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Assessment Task 1 preparation.
Task: Essay: 2000 words
Topic: The impact of systems on
educational leadership.
Purpose: This is an opportunity to
demonstrate that you are able to
critically engage with writing about
leading organisations, and that you
are able to incorporate an ethical, or
social justice perspective to
understanding educational systems
and those who lead them.
Assessment Criteria(next page)
LO1, LO2, LO3
Background preparation:
What is a critical argument or critical
engagement?
What questions might you have already about
organistions or systems?
What questions do you have about leading
organisations, or leading systems?
From whose perspective?
According to whom?
What multiple perspectives are there to
consider?
Are these perspectives supported by research
or opinion?
assessment criteria
LO1. Demonstrate and apply an understanding of organisational theory
and organisational leadership and apply one to the method of a
research design project
LO2. Demonstrate an awareness of the history and development of the
field and apply these methodologies to different historical and
contemporary situations.
LO3. Demonstrate and apply an understanding of aspects of
organisational behaviour and the impact of organisations from an
ethical perspective.
Writing an academic essay
EDPA5001 Assignment Task 1: Essay
Academic Essay Introduction
• Where you set the direction for your paper
• You respond to the question by interpreting, defining and explaining
the question (have any academics defined terms?)
• You tell the reader how you are going to answer the question and
how you are going to structure the paper
• You outline the scope of your context. Are you choosing a particular
country, region, or a global scope. Why did you choose that scope?
Why did you choose not to do a certain scope?
• Is there anything you are going to focus on or not focus on and why?
Body: where your elaborate on your answer,
with evidence from research and practice
• Choose how many points you have to make – number of paragraphs. Each
paragraph has 1 idea – one POINT
• Start each paragraph with your POINT – your ARGUMENT. (Don’t start with
this academic said, or a description about your context)
• Then ELABORATE in the second sentence. Why?
• Link with LITERATURE in the third sentence. Literature is a peer reviewed
academic paper or book. This is your evidence. This is what makes your
paper an academic paper. A good essay will use more than one piece of
evidence. An academic essay will have literature in EVERY paragraph.
Body: where your elaborate on your answer,
with evidence from research and practice
• After linking with literature, ANALYSE. Explain what the literature is
saying in relation to YOUR EXPERIENCE or that of others, in either
FIRST or THIRD person
• LINK the last sentence in your paragraph back to the POINT you made
in the first place in this pargraph
• Start a new paragraph and move onto the next point….
Paragraph Example
The POINT of this paragraphs is to outline the features of a quality
academic essay. I hope that this helps you to understand how to
improve your work and ELABORATE upon your ideas, but neither is it
necessarily prescriptive. There is an entire field of academic
LITERATURE you can resource about improving your academic writing
and Thomson and Kamler (2014) and Brabazon (2020) are useful
references, who do not always agree, but give a range of perspectives
on writing, including a vlog. From my EXPERIENCE as an academic
writer, I always check my topic sentences, that is the main point, and I
often write in first person, but not always. Sometimes when I write a
LINK at the end of a paragraph, I suddenly realise it was my POINT and I
move it up to the top, and create another LINK.
Conclusion
• Draws together your main points of your academic essay
• May pose questions for future research or action
Questions
• How many academic papers? Wrong question. How well are you
USING them to answer your question. As a guide, 2000 words is at
least 6 papers, but could be more
• What makes it an academic essay? The use of peer-reviewed journals
and books written by academics. We spend months and years
researching and writing them. Respect the work. (Random leadership
websites can be non-academic and have no evidence for the basis of
their argument. The quality of YOUR work relies on the quality of your
academic EVIDENCE.
• Do I have to follow this? No ☺ but avoid descriptive paragraphs, or
paragraphs that lack evidence
Remember
• You are learning to be an academic writer. You will improve every
time.
• Your thinking improves as your writing improves, particularly your
critical thinking. We are practicing this in research to practice tasks.
Use these skills in your essay.
Leading Organisations for
Social Justice
EDPA5001SESSION 2
Presented by
Dr. Christine Grice
Lecturer Educational Leadership
Sydney School of Education and Social Work
The University of Sydney
Page 1
Module 1 Understanding
Organisations
Session 2: Using theoretical lenses
for understanding organisations
The University of Sydney
Page 2
Acknowledgement of
country
Before we begin, I would like to acknowledge
and pay respect to the traditional owners of
the land on which we meet; the Gadigal
people of the Eora Nation. It is upon their
ancestral lands that the University of Sydney
is built. As we share our own knowledge,
teaching, learning and research practices
within this university may we also pay respect
to the knowledge embedded forever within
the Aboriginal Custodianship of Country.
The University of Sydney
Page 3
Developing a framework
for understanding
organisations
Definitions
Metaphors
Systems
Human interactions….
