penalty on certain offenders (van den Haag & Conrad,
1983).
1
DOC/714S Prospectus
Your Name
Institution Name
Course Name
Faculty Member’s Name
Assignment Due Date
2
Prospectus
1. Program of Study
For example, this could be DBA, DHA, DM, or EDD, including specialization, when
applicable.
2. Problem Statement
Write 1 or 2 paragraphs here providing a brief description and background of the
identified problem and provide your 1-sentence problem statement. The problem should
convey an existing issue and the statement should be supported by citing literature or
personal communication from an organizational leader.
3. Purpose Statement
Provide a statement about the study’s objectives here. Review the “Purpose” section of
the “Research Design Selection and Alignment” section associated with the proposed
design to ensure alignment.
4. Research Methodology (Proposed Method and Design)
After reviewing the “Overview of Methods and Designs” section and the “Research
Design Selection and Alignment” section, select a method and a design that are most
appropriate for the proposed study. State the proposed method and design here and
briefly describe why these are appropriate to achieve the proposed objectives.
5. Research Population and Sample and Other Data Sources
Describe the population by discussing the criteria for selecting the study participants.
Additionally, describe the sample size and describe the rationale for the sample size. If
the study will include archival data, briefly explain the proposed data sources.
6. Significance of the Study
3
Provide a statement here of the importance of conducting the study. Review the
“Significance of the Study” section of the “Research Design Selection” and “Alignment”
section associated with the proposed design to ensure alignment.
7. Research Questions/Hypotheses
State the proposed research question and hypotheses, when appropriate. Review the
“Research Questions/Hypotheses” section of the “Research Design Selection” and
“Alignment” section associated with the proposed design to ensure alignment.
8. Topic Literature
Provide a list of 5 to 10 references in APA format that are relevant to the proposed study.
Include 1 or 2 sentences with each reference to describe the relevance of the literature to
the proposed study.
9. Topic Theories
Review research literature associated with the selected research topic(s) and state up to 3
relevant theories associated with the topics. This step will become the basis for
the conceptual or theoretical framework, which will become more fully developed in
chapters 1 and 2 of the proposal.
10. Research Data Collection Strategy
Briefly describe the proposed process for collecting these data from the research sample
and from any archival sources described in item 5.
4
References
Note: The following provides examples for formatting different pieces of literature. According
to APA guidelines, the reference page is not sub-divided by type of literature, but it has been
provided in this format for ease of reference as you use this template. All references are in
alphabetical order according to authors’ last names. All references listed in the reference list
must have an in-text citation from that source in the body of the paper. For additional reference
formatting examples, see Ch. 10, “Reference Examples,” of the Publication Manual of the
American Psychological Association (7th ed.). For APA tutorials on formatting citations and
references, please access the Doctoral Writing Resources page on MyPhoenix. See information
in “Appendix A” for how to locate DOI numbers for journal articles.
When using this “References” template page, replace these references with your own, and
remove the content type headings and this paragraph.
Journal Article Example
Ainsworth, S., & Purss, A. (2009). Same time, next year? Personnel Review, 38(3), 217–235.
https://doi.org/10.1108/00483480910943304
Authored Book Example
Bateman, T. S., & Snell, S. A. (2007). Management: Leading and collaborating in a competitive
world (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Chapter in an Edited Book Example
5
Eatough, V., & Smith, J. (2008). Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In C. Willig & W.
Stainton-Rogers (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research in psychology (pp.
179–195). Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781848607927.n11
Magazine Article Example
Kuttner, R. (2003, September 8). The great American pension-fund robbery. Business Week, 24–
26. http://www.businessweek.com
Dissertation Example
Lisbon, E. I. (2010). A study of leadership preferences by generation. (Publication No. 3455137)
[Doctoral dissertation, Our Lady of the Lake University]. ProQuest Dissertations and
Theses Global.
6
Appendix A
Locating DOI Numbers or Links for Journal Articles
Digital object identifiers (DOI) are a new system and articles have been, or are in the
process, of being identified with a DOI number. As an author, one of your responsibilities is to
see if an article has been assigned a DOI number, and if not, provide a direct link to the article,
instead of providing “Retrieved from (secured database).” Using a DOI and avoiding secured
database URLs allows individuals interested in researching 1 of your references to have easier
article access.
