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LESSON PLAN SECTION 4

Candidates will complete Part 4 Supporting “content” Development Through Language. Each commentary (refer to your syllabus) includes Supporting “content” Development Through Language. This section also contains parts a, b, c, etc… depending on which commentary you chose. You must complete each part to successfully complete this task. You will continue to build upon the commentary you started in the Introduction to Teaching and Assessment class.

Lesson Plan Section 5

Assignment Content

Candidates will complete the lesson plan section 5 which includes an explanation of materials and resources for the students and teacher. This is not limited to a “list” of materials. For example, if you will show a video to the class, make sure you tell what video and then provide the rationale.

TASK 1 SAMPLE 2 VIDEO

Part 4: Supporting Development Through Language

Assignment Content

Candidates will complete Part 4 Supporting “content” Development Through Language. Each commentary (refer to your syllabus) includes Supporting “content” Development Through Language. This section also contains parts a, b, c, etc… depending on which commentary you chose. You must complete each part to successfully complete this task. You will continue to build upon the commentary you started in the Introduction to Teaching and Assessment class.

Elementary Literacy
Assessment Handbook
Version 07.1
edTPA_ElemLit_V07.1
edTPA stems from a twenty-five-year history of developing performance-based assessments of
teaching quality and effectiveness. The Teacher Performance Assessment Consortium (Stanford
and AACTE) acknowledges the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, the
Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium, and the Performance Assessment for
California Teachers for their pioneering work using discipline-specific portfolio assessments to
evaluate teaching quality. This version of the handbook has been developed with thoughtful input
from over six hundred teachers and teacher educators representing various national design
teams, national subject matter organizations (ACEI, ACTFL, AMLE, CEC, IRA, NAEYC, NAGC,
NCSS, NCTE, NCTM, NSTA, SHAPE America), and content validation reviewers. All
contributions are recognized and appreciated.
This document was authored by the Stanford Center for Assessment, Learning, and Equity (SCALE)
with editorial and design assistance from Evaluation Systems.
Copyright © 2019 Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University. All rights reserved.
The edTPA trademarks are owned by The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University. Use of the
edTPA trademarks is permitted only pursuant to the terms of a written license agreement.
edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Contents
Introduction to edTPA Elementary Literacy ………………………………………………………………….1
Purpose……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
Overview of the Assessment…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
Structure of the Handbook ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3
edTPA Elementary Literacy Tasks Overview …………………………………………………………………………………………….5
Planning Task 1: Planning for Instruction and Assessment …………………………………………..8
What Do I Need to Think About? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8
What Do I Need to Do? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8
What Do I Need to Write? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….10
How Will the Evidence of My Teaching Practice Be Assessed? …………………………………………………………………12
Planning Rubrics …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………13
Instruction Task 2: Instructing and Engaging Students in Learning……………………………..18
What Do I Need to Think About? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..18
What Do I Need to Do? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..18
What Do I Need to Write? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….20
How Will the Evidence of My Teaching Practice Be Assessed? …………………………………………………………………21
Instruction Rubrics ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………22
Assessment Task 3: Assessing Student Learning ………………………………………………………27
What Do I Need to Think About? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..27
What Do I Need to Do? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..27
What Do I Need to Write? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….28
How Will the Evidence of My Teaching Practice Be Assessed? …………………………………………………………………30
Assessment Rubrics ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………31
Professional Responsibilities ……………………………………………………………………………………36
Elementary Literacy Context for Learning Information ………………………………………………..37
Elementary Literacy Evidence Chart ………………………………………………………………………….40
Planning Task 1: Artifacts and Commentary Specifications ……………………………………………………………………….40
Instruction Task 2: Artifacts and Commentary Specifications …………………………………………………………………….41
Assessment Task 3: Artifacts and Commentary Specifications ………………………………………………………………….42
Elementary Literacy Glossary ……………………………………………………………………………………45
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Introduction to edTPA Elementary
Literacy
Purpose
The purpose of edTPA Elementary Literacy, a nationally available performance-based
assessment, is to measure novice teachers’ readiness to teach elementary literacy. The