The University of Sydney
Page 4
Which theorists resonate the most closely
with your views of organisations?
Give an example that connects your
organization with a theory.
The University of Sydney
Page 5
Adam Smith – Political-Economist
– 1776 Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of
Nations
– Pin manufacturing – division of labour in workhouses
The University of Sydney
Page 6
Pre-history of organizational theory – pre 1960
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–
–
–
Mainly objectivist ontology
Inductive reasoning. (interpretivist epistemology)
Deductive reasoning (positivist epistemology)
Developing principals, rules and typologies and rational and
efficient ways of structuring and managing
– Sociological theory: Durkheum, Weber, Marx – changing the
roles of organisations within society from industrialization
– Classic management theory – Taylor, Parker-Follett, Fayol,
Gulick, Barnard,
The University of Sydney
Page 7
Karl Marx – Philosopher-Economist and Revolutionary
– 1818-1883
– Antagonism between labour and capital results in managerial
control to necessitate profit
– Labour is a commodity bought and sold and exploited
– Critical organization theory focuses on the structural,
economic and social system determinants of the distribution
of power in organisations and is concerned with the
emancipation of workers with establishing more democratic
structures and form of corporate governance.
The University of Sydney
Page 8
Emile Durkheim French Sociologist 1858-1917
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–
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1893 The Division of Labour in Society
Hierarchy and interdependence of work tasks
The formal and the informal organization and social needs
Sociology as a research methodology
The University of Sydney
Page 9
Max Weber – German Sociologist 1864-1920
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Traditional authority
Charismatic authority
Rational-legal authority
Theory of bureuacracy
The University of Sydney
Page 10
The University of Sydney
Page 11
Taylor – Philosophy of Scientific Management
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Productivity of factories – Bethlehem Steel
Machines, tools and worker motivation
Supervision and incentive schemes
Pay high wages and lower production costs – science to
ensure profit maximization
– Efficiency, Rationalisation in organisations
The University of Sydney
Page 12
Mary Parker Follett
– Democratic organisations
– Self governing organisations where individuals and groups
belong – power with, not power over people
The University of Sydney
Page 13
Which theorists resonate the most closely
with your views of organisations?
Give an example that connects your
organization with a theory.
The University of Sydney
Page 14
Modernist contributions to organisational theory
–
–
–
–
–
General systems theory
Socio-technical systems theory
Contingency theory
The age of reason and enlightenment
Rationality – controlling the environment through scientific
knowledge
– Modernist organisations balance internal and external
pressures, develop core competencies, increase efficiency,
adapt to change
The University of Sydney
Page 15
The University of Sydney
Page 16
Socio-Technical Systems Theory. 1950’s
– People are only individuals in general systems theory
– Human behaviour and technology are interrelated and
changes in technology will impact social relationships
– Autonomous working groups in the coal mines
The University of Sydney
Page 17
Contingency Theory 1960’s
– Organisational design is contingent upon the environment,
goals, technology, and people. These are aligned in effective
organisations.
– Identify the key contingencies (puzzle pieces) – if this arises,
this should be done…
– Outputs, standards, procedures, supervisory control
– Seen as recipes for success
The University of Sydney
Page 18
Symbolic-interpretive perspective
1980’s
– Derived from anthropology
– Challenged the objective science of modernism
– Collapse of colonization, instead self determination and native
rights: a crisis of representation
– Organisational cultures as webs of significance socially
constructed by their members (Geertz – ethnography of an
organisation)
– Multiple interpretations and the role of context
– Social construction theory
– Enactment theory
– Reflexivity
The University of Sydney
Page 19
Social Construction Theory
– Our social world is negotiated, organized and constructed by
our interpretations of what is happening around us in our
intersubjectivity via shared experiences and shared history
(Berger & Luckmann)
– Objective reality – social facts – reality is objectified
The University of Sydney
Page 20
Reflexivity
– Institutionalisation1949 Philip Selznick
– Constructionists and deconstructionists agree that our
explanations of the world should not be accepted at face
value, but through meaning making
– Research is partial fiction as the situated product of its author
– To avoid this problem researchers need to be self-reflexive –
observe themselves within the research and declare their own
assumptions
The University of Sydney
Page 21
Which theorists resonate the most closely
with your views of organisations?
Give an example that connects your
organization with a theory.
The University of Sydney
Page 22
Postmodern systems theory
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Challenging reality, knowledge and identity
Postmodernism – no objective identifiable reality
The progress myth
Language games (Wittgenstein) – multiple realities and
contextual rules in community
Grand narratives –Lyotard) they form the stories modernists
tell themselves to justify their devotion to reason
Power/knowledge through discursive practices(Foucault)
Deconstruction (Derrida)
Simulacra (simulation) and hyper-reality (Baudrillard) AI
The University of Sydney
Page 23
The University of Sydney
Page 24
Which theorists resonate the most closely
with your views of organisations?