Sometimes finding a DOI number or a direct link can be challenging. When you see
“Search ProQuest” in a link, then you know the link is to a secured database that most people
will not have access to. There are 2 areas to search for DOI numbers. They usually lead to
locating a DOI number.
Follow these instructions to locate a DOI number:
1. Access Crossref.
2. In the search bar, select the Search metadata tab.
3. Copy and paste or type in the article title into the search bar and select the Enter key.
4. Review the search results.
a. If your desired article has been assigned a DOI number, the article and DOI will
usually be the first item listed in the results. Consider bookmarking this website to
quickly look up DOI numbers for future articles.
b. If your article doesn’t return a search result, the article has not been assigned a
DOI number yet. Refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological
7
Association (7th ed.) for alternate options. You must provide an easily accessible
link for every journal article.
8
Appendix B
Paragraphing with the MEAL Plan
Refer to the MEAL Plan method.1
M: Main Idea
Every paragraph should have 1 main idea. If you find that your paragraphs have more
than 1 main idea, separate your paragraphs so that each has only 1 main point. The idea behind a
paragraph is to introduce an idea and expand upon it. If you veer off into a new topic, begin a
new paragraph.
E: Evidence or Examples
Your main idea needs support, either in the form of evidence that buttresses your
argument or examples that explain your idea. If you don’t have any evidence or examples to
support your main idea, your idea may not be strong enough to warrant a complete paragraph. In
this case, reevaluate your idea and see whether you even need to keep it in the paper.
A: Analysis
Analysis is the heart of academic writing. While your readers want to see evidence or
examples of your idea, the critical part of your idea is your interpretation of your evidence or
examples: how you break them apart, how you compare them to other ideas, how you use them
to build a persuasive case, how you demonstrate their strengths or weaknesses, and so on.
Analysis is especially important if your evidence (E) is a quotation from another author. Always
1
Adapted from “Paragraphing: The MEAL Plan,” by Duke University, 2006
(https://twp.duke.edu/sites/twp.duke.edu/files/file-attachments/meal-plan.original.pdf).
9
follow a quotation with your analysis of the quotation, demonstrating how that quotation helps
you to make your case. If you let a quotation stand on its own, the quotation’s author will have a
stronger voice in your paragraph (and maybe even your paper) than you will.
L: Link
Links help your reader see how your paragraphs fit together. When you end a paragraph,
try to link it to something else in your paper, such as your thesis or argument, the previous
paragraph or main idea, or the following paragraph. Creating links will help your reader
understand the logic and organization of your paper, as well as the logic and organization of your
argument or main points.2
Example Using Each Letter of the MEAL Plan:
M: Supporters and opponents of the death penalty have justified their beliefs on a number of
grounds.
E: Supporters, for instance, argue that the death penalty is the ultimate specific deterrent in that
someone who is put to death will never be able to murder again (Pataki, 1997).
A: The threat of being put to death for an offense may also act as a general deterrent, promoting
a safer community (van den Haag & Conrad, 1983).
Further, some argue that the death penalty provides retribution and answers individual, and
society needs to punish offenders (Fein, 1993) and that the death penalty is cheaper than life
imprisonment.
2
Adapted from “Paragraphing: The MEAL Plan,” by Duke University, 2006
(https://twp.duke.edu/sites/twp.duke.edu/files/file-attachments/meal-plan.original.pdf).
10
L: Based on these arguments, supporters believe that the justice system has a duty to impose the
death penalty on certain offenders (van den Haag & Conrad, 1983).
Sample Paragraph:
Supporters and opponents of the death penalty have justified their beliefs on a number of
grounds. Supporters, for instance, argued the death penalty is the ultimate specific deterrent as
someone who is put to death will never be able to murder again (Pataki, 1997). The threat of
being put to death for an offense may also act as a general deterrent, promoting a safer
community (van den Haag & Conrad, 1983). Further, Fein (1993) argued the death penalty
provides retribution, answers individual and societal needs to punish offenders, and is cheaper
than life imprisonment. Based on these arguments, supporters believe the justice system has a
duty to impose the death penalty on certain offenders (van den Haag & Conrad, 1983).
DOC/714S v2
Prospectus Guide
This guide describes the development of the prospectus in detail.
