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Select a

topic discussed in this course:

Short story, poetry, or drama.

Develop a concept map containing, at least, 7 circles or boxes.

Lines connecting ideas must be labeled.

MODULE 5
Module 5
Pre-Reading Strategies
1
Introduction
Welcome to Module 5!
English language learners (ELLs) have great difficulty jumping into new texts without any
background support. Students should know at least something about the topic before
reading. Some topics may be unfamiliar to students, such as recreational activities at the
beach if students have never been to the beach before. Pictures, drawings, or short skits can
help develop relevant background information.
After studying the learning materials, you will be able to utilize different pre-reading
strategies that will help you before, during, and after reading different pieces of writing.
2 Basic Concepts
Pre-reading is a set of reading strategies utilized before students engage in a text. These
activities are designed to build on pre-existing knowledge, increase background knowledge,
engage and interest students in material and prepare students by giving them a preview of a
text they will be reading.
Why are these strategies important?
ï‚·
They encourage students to access background knowledge that is pertinent.
ï‚·
They encourage a preview of text features to get a sense of the structure and
content of a reading selection.
ï‚·
They provide context for possibly unknown topics or themes.
ï‚·
They build students’ confidence to delve into complex text.
ï‚·
They engage and interest students.
3 Brainstorming
What Brainstorming Is
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Pre-Reading Strategies
In a typical brainstorming session, students are shown the cover or given the title of a text
and asked to think of all the things the book may be about. Nothing is off-limits. Whatever
comes to the student’s mind should be recorded on a whiteboard or chart paper. Discussion
of the ideas should follow to allow students to create further understanding and clarify
anything they don’t understand. The possibilities that result from a brainstorming session
will often help the reader make connections with his/her own life experiences, thus
engaging her and giving her a stronger purpose for reading.
Why Use Brainstorming
Brainstorming initiates problem solving behavior and ignites critical thinking skills in
students. After a brainstorming session, students are no longer reading for the sake of
reading, they are reading to discover if the ideas they brainstormed have any merit. By
reading in this way, they pay closer attention to the events and information in the text and
are able to break the text down to notice subtleties of plot, action and resolution.
Individual Brainstorming
Although brainstorming was originally developed for use in groups, the same principles can
be applied to individual readers. Some studies have indicated that individuals who
brainstorm often come up with more creative ideas than those who brainstorm in groups.
Whatever the setting, the ideas a reader voices during an individual brainstorming session
should be recorded and discussed in order to clarify any misinterpretations.
Group Brainstorming
Group brainstorming allows the creativity of many minds to shine through, giving each
individual of the group some ownership while reading. The advantages of group
brainstorming in the pre-reading stage are also to activate prior knowledge, engage the
students in the task at hand and contribute to critical thinking skills. Discussion, again, is an
important part of brainstorming and should not be neglected. By discussing the students’
ideas, engagement and sense of purpose is heightened, creating a reader who will think
critically and comprehend more completely than one who has not activated prior
knowledge. Anthony, Alicia. (2017). Advantages of Brainstorming in the Pre-Reading Stage.
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Pre-Reading Strategies
Synonym.
Retrieved
from
https://classroom.synonym.com/advantages-brainstorming-
prereading-stage-14922.html
The
following
video
presents
the
effectiveness
of
this
strategy:

There are some techniques that can be followed to engage students into brainstorming:
 Do the Opposite
This is a very counterintuitive brainstorming technique that can often yield many new
creative ideas. There are two ways to use it. First, we can reverse the entire problem and
brainstorm for that. Or second, we can reverse one aspect and do the opposite of what
everyone else is doing.
 To use the first technique:
Step 1: Write the problem or challenge that you wish to solve
Step 2: Reverse the problem.
Step 3: Brainstorm ideas for how to cause the problem.
Step 4: Use these causes as a point of discussion for new ideas
Example:
ï‚·
Problem: How can we make it easier to wake up in the morning?
ï‚· Reverse Problem: How can we make it more difficult to wake up in the morning?
 To use the second technique:
Step 1: State the detail for which we will brainstorm
Step 2: List what others are doing
Step 3: Brainstorm ways to do the complete opposite
4
Module 5
Pre-Reading Strategies
Example:
ï‚·
Detail: The way to turn off an alarm clock.
ï‚· Others: Alarm clocks usually require the user to push down to turn off the alarm
sound.
ï‚· Brainstorm: Create an alarm clock that requires user to pull a handle. This forces the
user to use both hands, thus increasing the chances of sustaining their wakefulness
state.
Using both of these methods can help your students come up with ideas that are creative,
innovative, and unexpected. It also forces them to challenge their set assumptions about
the way the world works, which is key in developing innovations down the line.
 Mind mapping
The concept of mind mapping is not to think too much, but rather to output as many ideas
as possible within a short amount of time.
To use this technique:
Step 1: Describe the problem in 1-3 words and circle it.
5
Module 5
Pre-Reading Strategies
Step 2: Think of words that are related to the original word or idea. Write all of these words
and circle them. Draw a line that connects them to the center.
Step 3: Once all ideas are exhausted for the first layer, go around and do the same for the
related words. Do this until the paper is filled or until a good idea is found.
Use the mind map to inspire and spark new ideas that otherwise would be difficult to come
up with. This is a great tool for both ideation and thinking through confusing concepts.
6
Module 5
Pre-Reading Strategies
Conclusion
Brainstorming is a skill that is useful for all aspects of life, whether in the personal,
professional, or school life. The great thing is that it is not a matter of ingrained creativity,
but rather of using specific techniques that can be repeated to reproduce ideas that are
creative and thoughtful.
4 Concept Mapping
Introduction to Concept Mapping
Used as a learning and teaching technique, concept mapping visually illustrates the
relationships between concepts and ideas. Often represented in circles or boxes, concepts
are linked by words and phrases that explain the connection between the ideas, helping
students organize and structure their thoughts to further understand information and
discover new relationships. Most concept maps represent a hierarchical structure, with the
overall, broad concept first with connected sub-topics, more specific concepts, following.
Image retrieved from: http://www.inspiration.com/visual-learning/concept-mapping
Definition of a Concept Map
A concept map is a type of graphic organizer used to help students organize and represent
knowledge of a subject. Concept maps begin with a main idea (or concept) and then branch
out to show how that main idea can be broken down into specific topics.
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Pre-Reading Strategies
Benefits of Concept Mapping
Concept mapping serves several purposes for learners:
ï‚·
Helping students brainstorm and generate new ideas
ï‚·
Encouraging students to discover new concepts and the propositions that connect them
ï‚·
Allowing students to more clearly communicate ideas, thoughts and information
ï‚·
Helping students integrate new concepts with older concepts
ï‚·
Enabling students to gain enhanced knowledge of any topic and evaluate the information
How to Build a Concept Map
Concept maps are typically hierarchical, with the subordinate concepts stemming from the
main concept or idea. This type of graphic organizer however, always allows change and
new concepts to be added. The Rubber Sheet Analogy states that concept positions on a
map can continuously change, while always maintaining the same relationship with the
other ideas on the map.
ï‚·
Start with a main idea, topic, or issue to focus on.
A helpful way to determine the context of your concept map is to choose a focus
question—something that needs to be solved or a conclusion that needs to be
reached. Once a topic or question is decided on, that will help with the hierarchical
structure of the concept map.
ï‚·
Then determine the key concepts.
Find the key concepts that connect and relate to your main idea and rank them; most
general, inclusive concepts come first, then link to smaller, more specific concepts.
ï‚·
Finish by connecting concepts–creating linking phrases and words.
Once the basic links between the concepts are created, add cross-links, which
connect concepts in different areas of the map, to further illustrate the relationships
and strengthen student’s understanding and knowledge on the topic.
See attached document as a sample of a concept map.
5 Visual Aids
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Pre-Reading Strategies
According to Barry (1986), visual aids help students to understand what they read, as well as
to acquire vocabulary. She uses the acronym CLUE ( C: Clarify facts; L: Locate main idea); U:
Uncover signal words, and E: Examine the logic.
There are different ways to use visual aids as pre-reading strategies. Let’s consider some of
them:
ï‚·
Frayer model: It is a graphic organizer in which the student uses prior knowledge to
define, provide synonyms or antonyms, draw a picture, and create a sentence with new
vocabulary.
The
video
below
shows
how
to
use
this
technique:

Image
retrieved
from:
https://www.google.com/search?q=frayer+model+pdf&safe=strict&rlz=1C1GCEA_enUS809
US809&tbm=isch&source=iu&ictx=1&fir=E9Rq3_k0t_Q2yM%253A%252Ce_LjkQJLg9gY8M%
252C_&usg=AI4_kQ_kLjx6BapfSL0strKYf1H699YDA&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwibzbaotc_eAhUHWK0KHemZBioQ9Q
EwAnoECAUQBA#imgrc=E9Rq3_k0t_Q2yM:
ï‚·
Sequencing
Sequence Organizers. Sequence organizers are a type of graphic organizer that help
students to see the sequential relationship between events in a text. They can show a
9
Module 5
Pre-Reading Strategies
process or portray an event sequence in a simplified manner. They can help students
identify cause-and-effect relationships.
Image retrieved from:
https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Browse/Search:sequencing%20graphic%20organize
r
ï‚·
Cause and Effect:
According to Literacy Ideas, “Cause is the driving force in the text. It is the reason that things
happen. In essence, cause is the thing that makes other things happen. Effect refers to what
results. It is the what happened next in the text that results from a preceding cause. To put
it concisely, following www.literacyideas.com concepts, cause is the why something
happened and effect is the what happened. Cause and effect are important elements of a
text that help the reader to follow a writer’s line of thought, regardless of whether that text
is fiction or nonfiction.
Example:
10
Module 5
Pre-Reading Strategies
Image retrieved from:
https://www.google.com/search?q=cause+and+effect+graphic+organizers+for+reading+comprehensi
on&safe=active&tbm=isch&source=iu&ictx=1&fir=zI7EgdWSWimGtM%253A%252CAbcrDxy7ZUJSQ
M%252C_&usg=AI4_kSaHo6UjC8q9fe7uuwbVAqMzKvaUA&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjqgY2D0tLeAhUOeKwKHdiXBt4Q9QEw
AHoECAAQBA#imgrc=zI7EgdWSWimGtM:
6 References
Pre-Reading Strategies and the Common Core State Standards. Retrieved on November 11th
from:
http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Common-Core/Pre-Reading-
PowerPoint.pdf
Pre
Reading
Strategies.
Retrieved
on
November
11th
from:
https://dustinoldenburg.weebly.com/pre-reading-strategies.html
Le, D. (2016). Three effective Techniques for Brainstorming Ideas. Edudemic: connecting
education with technology. Retrieved from http://www.edudemic.com/three-techniquesbrainstorming/
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Module 5
Pre-Reading Strategies
Concept
Map.
Retrieved
on
November
11th
from:
https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/resources/Teaching/CourseDesign/AssessmentGrading/OngoingAssessments/conceptmap.pdf
Barry, M. (1986). An exploratory study of how college level students construct schemata
from pictures. Longboat, FL.
In Ellis, E.S., & Lenz, B.K. (1987). A component analysis of effective learning strategies for LD
students. Learning Disabilities Focus. Pgs. 2, 94-107.
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