Give an example that connects your
organization with a theory.
The University of Sydney
Page 25
A taste of Charles Handy: Elephants and Fleas
Discuss in groups and present
back 2 comments & a question
The University of Sydney
– Sigmoid Curves
– Role of elephants and fleas
– Federalism
Page 26
A further taste of Charles Handy: Doughnuts
Select from these themes (or ??):
– Flexible working
– Contracting
– Ownership and IP
– Effectiveness vs efficiency
– Outsiders as insiders
– Trust
– What does this mean for
revisioning schools as
organisations?
– Report back his thoughts and
your group’s thoughts on 3 of
them
The University of Sydney
Page 27

Searching for meaning: Themes – agree or disagree
Choose 3 themes to discuss in a group. What do you agree and
disagree about what he has written? State a case:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Outsourcing vs owning
Investment and investors and capitalism
Entrepreneurs
Education, schooling and intelligence
The citizen company and hierarchy
The search for meaning: purpose
Positive change
Leadership
The University of Sydney
Page 28
Evaluation of today’s session
1. Which theorists resonate the most closely with your views
of organisations?
2. Why is it important to understand thinking about
organisations over time?
3. How does Charles Handy’s work help you to understand an
organisation?
Thank you for your participation. See you next week!
Next week’s focus: Session 3: Organisational webs and networks
Readings: Margaret Wheatley and the human organisation
The University of Sydney
Page 29
The University of Sydney
Page 30
EDPA5001
Module 1 Understanding
Organisations
Session 3: Organisational
webs and networks
Presented by
Christine Grice and Virginia Moller
The University of Sydney
Page 1
Acknowledgement of
country
Before we begin, I would like to acknowledge
and pay respect to the traditional owners of
the land on which we meet; the Gadigal
people of the Eora Nation. It is upon their
ancestral lands that the University of Sydney
is built. As we share our own knowledge,
teaching, learning and research practices
within this university may we also pay respect
to the knowledge embedded forever within
the Aboriginal Custodianship of Country.
The University of Sydney
Page 2
“In this day and age, if you’re not confused,
you’re not thinking clearly.”
Margaret Wheatley
The University of Sydney
Page 3
Revision Questions
What is a metaphor?
How do metaphors help us to
explain phenomenon?
How did Charles Handy use
metaphors effectively?
The University of Sydney
Page 4
Focus
– Why do so many organisations feel lifeless?
– Why does progress, when it appears, so often come from
unexpected places, or as a result of surprises or synchronistic
events that our planning had not considered?
– Why does change itself (that event we’re all supposed to be
‘managing’) keep drowning us, relentlessly making us feel less
capable and more confused?
– Why have our expectations for success diminished to the
point that often the best we hope for is endurance and
patience to survive the frequent disruptive forces in our
Organisations
– Margaret Wheatley explores leadership through emerging
discoveries in systems theory, chaos theory, and quantum
physics/mechanics
The University of Sydney
Page 5
Responses to literature
a. How is an organisation like a living system? Why is Wheatley so
adamant that we view organisations this way?
b. Why does Wheatley seem to be so doubtful about the role of formal
leadership in making any significant difference in an organisation?
c. If leaders are so ineffective (as Wheatley suggests) why is it so hard
for organisations to say goodbye to ‘command and control’
d. What does the self-organising system need leaders to be and to do
in organisations? How does a self-organising system need leaders to
relate?
e. How has Wheatley changed your perspective of an organisation?
What are the limitations of her viewpoint?
In module 1 a Compass Thinking Routine has been added. Respond to
each of the compass points from your notes from the readings for
session 3. What excites you? What worries you? What more do you
need to know? And what do you need to move forward in your
thinking?
The University of Sydney
Page 6
Margaret Wheatley
– Even though worker capacity and motivation are destroyed
when leaders choose power over productivity, it appears that
bosses would rather be in control than have the Organisation
work well
– We have created trouble for ourselves in Organisations by
confusing control with order.
– Everyone in a complex system has a slightly different
interpretation. The more interpretations we gather, the easier
it becomes to gain a sense of the whole
– I’m sad to report that in the past few years, ever since
uncertainty became our insistent 21st century companion,
leadership has taken a great leap backwards to the familiar
territory of command and control.
The University of Sydney
Page 7
What is the ‘New Science’?
Newtonian
– Machine imagery.
– Everything in parts.
– Materialistic. Use of
physical senses.
– Direct mechanistic forces.
– Deterministic.
– Never ending search for
better methods of
objectively measuring and
perceiving the world.