The Dissertation Phases
•
Phase 1: Prospectus (focus in DOC/714S: Symposium I)
•
Phase 2: Dissertation Chapter 1: Introduction
•
Phase 3: Dissertation Chapter 2: Literature Review
•
Phase 4: Dissertation Chapter 3: Proposal
•
Phase 5: Dissertation Chapters 4 and 5: Dissertation
Prospectus Objectives
•
The initial dissertation milestone, the prospectus, is a formal outline of the research project that
outlines information to convey that the research can be completed and will provide meaningful
results that contribute to the academic and practitioner communities.
•
Additionally, the prospectus will be used to convey the research intent to your Dissertation Chair
and University Research Methodologist (URM) starting in DOC/715: Doctoral Seminar 1.
Elements of the Prospectus
The following figure depicts the elements of the prospectus that must be aligned.
Copyright 2021 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Prospectus Guide
DOC/714S v2
Page 2 of 3
Prospectus Research Outline Components
1. Program of Study: For example, this could be DBA, DHA, DM, or EDD, including specialization,
when applicable.
2. Problem Statement: The problem should convey an existing issue and the statement should
be supported by citing literature or personal communication from an organizational leader.
3. Purpose Statement: Provide a statement of the study’s objectives. Review the “Purpose” section
of the “Research Design Selection and Alignment” section associated with the proposed design
to ensure alignment.
4. Research Methodology (Proposed Method and Design): After reviewing the “Overview
of Methods and Designs” section and the “Research Design Selection and Alignment” section,
select a method and a design that are most appropriate for the proposed study. State the
proposed method and design and briefly describe why these are appropriate to achieve the
proposed objectives.
5. Research Population and Sample and Other Data Sources: Describe the population by
discussing the criteria for selecting the study participants. Additionally, describe the sample
size and describe the rationale for the sample size. If the study will include archival data, briefly
explain the proposed data sources.
6. Significance of the Study: Provide a statement of the importance of conducting the study. Review
the “Significance of the Study” section of the “Research Design Selection” and “Alignment”
section associated with the proposed design to ensure alignment.
7. Research Questions/Hypotheses: State the proposed research questions and hypotheses, when
appropriate. Review the “Research Questions/Hypotheses” section of the “Research Design
Selection” and “Alignment” section associated with the proposed design to ensure alignment.
8. Topic Literature: Provide a list of 5 to 10 references in APA format that are relevant to
the proposed study. Include 1 or 2 sentences with each reference to describe the relevance of the
literature to the proposed study.
9. Topic Theories: Review research literature associated with the selected research topic(s)
and state up to 3 relevant theories associated with the topics. This step will become the basis for
the conceptual or theoretical framework, which will become more fully developed in chapters 1
and 2 of the proposal.
10. Research Data Collection Strategy: Briefly describe the proposed process for collecting these
data from the research sample and from any archival sources described in item 5.
Achieving Alignment
Each of the major elements of the prospectus must be aligned in order to plan a systematic and feasible
study.
Alignment: Problem Statement
•
The problem statement is viewed as the starting point for developing the prospectus.
•
The research problem should be presented as an existing social issue for which there is not a
known solution or an effective solution.
•
The problem must be supported with citations.
•
The stated problem then drives the purpose; the research method and design must align with the
purpose.
Alignment: Purpose Statement
•
The alignment between the purpose and design should be an iterative process.
Copyright 2021 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Prospectus Guide
DOC/714S v2
Page 3 of 3
•
Once an appropriate method and design are selected, the purpose should be modified to reflect
that specific design.
•
The design sections of the College of Doctoral Studies Dissertation Guide on the CDS Central
website provide examples of appropriate purpose statements for various methods and designs.
Alignment: Research Questions
•
The research questions should be developed based on the study’s purpose.
•
The key to alignment between the purpose and the research questions is to ensure that the
research questions in aggregate are neither narrower nor wider than the purpose.
•
The research questions must fully address the stated purpose and should not be broader than the
stated purpose.
•
Qualitative studies should either include a central research question and at least 2 sub-questions,
or at least 2 research questions. In order to maintain a narrow research focus, it is recommended
to set a limit of no more than 4 research questions.
•
Quantitative studies require only 1 research question, they but must include at least 2 sets of
hypotheses.
•
Mixed-method studies must include at least 1 qualitative research question and at least 1
quantitative research question supported by hypotheses.
Alignment: Study Title
•
The study title should reflect the purpose and the selected design.
•
Note that the title may need to change later as the dissertation elements are further developed.
Therefore, during this phase the title can be considered a working title.
Copyright 2021 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.

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