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While it is unlikely you will adopt Stephen King’s ritual for draft versions, recognize that “writing drafts” are an essential part of the process. This week’s writing assignment allows you to present an improved and refined problem statement and an aligned purpose statement.

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To Prepare

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For this revision of your purpose and problem statements, apply what you have learned from the feedback you have received, as well as the information you have learned from the required readings, web resources, and media.

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Submit your draft.

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As in previous drafts, your paper should include the following:

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Title—refining the problem statement and purpose statement

A basic introduction or background statement

One or two specific and precise sentences that clearly state the problem

A few paragraphs that synthesize the evidence from research literature that this is a current, meaningful problem in the educational discipline

Substantiated statements using evidence from research

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Note:

Every statement must be substantiated by evidence from your research.

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One or two sentences that explain the purpose of your study

Note: Connect the problem being addressed to the focus of your study.

Demonstration of a logical flow from the preliminary problem to this (narrower) tentative purpose in your study

Explanation of what aspect of the problem your study address (In other words, what will it accomplish?)

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Find and review three scholarly sources to support your purpose.

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Your newest draft of your paper should be in APA style and follow the guidelines provided in the document, “APA Course Paper Template with Advice (7th ed.)” found in the Learning Resources.

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Learning Resources

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Required Readings

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Single, P. B. (2010).

Demystifying dissertation writing: A streamlined process from choice of topic to final text

. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.

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Chapter 4, “Citeable Notes”

Section 4.1, “Recording Citeable Notes and Building Your Literature Review” (pp. 81–85)

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Thomas, G. (2017).

How to do your research project: A guide for students

(3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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Chapter 1, “Your Introduction: Starting Points”

“Purposes of Research” (pp. 6–7)

Chapter 3, “The Literature Review” (pp. 57-67)

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Walden University Writing Center. (2015d).

Walden templates: General templates.

Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general

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“APA Course Paper Template With Advice (7th ed.)”

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Required Media

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Laureate Education (Producer). (2016h).

Moving from problem statement to purpose statement

[Media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

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Optional Resources

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Education Research for the Capstone (33 min video). Retrieved from https://youtu.be/GzON68UMojA

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Walden University Writing Center. (2015b).

Modules: Introduction to references and citations

. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/c.php?g=410047&p=2800022#s-lg-box-8571780

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“Journal Article Reference Entries”

“Webpage Reference Entries”