The University of Sydney
New Science
– Holistic.
– Relationships are key.
– Probabilities.
– Understanding that there is
no model for organisational
change.
Page 8
What is Quantum Physics?
– A branch of science that deals with discrete, indivisible units
of energy called quanta.
– Five main ideas represented in Quantum Theory:
1. Energy is not continuous, but comes in small but discrete
units.
2. The elementary particles behave both like particles and like
waves.
3. The movement of these particles is inherently random.
4. It is physically impossible to know both the position and the
momentum of a particle at the same time. The more precisely
one is known, the less precise the measurement of the other is.
5. The atomic world is nothing like the world we live in.
The University of Sydney
Page 9
Quantum organisations from quantum physics?
A change of paradigm is needed when it is necessary to transform the
structural and leadership characteristics in organisations
– Quantum physics describe our world as a complicated fibre of
events in which connections of different kinds overlap and combine
to make up the texture of the whole
– While the Newtonian paradigm offers a single and a unique
perspective in explaining events and facts, the quantum paradigm
offers a multiple and relative perspective
– In the quantum paradigm, events and facts may not be explained by
a simple observation and reflection; there is, beyond them, a focus
on such processes as intuition, invention, noticing, imagination,
creativity, etc.
– A quantum organisation – an organisational capacity where, by its
nature, a continuous introverted organisational learning takes place
and personal values are considered same as behaviours which
creates an atmosphere of trust, safety and a sense of belonging
that strengthens organisation (Deardorff & Williams 2006; Kilmann,
2011).
The University of Sydney
Page 10
Organisations as a system
Open System
– Interacts with its
environment.
– Receiving new inputs
constantly and responding
(learning) to cope.
– Interdependent.
– Adaptive and flexible.
– Import energy
– Disequilibrium
The University of Sydney
Closed System
– Isolated from its
environment.
– Exists independent of
environment.
– Self-sufficient.
– Does not adapt external
influences.
– Components are
unchanging.
– Equilibrium.
Page 11
In organisations, if people are free to make their own decisions, guided by a
clear organisational identity for them to reference, the whole system
develops greater coherence and strength. The organisation is less
controlling, but more orderly.
Newtonian
– No individual decision
making
– Organisational structure
established by authority
– Controlled.
– People are cogs.
– Rigid structure.
The University of Sydney
New Science
– Self-reference.
– Self-organising.
– Freedom throughout.
– People are quantum.
– Flexible structure.
Page 12
Pause and reflect
– Where is order to be found?
– How do complex systems
change?
– How do we create structures
that are flexible and adaptive,
that enable rather than
constrain?
– How do we simplify things
without losing what we value
about complexity?
– How do we resolve personal
needs for autonomy and
growth with organisational
needs for prediction and
accountability?
The University of Sydney
Page 13
Margaret Wheatley… Goodbye Command and Control
(1997)
Metaphors include:
– Organisations as…
The University of Sydney
– Reason for cynicism
– Secret to productivity… the
correlation between…
– Systems of….
– Belief in…
– Timescale…
– Implications for leadership
– Measured by…
Page 14
Leadership, or self management of teams?
Margaret Wheatley
What did Wheatley turn
upside down?
What other terms did you
agree/disagree with?
The University of Sydney
Page 15
Wheatley – Management Philosopher
– Organisations are a web of relationships
– Draw the web of relationships in your organisation
The University of Sydney
Page 16
“If organizations are machines, control makes sense. If organizations are process
structures, then seeking to impose control through permanent structure is suicide. If
we believe that acting responsibly means exerting control by having our hands into
everything, then we cannot hope for anything except what we
already have – a treadmill of effort and life destroying stress”.
“What if we could reframe the search? What if we stopped looking for control and
began, in earnest, the search for order?”
“There is so much order that our attempts to separate out discrete moments create
the appearance of disorder.”
Margaret Wheatley, Leadership and the New Science1994,
p.34, 39, 41.
The University of Sydney
Page 17
Social Network Theory (Professor Alan Daly)
– https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T5Kr9FPEKOo
The University of Sydney
Page 18
Aboriginal perspectives on organisations:
Indigenous kinship
A person’s position in the
kinship system establishes
their relationship to others and
to the universe, prescribing
their responsibilities towards
other people, the land and
natural resources.
The University of Sydney
– https://australianstogether.
org.au/discover/indigenousculture/kinship
Page 19
“We are all visitors to
this time, this place. We
are just passing through.
Our purpose here is to
observe, to learn, to
grow, to love… and then
we return home.”
Australian Aboriginal Proverb
The University of Sydney
Page 20
Assessment Tasks in EDPA5001
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–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
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Research is systematic enquiry.
If you wanted to conduct research about an organization:
What would you want to know?