assessment is designed with a focus on student learning and principles from research and
theory. It is based on findings that successful teachers
ï‚¡ develop knowledge of subject matter, content standards, and subject-specific
pedagogy
 develop and apply knowledge of varied students’ needs
ï‚¡ consider research and theory about how students learn
ï‚¡ reflect on and analyze evidence of the effects of instruction on student learning
As a performance-based assessment, edTPA is designed to engage candidates in
demonstrating their understanding of teaching and student learning in authentic ways.
Overview of the Assessment
The edTPA Elementary Literacy assessment is composed of three tasks:
1. Planning for Instruction and Assessment
2. Instructing and Engaging Students in Learning
3. Assessing Student Learning
For this assessment, you will first plan 3–5 consecutive literacy lessons referred to as a
learning segment. Consistent with recommendations provided by the International Reading
Association1 (2010) for literacy professionals, a learning segment prepared for this
assessment should reflect a balanced literacy curriculum. This means your learning
segment should include learning tasks in which students have opportunities to develop an
essential literacy strategy for comprehending or composing text and the related skills that
directly support that strategy.
You will then teach the learning segment, making a videorecording of your interactions with
students during instruction. You will also assess, informally and formally, students’ learning
throughout the learning segment. Upon completion of the three tasks, you will submit
artifacts from the tasks (e.g., lesson plans, clips from your videorecording, assessment
materials, instructional materials, student work samples), as well as commentaries that you
have written to explain and reflect on the Planning, Instruction, and Assessment
1 The Standards for Reading Professionals can be found at http://www.literacyworldwide.org/getresources/standards/standards-for-reading-professionals.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
components of the tasks. The artifacts and commentaries for each task will then be
evaluated using rubrics especially developed for each task.
The edTPA Tasks and the Cycle of Effective Teaching
The three edTPA tasks represent a cycle of effective teaching (i.e., teaching that is focused
on student learning). Planning Task 1 documents your intended teaching, Instruction Task
2 documents your enacted teaching, and Assessment Task 3 documents the impact of
your teaching on student learning.
The three tasks and the evidence you provide for each are framed by your understandings
of your students and their learning. As you develop, document, and teach your lessons, you
will reflect upon the cyclical relationship among planning, instruction, and assessment, with
a focus on your students’ learning needs.
Evidence of Teaching Practice: Artifacts and Commentaries
An essential part of edTPA is the evidence you will submit of how you planned, taught, and
assessed your lessons to deepen student learning in literacy. This evidence includes both
artifacts and commentaries:
ï‚¡ Artifacts represent authentic work completed by you and your students. These
include lesson plans, copies of instructional and assessment materials, video clips of
your teaching, and student work samples.
ï‚¡ Commentaries are your opportunity to describe your artifacts, explain the rationale
behind their choice, and analyze what you have learned about your teaching practice
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
and your students’ learning. Note that although your writing ability will not be scored
directly, commentaries must be clearly written and well focused.
When preparing your artifacts and commentaries, refer to the rubrics frequently to guide
your thinking, planning, and writing. Refer to the Elementary Literacy Evidence Chart for
information about how your evidence should be formatted for electronic submission.
Evaluation Criteria
The rubrics used to score your performance are included in this handbook, following the
sections describing the directions for each task. The descriptors in the five-level rubrics
address a wide range of performance, beginning with the knowledge and skills of a novice
not ready to teach (Level 1) and extending to the advanced practices of a highly
accomplished beginner (Level 5).
Structure of the Handbook
The following pages provide specific instructions on how to complete each of the three tasks
of the edTPA Elementary Literacy assessment. After an overview of the tasks, the handbook
provides instructions for each task organized into four sections:
1. What Do I Need to Think About?
This section provides focus questions for you to think about when completing the
task.
2. What Do I Need to Do?
This section provides specific, detailed directions for completing the task.
3. What Do I Need to Write?
This section tells you what you need to write and also provides specific and detailed
directions for writing the commentary for the task.
4. How Will the Evidence of My Teaching Practice Be Assessed?
This section includes the rubrics that will be used to assess the evidence you provide
for the task.
Additional requirements and resources are provided for you in this handbook.
ï‚¡ Professional Responsibilities: guidelines for the development of your evidence
ï‚¡ Elementary Literacy Context for Learning Information: prompts used to collect
information about your school/classroom context