Week 6 Assignment: Adding the Purpose Statement
**Replace this line with your full name**
**Replace this line with your EDD/EDS specialization**
Walden University
**Emerging Title of Your Study**
Background
** In this section, write one good paragraph that provides a brief history of your research
problem. Briefly describe how we arrived where we are today on your topic. Use the MEAL plan
for organizing the paragraph to pursue doctoral-level standards for scholarly writing. The
mnemonic MEAL has four letters, so all scholarly paragraphs will have a minimum of four
sentences. Your first sentence must be a topic sentence that states the main idea of the paragraph.
The next evidence sentence(s) report research that substantiate(s) the main idea. Because they
report evidence, all sentences in the evidence paragraph element require APA citations with
references. In the third paragraph element, provide at least one analysis sentence. Analysis
sentences connect the evidence back to the thesis, often providing contradictory evidence. The
best analysis sentences are also cited with references. Finally, end your paragraph with a lead out
sentence. Lead out sentences are transition elements that help prepare the reader for what is
coming next. Lead out sentences do not require citations. Review the Week 2 Exemplar paper to
see a background paragraph that was scored high on the assignment rubric.**
Research Problem
**The research problem paragraph contains four sections that vary slightly from the
MEAL plan paragraph organization. The problem statement paragraph is organized based on the
structure taught during residency for crafting problem statements. The first element is a sentence
that succinctly states the problem. It normally begins with words like, “The problem for this
study is … .” The problem statement sentence is followed by a rationale sentence that identifies
an unjust inequality, financial impact, lost efficiency, etc., that points to the urgency of the
problem. The first and second sentences combine to create the first element of the problem
statement paragraph, the problem. The second element is comprised of one or more evidence
sentences that provide recent (last 1-3 years) evidence that the problem is real and current. The
kind of evidence sentences you write may depend largely on your justification sentence. For
example, if the justification is a gap in practice, then evidence may include public data or even
personal communications with authority figures who are familiar with the problem. On the other
hand, if the justification is a gap in the literature, then evidence will include recent peer-reviewed
(i.e., journal) articles that provide evidence of the gap. The more cited evidence sentences you
provide, the stronger case you build for studying the problem. Three or four evidence sentences
is excellent. The third element of the problem statement paragraph is comprised of factors
sentences. Factors sentences are cited sentences that offer possible causes for the problem.
Factors should be from recent (last 1-3 years) peer-reviewed (i.e., journal) articles. Finally, the
problem statement paragraph ends with a context sentence that answers the question: What is the
worst-case scenario if this problem goes unstudied? Review the Week 2 Exemplar paper to see a
problem statement paragraph that was scored high on the assignment rubric.**
Evidence of the Problem
Evidence of the Problem at the Local Level
**In this subsection, provide additional information about or expound on the evidence
provided above from the local area of interest. If you are planning to do a project study for your
capstone research, the local evidence problem is helpful to substantiate a gap in practice. If you
are planning a dissertation, you are not required to show evidence of the problem at the local
level, but may wish to do so. If you do not include this section, then omit both the L2 headings
and just write directly beneath the L1 heading and change it to Evidence of the Problem from the
Literature.**
Evidence of the Problem from the Literature
**In this section, summarize recent (last 1-3 years) peer-reviewed (i.e., journal) articles
that provide evidence of the problem. You may use citations from the previous sections, but do
not repeat the same information. Use this section to delve more deeply into the research evidence
about your research problem.**
Benefits of Addressing the Problem
**Use this paragraph to summarize who specifically will benefit from solving the
research problem. It is always useful to end this paragraph with a sentence that about how the
study would contribute to positive social change.**
Purpose Statement
**Write a one-paragraph purpose statement that connects the intention of your study with
the problem that you succinctly identified in the problem statement paragraph. For quantitative
(QN) studies, state what needs to be studied by describing two or more factors (variables) and a
conjectured relationship among them relative to the identified gap in practice or problem. For
qualitative (QL) studies, describe the need for increased understanding about the phenomenon to
be studied, based on the identified gap or problem. For a mixed-methods study, include both the
quantitative and qualitative aspects, and clarify how the two approaches will be used together to
inform the study. **
Review of Research Articles That Support the Purpose
**Find, review, and present (critique) at least three recent peer-reviewed journal articles
that provide additional rationale for your study. Be sure to use the MEAL plan for writing to
construct your scholarly paragraphs. Refer to the Week 6 Exemplar to see an example of a
course paper that was scored high on the rubric for this additional, new content. Model the level
of writing presented in the exemplar. Focus on using citations and writing with concision.
Evidence sentences require citations!**
References
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Factors Affecting Parent’s Involvement for Children with Special Needs
Janice Calice
Walden University
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Factors Affecting Parent’s Involvement for Children with Special Needs
Background study
With the rising popularity of inclusive education, particularly for special needs children
and the limited population of special education teachers available to teach the general classroom,
it is becoming increasingly essential for teachers of the general education to work with students
with disabilities comfortably, and by extension, with their parents. Teaching does not only
involve teacher-student interactions. There is a need for multidisciplinary collaboration among
the teachers, specialists, administrators, and parents. According to Koch (2020), the parents’
collaboration can be exhibited in different ways, where some may be committed to daily
communication while others never communicate. A child with a disability needs additional
attention interactions. Therefore, there is a need to increase collaboration with the teachers and
parents to navigate teaching and learning. For some countries parent-teacher collaboration,
participation and interaction are obvious. However, for others, it is a developing and novel
concept. Token collaboration is the least amount, but it is not enough. The roles of teachers and
parents towards children with special needs should be a shared responsibility without leniency or
complete abduction. Koch (2020), highlights that teachers should consider the parent’s views of
educating a special needs child because of their preoccupation with their teaching roles,
including learning about philosophy, pedagogy, child development, and more encompassed in
the preparation programs. “However, parents of students with disabilities have fears, concerns,