What problems may arise?
What ethical issues would you have to consider?
Why do you want to know?
What is the best way to find out?
Write down your responses on Canvas in Week 2.
Research is carefully planned curiosity
[Think of a BIG overarching question you could ask that
responds to these questions. Think of 3 sub-questions you
could also ask. Share these with a pair in Week 3 during class].
The University of Sydney
Page 21
Online Post 1 and 2 with your BIG overarching
question and 3 sub-questions
– Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using a survey as
a method of conducting research in your organisation to
answer the question you wish to discover.
– Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using interviews
or focus groups as a method of conducting research in your
organisation to answer the question you wish to discover.
Word Count: 500 words. Respond to one other student’s post
by asking them a question about their post.
The University of Sydney
Page 22
Evaluation of today’s session
1. What is a metaphor? How are metaphors used to describe
managing, leading and administration?
2. How did Margaret Wheatley alter your thinking?
3. How has it changed your ways of viewing organisations?
The University of Sydney
Page 23
Organisational Theory,
Management, and
Administration
EDPA5001 SESSION 4
Presented by
Dr. Christine Grice
Lecturer Educational Leadership
Sydney School of Education and Social Work
The University of Sydney
Page 1
Module 2:
Understanding
Management and
Administration
Session 4: Management
perspectives, scientific
management and ethics.
The University of Sydney
Page 2
Acknowledgement of
country
Before we begin, I would like to acknowledge
and pay respect to the traditional owners of
the land on which we meet; the Gadigal
people of the Eora Nation. It is upon their
ancestral lands that the University of Sydney
is built. As we share our own knowledge,
teaching, learning and research practices
within this university may we also pay respect
to the knowledge embedded forever within
the Aboriginal Custodianship of Country.
The University of Sydney
Page 3
Approaches to
understanding
management
Theory into practice
The University of Sydney
Page 4
Last week we asked:
Which theorists resonate the most closely
with your views of organisations?
Give an example that connects your
organization with a theory.
The University of Sydney
Page 5
The University of Sydney
Page 6
Management buzzwords
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–
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–
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Impact
Synergy
Disruption
Deep dive
Core competency
Incentivize
Outside the box
VUCA
https://www.projectmanager.com/blog/project-managementbuzzwords-mean
– What are the buzzwords in education? List some now.
The University of Sydney
Page 7
How has management
thinking evolved over
time?
Revision: What are the major developments
in the history of management thought from
the classical perspective through to
postmodern thinking and beyond?
How do social, economic, and political forces
impact upon management decisions?
The University of Sydney
Page 8
Three subfields of management
– 1. Scientific management
The University of Sydney
– Efficiency and labour
productivity (Taylorism)
Page 9
Three subfields of management
– 2. Bureaucratic
organisations
The University of Sydney
– Authority and responsibility
(Weber)
Page 10
Three subfields of management
– 3. Administrative principles:
– Planning, organizing,
commanding, coordinating
and controlling
The University of Sydney
– The total organization
(Fayol)
Page 11
Name contemporary management tools
Reasons management trends
change over time
The University of Sydney
Page 12
The humanist perspective – the human relations
movement
– Mary Parker Follett (democracy and ethics – common goals
for reducing conflict in organisations) and Chester Barnard
(authority and the informal organization)
– The human relations movement (meeting employee needs
increases productivity)
– Hawthorne Studies and the Hawthorne effect (individuals
modifying their behaviour when observed) placebo
– https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JkgGF_UgUbE
The University of Sydney
Page 13
The human resources perspective
– Job design and task design (McGregor)
The University of Sydney
Page 14
The human resources perspective
– Job design and task design (Maslow)
– https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O-4ithG_07Q
The University of Sydney
Page 15
Systems Thinking
– The ability to see the distinct elements of a system and the
complex and changing interaction among those elements.
– A set of interrelated parts with a common purpose
– Subsystems within the system depend upon one another
– Synergy is when the whole is greater than its parts
– The success of parts does not always add up to the whole
– Movement over time and rhythm, flow, direction, shape and
networks to accomplish the performance of the whole
– Circles of causality (Senge)and causal loops instead of linear
thinking https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tTo06jbSZ4M
The University of Sydney
Page 16
Contemporary management tools
What would Handy or Wheatley contribute to discussions about:
– E-business
– Knowledge management
– Sustainability
The University of Sydney
Page 17
Values-driven, researchinformed system level
change:
Building and sustaining
innovative teaching and
learning practices
Presented by
Research conducted by
Professor Christopher Day
Dr. Christine Grice
The University of Sydney
Page 18
The Research
The multi-level mixed
methods research analysed
the leadership of system
change within a school
system in NSW
retrospectively over a tenyear period.