ï‚¡ Elementary Literacy Evidence Chart: specifications for electronic submission of
evidence (artifacts and commentaries), including templates, supported file types,
number of files, response length, and other important evidence specifications
ï‚¡ Glossary: definitions of key terms can be accessed by rolling your cursor over each
glossary term marked with a dotted underline throughout the handbook or by
referring to the Elementary Literacy Glossary.
You should review the Making Good Choices document prior to beginning the planning of
the learning segment. If you are in a preparation program, it will have additional resources
that provide guidance as you develop your evidence.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Review all instructions carefully before beginning to teach the learning segment to
ensure that you are well prepared for all tasks. Before you record your videos,
pay particular attention to the specific content focus of each video clip
submission; these foci are described in the What Do I Need to Do? sections in
Instruction Task 2 and Assessment Task 3. Refer to the Making Good Choices
document to help you prepare for all tasks. Refer to the Professional Responsibilities
section of this handbook for important information about permissions, confidentiality,
and other requirements.
If your program requires you to submit artifacts and commentaries for official
scoring, refer to www.edTPA.com for complete and current information before
beginning your work and to download templates for submitting materials. The
website contains information about the registration process, submission deadlines,
submission requirements, withdrawal/refund policies, and score reporting. It also
provides contact information should you have questions about your registration and
participation in edTPA.
Whether submitting directly to www.edTPA.com or via your program’s electronic
portfolio management system, follow the submission guidelines as documented in
the Evidence Chart and review edTPA Submission Requirements to ensure that
your materials conform to the required evidence specifications and requirements for
scoring.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
edTPA Elementary Literacy Tasks Overview
Planning Task 1: Planning for Instruction and Assessment
What to Do
â–º Select one class as a focus for this
assessment.
â–º Provide relevant context information.
What to Submit
Evaluation Rubrics
 Part A: Context for Learning
Planning Rubrics
Rubric 1: Planning for Literacy
Learning
Information
 Part B: Lesson Plans for
â–º Identify a learning segment to plan, teach,
Learning Segment
and analyze student learning. Your
 Part C: Instructional Materials
learning segment should include 3–5
consecutive literacy lessons.
 Part D: Assessments
â–º Determine a central focus for your
 Part E: Planning Commentary
learning segment. The central focus
should support students to develop an
essential literacy strategy for
comprehending or composing text and
related skills that directly support that
strategy.
â–º Write and submit a lesson plan for each
lesson in the learning segment.
Select
and submit key instructional
â–º
materials needed to understand what you
and the students will be doing.
â–º Choose one language function and other
language demands important to
understanding elementary literacy in your
learning segment. Identify a learning task
where students are supported to use this
language.
â–º Identify both the language function that
students will be expected to use to
engage in the learning task and your
instructional supports for that language.
â–º Respond to commentary prompts prior to
teaching the learning segment.
â–º Submit copies of all written assessments
and/or clear directions for any oral or
performance assessments from the
learning segment.
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Rubric 2: Planning to Support
Varied Student Learning Needs
Rubric 3: Using Knowledge of
Students to Inform Teaching
and Learning
Rubric 4: Identifying and
Supporting Language Demands
Rubric 5: Planning Assessments
to Monitor and Support Student
Learning
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Instruction Task 2: Instructing and Engaging Students in Learning
What to Do
What to Submit
â–º Obtain required permissions for
 Part A: Video Clips
videorecording from parents/guardians of
your students and other adults appearing  Part B: Instruction
Commentary
in the video.
â–º Identify lessons from the learning segment
you planned in Planning Task 1 to be
videorecorded. You should choose
lessons that show you interacting with
students to support them to independently
apply the essential literacy strategy and
related skills to comprehend OR compose
text in meaningful contexts.
â–º Videorecord your teaching and select 2
video clips (no more than 20 minutes
total, but not less than 3 minutes).
► Analyze your teaching and your students’
learning in the video clips by responding to
commentary prompts.
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Evaluation Rubrics
Instruction Rubrics
Rubric 6: Learning Environment
Rubric 7: Engaging Students in
Learning
Rubric 8: Deepening Student
Learning
Rubric 9: Subject-Specific
Pedagogy
Rubric 10: Analyzing Teaching
Effectiveness
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Assessment Task 3: Assessing Student Learning
What to Do
What to Submit
► Select one assessment from the learning 
segment that you will use to evaluate your
students’ developing knowledge and skills.