and expectations that are very often different and, sometimes, more pressing than those of
typically developing students” (Koch, 2020, p. 2). Teachers should also consider parental
experiences and include them in learning for the special education system’s complexities.
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Research Problem
The problem is that despite the emphasized effectiveness of parental involvement in
special education, consistent parental support has not been achieved. There has been a minimal
child’s support from the parents as most prefer school settings rather than parental engagement.
Most parents view the special needs children as burden and therefore, render them to the teacher
for replaced care. Research emphasizes the need to develop families’ partnerships by engaging in
effective teacher-parent communication, asking for parent’s input in decisions about their
children. The call for co-parenting between the two-side has gone way long without answer. The
lack of Parents’ Day has limited parents from engaging in school activities, and this has
disempowered parents to address their needs (Dameh, 2015). Additionally, there have been less
efforts to enhance the parents’ awareness level through education and that has further decreased
reassurance for their child’s education. The level of social awareness on disability matters has
been thrown under the carpet and calls for revival. Odongo (2018), suggested the need for
advocacy to support children with disabilities and their families. The genesis of this research
aims at resolving the disparity between parents and children with special needs.
Evidence of the problem at local level
Locally, various barriers deter parental involvement, and these include the feeling of
intimidation by the society, and the shift to ask difficult questions. Furthermore, meetings are
held at an inappropriate time for them, and they may lack transportation which can cause unequal
partnership in their children’s school (Koch, 2020; Shourbagi, 2017). This disparity in
involvement is increased in rural areas. According to Odongo (2018), “many parents of children
with disabilities are unable to access vital services for their children due to stigma, poverty and a
lack of useful knowledge of the existence of resources and services” (p. 22). For example, the
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Kenya’s education system, especially for children with special needs, faces a serious problem
with parental engagement. Parents feel relief when they take these children to school because; it
is then the teachers’ turn to take care of them. They are overwhelmed with the high number of
children (with and without disabilities) in classrooms, and the children with special needs do not
receive the same kind of attention they deserve.
Evidence of the problem from the literature
There is evidence that parents do not engage fully in the planning process of their child’s
education. On the effect’s engagement of parents on special education program. Dameh (2015)
highlights that in a survey that parents can be present in their child or child’s IEP’s meetings but
are not in participation with their planning objectives, evaluation and intervention conditions and
it is critical for assuming collective responsibility. In a survey, 71% of the parents were generally
active, but only 14% provided specific opinions (p. 32). Parents were concerned that little to
none of their concerns were considered in the Plan for Independent Family Service- which
caused their voices to be undervalued. Therefore, teachers may have poor communication skills
and were resistant to implement new ideas. Primarily, a small population of families involved in
school matters are satisfied with school-based services. Sometimes, the lack of involvement may
be blamed on a teachers’ view about parents’ involvement. For instance, when educators believe
that the traditional family roles are applied- for example South Korean fathers’ involvement in
their child’s school are highly regarded that the country considered “parental school-participation
leave” (Dameh, 2015; Koch, 2020, p. 4).
According to Koch (2020), teachers could learn from parents and vice-versa to ensure a
good home-school balance for special needs children. Some teachers have been inconsiderate of
the parents’ affairs regarding their children. Teachers should consider parents’ feelings because
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this will give them a different viewpoint. Shourbagi (2017), agrees by insisting that, “teachers
also need to know about parents, their practices with children at home, their ways of following
up with their child’s learning, and conduct, etc.” (p. 136). Also, parents love their children
despite their disability and would not want to dwell on the challenges they are facing.
Furthermore, parents viewed their children as regular children, and a teachers’ actions and words
should be powerful and effective tools.
Benefits of addressing the problem
Active parental support is linked to better educational outcomes in educating children
with or without disabilities in inclusive education programs. According to research, family
support is associated with higher examination scores, positive school attitudes, academic
perseverance, lower rates of suspension or dropout cases, and improved academic performance
(Shourbagi, 2017). Inclusion forms the right path for the education of any disabled child.
Additionally, it shows that this highly talked about inclusive environment is complex to put
together. Parents do matter in the inclusive framework because, as vital partners, they contribute
much to the community, schools, and the educators’ work. As Shourbagi (2017), puts it, “they
matter as parent leaders, parent mentors, models of commitments to excellence in education, and
they matter every day as they influence and support their children’s academic achievement”
(p.134).
Parents’ involvement can also be based on factors affecting student achievement. Bariroh
(2018), explains the factors affecting student achievement including the external and internal
factors. In this context, external factors such as home environment, family understanding,
economic condition, cultural background, family interrelationship, and teacher-student
connection are what parents need to comprehend to promote a child’s learning achievement. This
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understanding is vital for parents to know the factors influencing learning involvement for them
to get involved in finding what derails and promotes education. This will provide the support
necessary for the best learning achievement and motivation.
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References
Bariroh, S. (2018). The influence of parents’ involvement on children with special needs’
motivation and learning achievement. International Education Studies, 11(4), p. 96-114.
Dameh, B. A. (2015). The impact of parent involvement practices in special education programs.
Culminating Projects in Education Administration and Leadership, p. 2-114.
https://repository.stcloudstate.edu/edad_etds/11/.
Koch, K. A. (2020). The voice of the parent cannot be undervalued: Pre-service teachers’
observations after listening to after listening to the experiences of parents of students with
disabilities. Societies, p. 1-22.
Odongo, G. (2018). Barriers to parental/family participation in the education of a child with
disabilities in Kenya. International Journal of Special Education, 33 (1), p. 21-33.
Shourbagi, S. E. (2017). Parental involvement in inclusive classrooms for students with learning
disabilities at Omani schools as perceived by teachers. Department of Psychology,
Journal Psychol Cognition, 2 (2), p. 133-137. doi: 10.35841/psychologycognition.2.2.133-137.

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