The University of Sydney
Page 19
Methods: wide ranging data collection
and rigorous analysis analysis
40 semi-structured individual
and 27 focus group interviews
with a total of 156 school
leader, teacher, and student
interviews, and 4 Central
Office participants.
Principals, teachers, students
and parents from six schools
were selected from a larger
sample size provided by CEDP.
The University of Sydney
Page 20
The art of the possible
Leaders:
Improve the physical
environment
Establish communication
and management protocols
Structure leadership roles
Learning Leadership
Good teaching going deep
Leaders:
Utilise data for decision
making
Distribute leadership
progressively as trust
develops.
Curiosity to Clarity
Leaders:
Personalise school
practices
Enrich the curriculum
Further distribute
leadership
Build their legacy
Implement performance
management systems.
2007 – 2011
Balancing Complexity
Enrichment Phase
3
Setting Direction
Middle Phase 2
Early Phase 1
3. Two steps forward, one step back: development
phases
2012- 2014
2015- 2019
The University of Sydney
Page 21
Seven Messages for School Level Change Leaders
1. Change Champions: Identification, capacity building and careful
placement at all school levels .
2. Sustained interactivity: To build trust and enable collaboration
between senior and middle leaders to support change.
3. ‘Thought Leadership’: Externally led learning as a means of testing
and challenging existing thinking and practices.
4. A combination of mandated and voluntary implementation and
consent enables a degree of collegial autonomy.
5. Qualitative and quantitative data-informed decision making enables
increased precision.
6. Leadership and teacher commitment and resilience needs must be
supported, especially in times of demand-led change.
7. Leaders of school level change are likely to achieve success when
they combine, accumulate, layer, and sustain inter-connected,
mutually supportive strategies over time which take forward the
change narrative, whilst demonstrating rigor, care, and respect for the
needs of those in the school who are expected to enact them.
The University of Sydney
Page 22
The University of Sydney
Page 23
Organisational Theory,
Management, and
Administration
EDPA5001 SESSION 6
Presented by
Dr. Christine Grice
Lecturer Educational Leadership
Sydney School of Education and Social Work
The University of Sydney
Page 1
Module 2:
Understanding
Management and
Administration
Session 6: Administration and
Bureaucracy.
The University of Sydney
Page 2
Scientific Management Theory
Evokes the most emotional and polarised responses of any
management theory
– All but a systematic philosophy of worker and work.
Altogether, it may well be the most powerful as well as the
most lasting contribution that America has made to western
thought – Peter Drucker (1954)
– …in the new scientifically managed factory, the workers mind
was severed from his body and handed over to management.
The worker became an automaton…his humanity left outside
the factory gate – Jeremy Rifkin (1987)
The University of Sydney
Page 3
Scientific management
Initiated by Frederick
W. Taylor (1856-1915)
to achieve production
efficiencies by
systematising and
standardising jobs to
achieve the “one best
way” they should be
done.
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– Believed that by
increasing specialisation
and the division of labour,
the production process
will be more efficient
– TAYLOR’S MAIN FOCUS:
Maximise workers
capacity and profits
– PROBLEM: Getting
employees to work at
their maximum capacity
– PRIMARY FOCUS: TASKS
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Scientific Management
– Systematic study of relationships between people and tasks
for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase
production and efficiency.
– Approaching various aspects of organisations in a scientific
manner using scientific tools e.g. research and analysis
– Management which conducts a business/affairs by standards
established by facts or truths gained through systematic
observation, experiment or reasoning.
– Characterised by close forms of supervision and control
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Four Principles of Scientific Management
1. Study the way workers
perform their tasks, gather all
the informal job knowledge
that workers possess and
experiment with ways of
improving how tasks are
performed e.g. time and
motion study
2. Codify the new methods of
performing tasks into written
rules and standard operating
procedures
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3. Carefully select workers who
possess skills and abilities that
match the needs of the task,
and train them to perform the
task according to the
established rules and
procedures.
4. Establish a fair or acceptable
level of performance for a task,
and then develop a pay system
that provides a reward for
performance above the
acceptable level.
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Mental Revolution
Introduced the concept of “Mental Revolution”.
• The management and workers should have a positive attitude
towards each other.
✓This will result in close cooperation between them.
✓This will increase productivity and profits.
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Page 7
Gilbreth Laws of human motion
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Associates of Taylor
Together developed the laws
of human motion from which
evolved the principle of
motion economy theory every job can be broken down
into a series of elementary
motions.
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Page 8
The University of Sydney
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Hero of efficiency: Frank Gilbreth (1868-1924)
Construction contractor
– Focused on improving work methods such as bricklaying to
improve effectiveness and efficiency.
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Human Resource Management:
Lillian Gilbreth (1878 – 1972)
– Psychologist
Pioneered modern human
resource management.
