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This is the week when you begin thinking about the framework that supports your study, and you begin to identify research questions. Although this is still early in your capstone process, the experience will help you appreciate how these elements are developed.

To prepare:

Further refine your paper to include a sample theoretical or conceptual framework and a sample research question. Include the following:



theorist and theory.

Explain the primary postulates of the theory and how they relate to your problem and purpose.


two to three

major research studies related to the framework and your study.

Clearly explain how the theory or conceptual framework aligns with your problem, purpose, and research questions. What ties them together?

Provide a research question.

To complete:

Make revisions to your capstone paper based on feedback.

Include the sample framework and research question.

Complete and submit this Assignment in complete APA style, following the “APA Course Paper Template With Advice (7th ed.)” document found in the Learning Resources.

Notes on Readings

Butin provides several tips that are valuable in developing what many think is the most difficult task of the capstone: posing the best question (in particular, read page 122).

In the selection by Thomas, pay particular attention to the various methods of narrowing your question. His questions, on page 18, no doubt reflect his experience in reading and rejecting hundreds of flawed research questions. Also note his guidance on the linear versus recursive plans on page 19. Prepare yourself for the recursive plan!

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Butin, D. W. (2010).

The education dissertation: A guide for practitioner scholars

. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Chapter 3, “Focusing Your Research” (pp. 50–55 and pp. 58-61)

Chapter 6, “Putting It All Together” (p. 122)

Thomas, G. (2017).

How to do your research project: A guide for students

(3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Chapter 1, “Your Introduction: Starting Points” (pp. 7–26)

Walden University Writing Center. (2015b).

Modules: Introduction to references and citations

. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/c.php?g=410047&p=2800022#s-lg-box-8571780

Walden University Writing Center. (2015d).

Walden templates: General templates.

Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2016g).

Dr. Research: Using feedback from others

[Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.


The approximate length of this media piece is 1 minute.