Attach the assessment used to evaluate
student performance to the end of the

Assessment Commentary.
â–º Define and submit the evaluation criteria

you will use to analyze student learning.
â–º Collect and analyze student work from the
selected assessment to identify
quantitative and qualitative patterns of
learning within and across learners in the
class.
â–º Select 3 student work samples to
illustrate your analysis of patterns of
learning within and across learners in the
class. At least 1 of the samples must be
from a student with specific learning
needs. These 3 students will be your
focus students.
â–º Summarize the learning of the whole
class, referring to work samples from the 3
focus students to illustrate patterns in
student understanding across the class.
â–º Submit feedback for the work samples for
the 3 focus students in written, audio, or
video form.
► Analyze evidence of students’ language
use from (1) the video clips from
Instruction Task 2, (2) an additional video
clip of one or more students using
language within the learning segment,
AND/OR (3) the student work samples
from Assessment Task 3.
Analyze
evidence of student learning and
â–º
plan for next steps by responding to
commentary prompts.
Part A: Student Work
Samples
Part B: Evidence of Feedback
Part C: Assessment
Commentary
Part D: Evaluation Criteria
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Evaluation Rubrics
Assessment Rubrics
Rubric 11: Analysis of Student
Learning
Rubric 12: Providing Feedback
to Guide Further Learning
Rubric 13: Student
Understanding and Use of
Feedback
Rubric 14: Analyzing Students’
Language Use and Literacy
Learning
Rubric 15: Using Assessment
to Inform Instruction
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Planning Task 1: Planning for Instruction
and Assessment
What Do I Need to Think About?
In Planning Task 1, you will describe your plans for the learning segment and explain how
your instruction is appropriate for the students and the content you are teaching. As you
develop your plans, you need to think about the following:
ï‚¡ What do your students know, what can they do, and what are they learning to do?
ï‚¡ What do you want your students to learn? What are the important understandings
and core concepts you want students to develop within the learning segment?
 How will you use your knowledge of your students’ assets to inform your plans?
ï‚¡ What instructional strategies, learning tasks, and assessments will you design to
support student learning and language use?
ï‚¡ How will your learning segment support students to develop and use language that
deepens content understanding?
ï‚¡ How is the teaching you propose supported by research and theory about how
students learn?
What Do I Need to Do?
 Select a class. If you teach more than one class, select one focus class for this
assessment. If your placement for elementary literacy has you responsible for a group
rather than a whole class, plans should describe instruction for that group (minimum of
4 students). That group will constitute “the whole class” for edTPA.
 Provide context information. The Elementary Literacy Context for Learning
Information form is provided later in this handbook and must be submitted in a template.
This form provides essential information about your students and your school/classroom.
The context information you submit should be no more than 4 pages, including
prompts.
 Identify a learning segment to plan, teach, and analyze. Review the curriculum with
your cooperating teacher and select a learning segment of 3–5 consecutive lessons.
 Identify a central focus for the learning segment. The central focus2 (e.g., retelling,
persuasive writing) should include
ï‚¡ an essential literacy strategy for comprehending text (e.g., summarizing a story)
OR composing text (e.g., using evidence to support an argument) AND
2 Click the hyperlinked term to view the complete glossary definition, which includes a diagram of a central focus on persuasive
writing. The diagram depicts the relationship among the central focus, essential literacy strategy, related skills,
standards/objectives, and language function.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
ï‚¡ the related skills needed to develop and apply the strategy (e.g., decoding,
recalling, sequencing, writing conventions, writing paragraphs) in meaningful
contexts.
 Determine the content standards and objectives for student learning that the
essential literacy strategy and related skills will address.
 If your teaching placement requires that you teach literacy embedded in another subject
area (e.g., social studies or science), your central focus must clearly address literacy,
and your standards, objectives, and learning tasks must address an essential literacy
strategy and skills for comprehending OR composing text. Simply having students read
and/or write while learning content in another subject area will not satisfy the
requirements for the Elementary Literacy edTPA tasks.
 Identify and plan to support language demands. Select a key language function from
your learning objectives. Choose a learning task that provides opportunities for students
to practice using that language function. Identify additional language demands
associated with that task. Plan targeted supports that address the identified language
demands, including the language function.
 Write a lesson plan for each lesson in the learning segment. Your lesson plans should
be detailed enough that a substitute or other teacher could understand them well enough
to use them.
 Your lesson plans must include the following information, even if your teacher
preparation program requires you to use a specific lesson plan format:
ï‚¡ State-adopted student academic content standards that are the target of student
learning. (Note: Please include the number and text of each standard that is being
addressed. If only a portion of a standard is being addressed, then only list the part
or parts that are relevant.)
ï‚¡ Learning objectives associated with the content standards
ï‚¡ Informal and formal assessments used to monitor student learning, including type(s)
of assessment and what is being assessed
ï‚¡ Instructional strategies and learning tasks (including what you and the students will
be doing) that support diverse student needs
ï‚¡ Instructional resources and materials used to engage students in learning
 Each lesson plan must be no more than 4 pages in length. You will need to
condense or excerpt lesson plans longer than 4 pages. Any explanations or rationale for
decisions should be included in your Planning Commentary and deleted from your plans.
 Respond to the commentary prompts listed in the Planning Commentary section
prior to teaching the learning segment.
 Submit your original lesson plans. If you make changes while teaching the learning
segment, you may offer reflection on those changes in the Instruction Task 2 and
Assessment Task 3 Commentaries.
 Select and submit key instructional materials needed to understand what you and
the students will be doing (no more than 5 additional pages per lesson plan). The
instructional materials might include such items as class handouts, assignments, slides,
and interactive whiteboard images.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
 Submit copies of all written assessments and/or directions for any oral or
performance assessments. (Submit only the blank assessments given to students; do
not submit student work samples for this task.)
 Provide citations for the source of all materials that you did not create (e.g.,
published texts, websites, and material from other educators). List all citations by lesson
number at the end of the Planning Commentary. Note: Citations do not count toward the
commentary page limit.
See the Planning Task 1: Artifacts and Commentary Specifications in the
Elementary Literacy Evidence Chart for instructions on electronic submission of
evidence. This evidence chart identifies templates, supported file types, number of
files, response length, and other important evidence specifications. Your evidence
cannot contain hyperlinked content. Any web content you wish to include as part of
your evidence must be submitted as a document file, which must conform to the file
format and response length requirements.
What Do I Need to Write?
In Planning Task 1, you will write
 a description of your Context for Learning (see “What Do I Need to Do?” above for
directions)
 lesson plans (see “What Do I Need to Do?” above for directions)
 a commentary explaining your plans (see “Planning Commentary” below for
directions)
Planning Commentary
In Planning Task 1, you will write a commentary, responding to the prompts below. Your
commentary should be no more than 9 single-spaced pages, including the prompts.
1. Central Focus
a. Describe the central focus and the essential literacy strategy for comprehending
OR composing text you will teach in the learning segment.
b. Given the central focus, describe how the standards and learning objectives
within your learning segment address
ï‚¡
the essential literacy strategy
ï‚¡
related skills that support use of the strategy
ï‚¡
reading/writing connections
c. Explain how your plans build on each other to help students make
connections between the essential literacy strategy to comprehend OR
compose text and related skills that support use of the strategy in meaningful
contexts.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
2. Knowledge of Students to Inform Teaching
For each of the prompts below (2a–b), describe what you know about your students
with respect to the central focus of the learning segment.
Consider the variety of learners in your class who may require different
strategies/support (e.g., students with IEPs or 504 plans, English language learners,
struggling readers, underperforming students or those with gaps in academic
knowledge, and/or gifted students).
a. Prior academic learning and prerequisite skills related to the central focus—Cite
evidence of what students know, what they can do, and what they are still
learning to do.
b. Personal, cultural, and community assets related to the central focus—What do
you know about your students’ everyday experiences, cultural and
language backgrounds and practices, and interests?
3. Supporting Students’ Literacy Learning
Respond to prompts 3a–c below. To support your justifications, refer to the
instructional materials and lesson plans you have included as part of Planning Task
1. In addition, use principles from research and/or theory to support your
justifications.
a. Justify how your understanding of your students’ prior academic learning and
personal, cultural, and community assets (from prompts 2a–b above) guided your
choice or adaptation of learning tasks and materials. Be explicit about the
connections between the learning tasks and students’ prior academic learning,
their assets, and research/theory.
b. Describe and justify why your instructional strategies and planned supports are
appropriate for the whole class, individuals, and/or groups of students with
specific learning needs.
Consider the variety of learners in your class who may require different
strategies/support (e.g., students with IEPs or 504 plans, English language
learners, struggling readers, underperforming students or those with gaps in
academic knowledge, and/or gifted students).