Developed a classification
scheme to describe the
motions (therbligs) used in
the performance of a job.
– Work breaks, kitchen
design, pedal bins and
suggestion boxes
– First woman elected to
National Academy of
engineering
The University of Sydney
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The University of Sydney
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Motion Economy Theory
1. Break up and analyse every individual action necessary to
perform a particular task into each of its component actions
2. Find better ways to perform each component action
3. Reorganise each of the component actions so that the action
as a whole could be performed more efficiently – at less cost in
time and effort
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Page 13
Bonuses and Gantt Charts: Henry Gantt
– Worked with Taylor at Midvale and
Bethlehem Steel Company
– Specialised in incentive wage plans
– Introduced a differential piece rate
system to task work with a bonus
– Created a graphic bar chart which
could be used by managers in
planning and controlling work:
GANTT CHARTS which managers
used to plot the work of employees
down to the smallest detail.
– The Gantt chart showed the
relationship between work planned
and completed on one axis and time
elapsed on the other
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Page 14
The University of Sydney
Page 15
Scientific Management’s Impact on
Organisations
and Schools
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Defined administrative roles
Supervision of work rather than people
Emphasis on Quality Control
Use time and motion studies to
increase productivity
Hire the best qualified employees
Work specialisations
Span of control
Cost accounting
Design incentive systems based on
output
In some organisations, the emphasis is
still on conformity to work rules rather
than on creativity, flexibility, and
responsiveness
Improved production, reduced costs,
strikes and revolts
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–
–
–
Teaching Objectives and Outcomes for
Instruction
Vocational Curriculum Design
–
–
Data driven decisions: Improvements by
Analysis
High stakes standardised testing
PISA
–
–
–
–
Division of Labour
Subjects Departmentalised
Teacher merit pay
Staff Development/Appraisal
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Problems with Scientific Management
Managers frequently implemented
only the increased output side of
Taylor’s plan.
Workers ended up distrusting the
Scientific Management method.
– Employer centred: Shift in power
from the employee to the
manager. Workers did not share
in the increased output. Potential
for exploitation of labour.
Reduced opportunity
– Neglected the environment (a
closed system view). Denied
“human community” in
workplace
– Ignored the human desire for job
satisfaction. Specialised jobs
became very boring, dull.
Simplistic motivational
assumptions resulting in loss of
meaning for work
– Workers viewed as parts of a
machine. Workers could
purposely “under perform.”
Management responded with
increased use of machines and
conveyors belts
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Page 17
The theory of
Bureaucracy
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Page 18
Classical Management
– Taylor’s scientific management sought efficiency in job
performance.
– Weber’s bureaucratic organisation is supposed to be efficient
and fair.
– Administrative principles describe managerial duties and
practices.
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What is Bureaucracy?
Bureau Office (French): Bureaucracy “rule of office”
• A complex, hierarchically arranged organisation composed of
many small subdivisions with specialised functions
• A formal organisation best known for its style of hierarchical
authority
• Organisational arrangement based on:
✓Order
✓Logic and
✓The legitimate use of authority
• Max Weber is the sociologist most closely associated with
bureaucracy theory.
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General concepts and contribution
Two fundamental principles:
1. Rule based power
2. Hierarchy
General concepts
• Rules and regulations standardise behaviour
• Jobs staffed by trained specialists who follow rules
• Hierarchy defines the relationship among jobs
Contribution
• Promotes efficient performance of routine operations
• Eliminates subjective judgment by employees and
management
• Emphasises position rather than the person
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Page 21
Weber’s theory of bureaucracy
– Saw bureaucracies as the
future of organisations in the
modern world. They were
highly efficient compared to
earlier, less rational forms of
organisation
– Saw bureaucracy as inevitable
due to its effectiveness, but
worried over its dullness and
lack of humanity.
– Cornerstone: existence of
written rules: standardisation
and ideal structures
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Page 22
Positive qualities in Weber’s bureaucracy
– Focus on impartiality when selecting employees (use of job
competence criteria).
– Security of employment to protect employees against
arbitrary authority and changes in skill demands
– Rules and regulations to promote impartiality in decision
making
– The establishment of clear lines of authority and responsibility
– An early challenge to bureaucracy theory came from those
who identified informal networks and relations inside and
between formal organisations as fruitful, informal socialbusiness networks
– Informal relations and chains of command function within
organisations
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Page 23
The Downside of bureaucracy
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Goal displacement
Inappropriate application of rules and regulations
Employee alienation
Concentration of power
Inability to adapt to change
Overstaffing
Tendency towards large size and low productivity
NOTE: Many of the draw backs identified have been as a result of
the way in which many bureaucracies have been operational
rather than being inherent to the concept
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Page 24
Is Bureaucracy dead in the workplace today?