Accessible player


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Factors Affecting Parent’s Involvement for Children with Special Needs
Janice Calice
Walden University
Please read for revising:
Because of a misalignment throughout your document, I am uncertain as to the exact problem
you are looking at. I am assuming that the problem you are looking at it a lack of parent-teacher
communication regarding the child with special needs. A major problem that interferes with clarity
of your intention is issues with mechanics throughout. Need to develop a scholarly voice. You
“tell” the reader many things and fail to support statements with relevant and current research.
This is a meaningful project and since I am a former special education teacher, I see great value in
its exploration.
Factors Affecting Parent’s Involvement for Children with Special Needs
With the rising popularity of inclusive education, particularly for special needs children
and the limited population of special education teachers available to teach the general classroom,
it is becoming increasingly essential to educate teachers to work with students with disabilities
comfortably. Parents should be educated on parent involvement so they can be knowledgeable
about the schooling process of their children. The roots of poor co-parenting between parents and
teachers lack proactive support from both parties (Sukys et al., 2015). Some schools lack policies
that promote parent involvement in school curriculums (Dameh, 2016). Others have no available
teacher and parent training programs to promote the cohesion between them. Every school calls
for joint planning, policy development, and goal setting meetings between them and parents to
improve their welfare while at school (Logsdon, 2021). However, some have irregular
communication patterns that contribute a delayed approach to issues that can be affective to
children. Also, regular evaluation of programs that enhance co-parenting and better learning is
essential for better performance for children.
Logsdon (2021) states that the lack of monitoring eventually grows to poor parenting for
both parents and teachers. These factors serve as foundational causes of poor co-parenting of
children with special needs. Some entities imagine that teaching to be a two way of association
between teachers and students. Teaching does not only involve teacher-student interactions.
There is a need for multidisciplinary collaboration among the teachers, specialists,
administrators, and parents. According to Koch (2020), parental collaboration can be exhibited in
different ways, where some may be committed to daily communication while others never
communicate. A child with a disability needs additional attention. Therefore, there is a need to
increase collaboration with the teachers and parents to navigate teaching and learning. For some
countries parent-teacher collaboration, participation and interaction are obvious. However, for
others, it is a developing and novel concept (Dameh, 2015). Token collaboration is the least
amount, but it is not enough. The roles of teachers and parents towards children with special
needs should be a shared responsibility and not a one-way task or responsibility. Koch (2020),
highlights that teachers should consider the parent’s views of educating a special needs child
because they may be preoccupied with their teaching roles, including learning about philosophy,
pedagogy, child development, and more encompassed in the preparation programs. “However,
parents of students with disabilities have fears, concerns, and expectations that are very often
different and, sometimes, more pressing than those of typically developing students” (Koch,
2020, p. 2). Teachers should also consider parental experiences and include them in learning
about the complexities of the special education system.
Research Problem
The problem is that despite the emphasized effectiveness and importance of involvement
in special education, there is minimal parental support for children with special needs. The
minimal child’s support from parents results from the point that most parents prefer school
settings rather than direct engagement with them. Some parents view their children with special
needs as burden and therefore, render them to the teacher for replaced care. Research emphasizes
the need to develop families’ partnerships by engaging in effective teacher-parent
communication, asking for parent’s input in decisions about their children. The urge for coparenting between parents and teachers towards children with special needs has not be fully
satisfied. The acts of parents missing Parent’s Day has limited parents from engaging in school
activities, and this has disempowered parents to address their needs (Dameh, 2015).
Additionally, there have been less efforts to enhance the parents’ awareness level through
education and that has further decreased reassurance for their child’s education. The creation of
social awareness on disability matters has been neglected and needs instant revival. Odongo
(2018), suggested the need for advocacy to support children with disabilities and their families.
The genesis of this research aims at resolving the negligence of duty among parents whose
children have special needs.
Evidence of the problem in Sumter
In Sumter, various barriers to education deter parental involvement, including feelings of
intimidation by populations of parents, school meetings are being held at times inappropriate for
parental involvement, and parents are lacking transportation to attend school events. Any
combination of these barriers can create an unequal partnership between parents and their
children’s school, and this disparity involvement is more pronounced in rural areas (Koch, 2020;
Shourbagi, 2017).
According to Odongo (2018), “many parents of children with disabilities are unable to
access vital services for their children due to stigma, poverty and a lack of useful knowledge of
the existence of resources and services” (p. 22). For example, according to a report compiled by
the South Carolina Education Department in 2018, indicated that parents and families are
inactively involved in their child’s or children’s education; especially those children with special
needs in despite of their background these children performed poorly in school (Spearman,
2018). This can be the opposite for students whose parents actively are involved in their child’s
education. Some parents usually have a low feeling of ownership, therefore end up displaying a
minimal sense of support (Spearman, 2018). Some teachers can get overwhelmed with the high
number of children (with and without disabilities) in classrooms, and these children with special
needs do not receive the same kind of attention they deserve (Shourbagi, 2017).
Evidence of the problem from the literature
Dameh (2017) states that parents do not engage fully in the planning process of their
child’s education. On the effect of engaging parents on special education programs, Dameh
(2015) highlights that parents can be present in their child or child’s IEP’s meetings but are not
participating in their planning objectives, evaluation, and intervention conditions. However, it is
critical to assume collective responsibility. In a survey conducted in Minnesota, 71% of the
parents were generally active, but only 14% provided specific opinions (p. 32). Parents were