Structural
– The specialisation of labour
– Mass production in
repetitive circles
– Demands of quality,
efficient resource usage and
safety
– Ensure high formalisation in
the form of rules,
regulations and procedures
is fundamental to activity
– Hierarchy of management
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Behavioural
– Legal changes forcing
promotion on merit
– Laws promoting equal
opportunities
– Career track for employees
Page 25
Bureaucracy today
Bureaucracy worked for the
industrial age. Organisations face
new challenges today and need to
respond quickly to changes in
environment and technology.
Major contemporary structural
innovations have concentrated on:
– Responding to market needs
– Improving decision making
– Facilitating coordination and
communication flows
– Focusing management efforts on
customers/clients rather than
internal process
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Bureaucracies were created to
rationally organise groups to
complete a set of goals.
Today we use the word bureaucracy
to refer to any organisation that has
many departments, or bureaus.
Over- bureaucratisation is evident in
the inefficiencies of large
organisations with narrowly defined
jobs and rules limit creativity,
flexibility, and rapid response.
Weber’s approach aimed not to
describe a structural configuration
but an approach to management.
Page 26
Bureaucracy: Artwork by Diana Malivani
Song: Mr. Bureaucracy by Paradox

The University of Sydney
Page 27
management
BOOK CHAPTER Introduction to Organisations and
Management
Robbins, in Managements,
by Robbins, S, Bergman, R, Stagg, I, Coulter, M, 5th ed.,
Frenchs Forest, N.S.W., Pearson Education, 2009, 2-36
Required
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BOOK CHAPTER Organizational theorizing: a historically
contested terrain
Reed, Michael, in Studying organization: theory & method,
by Clegg, Stewart.; Hardy, Cynthia., London, Sage, 1999, 25 – 50
Required
Available at Fisher Library General : 302.35 234 and more locations
Check availability>
ARTICLE Elephants and fleas: is your organization
prepared for change?/
Handy, C. B, Leader to Leader, 24, 2002, 29 – 33
Required
Check availability>
ARTICLE Search for meaning: a conversation with Charles
Handy
Leader to Leader, 5, 1997, 14 – 20
Required
100
PDF
Adobe
ARTICLE Turning doughnuts inside out
Handy, C. B, Space for Ideas, 2007, 1-7
Required
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www.
WEBSITE Writings: Goodbye, Command and Control
Margaret J. Wheatley, Margaret Wheatley, 2001-2012,
Total Pages 1
Required
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100
NEWS
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE The New Science of Leadership: An
Interview with Margaret Wheatley
London, Scott., 2008, Total Pages 1
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Session 4: Developing a framework for understanding
organisations (1)
Organization
Theory
BOOK CHAPTER A brief history of organizational theory
Hatch, Mary Jo,
in Organization theory: modern, symbolic, and postmodern per
spectives,
by Hatch, Mary Jo.; Cunliffe, Ann L., 2nd ed., New York,
Oxford University Press, 2006, 25 – 60
Available at Fisher Library General : 302.35 267 Download
Session 5: Approaches to understanding management
(1)
PDF
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BOOK CHAPTER The evolution of management thinking
Samson, Danny, Daft, Richard L., in Management,
by Samson, Danny; Daft, Richard L., 5th Asia-Pacific edition,
South Melbourne, Vic, Cengage Learning, 2014, 48 – 86
Available at Fisher Library General: 658 463 B
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BOOK CHAPTER Bureaucracy: a closer look
Robbins, Stephen R, Barnwell, N,
in Organisation theory: concepts and cases,
by Robbins, Stephen P., 1943-; Barnwell, Neil.; Robbins, Steph…
3rd ed., New York; Sydney, Prentice Hall, 1998, 267 – 284
Available at Fisher Library General : 658.00994 29
BOOK CHAPTER Bureaucracy: a closer look
Robbins, Stephen R, Barnwell, N,
in Organisation theory: concepts and cases,
by Robbins, Stephen P., 1943-; Barnwell, Neil.; Robbins, Steph…
3rd ed., New York; Sydney, Prentice Hall, 1998, 267 – 284
Available at Fisher Library General : 658.00994 29
WEBSITE Max Weber: on bureaucracy
Max Weber: on bureaucracy, Macquarie University, Total Pages 1
acy
MAX
WEBER
ECONOMY
AND
SOCIETY
BOOK CHAPTER Bureaucracy
Weber, Max,
in Economy and society: an outline of interpretive sociology,
by Weber, Max, 1864-1920.; Roth, Guenther.; Wittich, Claus.,
Berkeley, University of California Press, 1978, 956 – 1005
Available at Fisher Library General : 301 1002

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