concerned that little to none of their concerns were considered in the Plan for Independent
Family Service- which caused their voices to be undervalued. Primarily, a small population of
families involved in school matters are satisfied with school-based services. Sometimes, the lack
of involvement may be blamed on a teachers’ view about parents’ involvement. For instance,
when educators believe that the traditional family roles are applied- for example South Korean
fathers’ involvement in their child’s school are highly regarded that the country considered
“parental school-participation leave” (Dameh, 2015; Koch, 2020, p. 4).
According to Koch (2020), teachers could learn from parents and vice-versa to ensure a
good home-school balance for special needs children. Some teachers have been inconsiderate of
the parents’ affairs regarding their children. Teachers should consider parents’ feelings because
this will give them a different viewpoint. Shourbagi (2017), agrees by insisting that, “teachers
also need to know about parents, their practices with children at home, their ways of following
up with their child’s learning, and conduct, etc.” (p. 136). Also, parents love their children
despite their disability and would not want to dwell on the challenges they are facing.
Furthermore, parents viewed their children as regular children, and a teachers’ actions and words
should be powerful and effective tools.
Benefits of addressing the problem
Active parental support is linked to better educational outcomes in educating children
with or without disabilities in inclusive education programs. According to research, family
support is associated with higher examination scores, positive school attitudes, academic
perseverance, lower rates of suspension or dropout cases, and improved academic performance
(Shourbagi, 2017). Inclusion forms the right path for education of any disabled child (Bariroh,
2018) and additionally, it shows that this highly talked about inclusive environment is complex
to put together. Parents do matter in the inclusive framework because, as vital partners, they
contribute much to the community, schools, and to the educators’ work. As Shourbagi (2017),
puts it, “they matter as parent leaders, parent mentors, models of commitments to excellence in
education, and they matter every day as they influence to support their children’s academic
achievement” (p.134).
Parents’ involvement can also be based on factors affecting student achievement. Bariroh
(2018), explains the factors affecting student achievement including the external and internal
factors. In this context, external factors such as home environment, family understanding,
economic condition, cultural background, family interrelationship, and teacher-student
connection are what parents need to comprehend to promote a child’s learning achievement. This
understanding is vital for parents to know the factors influencing learning involvement for them
to get involved in finding what derails and promotes education. This will provide the support
necessary for the best learning achievement and motivation.
Problem statement
Most of the schools with or without special needs children consider parents’ involvement
in the parenting process as a critical undertaking (Lynch, 2016). However, multiple issues
contribute to the poor shared parenting between parents and teachers of children with special
needs. Unfortunately, many meetings are never designed to be parent friendly (Bariroh, 2018).
Some of the barriers include the insufficiency of time during the Parents’ Day for the individuals
to interact and is has nothing to contribute towards the planning of meetings. Bariroh (2018)
highlights that some parents do not comprehend the planning processes and services offered by a
school system, therefore they never know how to get involved meaningfully. In some instances,
parents and teachers’ differences arise due to language and cultural differences, which may cause
miscommunication and misunderstanding. These situations make the parents feel less welcomed
at the school’s meetings. These, among other many factors, contribute to the prolonged distance
between parents and teachers. The lack of appropriate collaboration between two parties fosters
poor parenting towards children in need of special care. Also, the surrounding becomes
unsuitable for a child or children’s success in their academics (Lynch, 2016).
Purpose of study
Parents that are entirely involved in their children’s school support at any level have
chances to understand more about their child or children’s how they study and how to enhance
their success in academics (Sukys et al., 2015). Further, parents can share their knowledge and
information with teachers to better understand strategies suitable for specific special needs child
or an individual child (Sukys et al., 2015). Also, the information exchange offers a more holistic
image for the children and offers knowledge and services that meet the entire family’s needs.
This study aims to create a holistic understanding and encourage shared responsibility between
parents and teachers towards children with special needs. It also can promote parents with a
comprehension complete option arrays available and with accessibility in the school, and
community. This understanding will promote a more supportive environment for children and
confident parenting among parents (Sukys et al., 2015). Further, the study focuses on enhancing
a school’s outlook and teachers from a parent’s perspective. More parents need to view the
schooling environment positively for the complete success of their child or children. Moreover,
parents will be able and willing to communicate, discuss, compromise, and mediate any conflict
in school. Besides, a teachers’ morale can be enhanced as a close association between parents and
teachers as this can promote higher ratings (Dameh, 2015).
Bariroh, S. (2018). The influence of parents’ involvement on children with special needs’
motivation and learning achievement. International Education Studies, 11(4), 96-114.
Dameh, B. A. (2015). The impact of parent involvement practices in special education programs.
Culminating Projects in Education Administration and Leadership, 2-114.
Koch, K. A. (2020). The voice of the parent cannot be undervalued: Pre-service teachers’
observations after listening to after listening to the experiences of parents of students with
disabilities. Societies, 1-22.
Logsdon, A. (2021). The important role of parents in special education.
Lynch, M. (2016). The power of parents: A primer on parental involvement. The Edvocate.
Odongo, G. (2018). Barriers to parental/family participation in the education of a child with
disabilities in Kenya. International Journal of Special Education, 33 (1), 21-33.
Shourbagi, S. E. (2017). Parental involvement in inclusive classrooms for students with learning
disabilities at Omani schools as perceived by teachers. Department of Psychology,
Journal Psychol Cognition, 2 (2),133-137. http://doi.org/10.35841/psychologycognition.2.2.133-137.
Spearman, M.M. (2018). Parent involvement report. State of South Carolina Department of
Sukys, S., Dumciene, A., & Lapeniene, D. (2015). Parental involvement in inclusive education
of children with special educational needs. Social Behavior and Personality: An
International Journal 43(2), 327-338. http://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2015.43.2.327.

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