c. Describe common developmental approximations or common misconceptions
within your literacy central focus and how you will address them.
4. Supporting Literacy Development Through Language
As you respond to prompts 4a–d, consider the range of students’ language assets
and needs—what do students already know, what are they struggling with, and/or
what is new to them?
a. Language Function. Using information about your students’ language assets
and needs, identify one language function essential for students to develop and
practice the literacy strategy within your central focus. Listed below are some
sample language functions. You may choose one of these or another more
appropriate for your learning segment.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Analyze
Argue
Categorize Compare/contrast
Describe
Interpret
Predict
Question
Summarize
Retell
Explain
b. Identify a key learning task from your plans that provides students with
opportunities to practice using the language function in ways that support the
essential literacy strategy. Identify the lesson in which the learning task occurs.
(Give lesson day/number.)
c. Additional Language Demands. Given the language function and learning task
identified above, describe the following associated language demands (written or
oral) students need to understand and/or use:
ï‚¡ Vocabulary or key phrases
ï‚¡ Plus at least one of the following:
ï‚¡ Syntax
ï‚¡ Discourse
d. Language Supports. Refer to your lesson plans and instructional materials as
needed in your response to the prompt.
ï‚¡ Identify and describe the planned instructional supports (during and/or prior to
the learning task) to help students understand, develop, and use the
identified language demands (function, vocabulary or key phrases, discourse,
or syntax).
5. Monitoring Student Learning
In response to the prompts below, refer to the assessments you will submit as part of
the materials for Planning Task 1.
a. Describe how your planned formal and informal assessments will provide direct
evidence that students can use the essential literacy strategy to comprehend OR
compose text AND related skills throughout the learning segment.
b. Explain how the design or adaptation of your planned assessments allows
students with specific needs to demonstrate their learning.
Consider the variety of learners in your class who may require different
strategies/support (e.g., students with IEPs or 504 plans, English language
learners, struggling readers, underperforming students or those with gaps in
academic knowledge, and/or gifted students).
How Will the Evidence of My Teaching Practice Be
Assessed?
For Planning Task 1, your evidence will be assessed using rubrics 1–5, which appear on the
following pages. When preparing your artifacts and commentaries, refer to the rubrics
frequently to guide your thinking, planning, and writing.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Planning Rubrics
Rubric 1: Planning for Literacy Learning
How do the candidate’s plans build students’ understanding of an essential literacy strategy for
comprehending OR composing text and the skills that support that strategy?
Level 13
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Candidate’s plans for
instruction focus solely on
literacy skills without any
connections to an essential
literacy strategy for
comprehending OR
composing text.
Candidate’s plans for
instruction support student
learning of skills with vague
connections to the essential
literacy strategy for
comprehending OR composing
text.
Candidate’s plans for
instruction build on each
other to support learning of
• the essential literacy
strategy for
comprehending OR
composing text
• with clear connections to
related skills.
Candidate’s plans for
instruction build on each other
within a meaningful context
that supports learning of
• the essential literacy
strategy for
comprehending OR
composing text
• with clear AND consistent
connections to related
skills.
Level 4 plus:
Candidate’s plans build an
authentic connection
between reading and writing.
OR
There are significant content
inaccuracies that will lead to
student misunderstandings.
Candidate explains how s/he
will use learning tasks and
materials to lead students to
independently apply the
essential literacy strategy
AND related skills.
OR
Standards, objectives, and
learning tasks and materials
are not aligned with each
other.
3 Text representing key differences between adjacent score levels is shown in bold. Evidence that does not meet Level 1 criteria is scored at Level 1.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Planning Rubrics continued
Rubric 2: Planning to Support Varied Student Learning Needs
How does the candidate use knowledge of his/her students to target support for students’ literacy learning?
Level 1
There is no evidence of
planned supports.
OR
Level 2
Planned supports are loosely
tied to learning objectives or
the central focus of the
learning segment.
Candidate does not attend to
ANY INSTRUCTIONAL
requirements in IEPs and
504 plans.
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Level 3
Planned supports are tied to
learning objectives and the
central focus with attention to
the characteristics of the
class as a whole.
Level 4
Planned supports are tied to
learning objectives and the
central focus. Supports
address the needs of
specific individuals or
groups with similar needs.
Level 5
Level 4 plus:
Supports include specific
strategies to identify and
respond to common
developmental
approximations or
misconceptions.
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Planning Rubrics continued
Rubric 3: Using Knowledge of Students to Inform Teaching and Learning
How does the candidate use knowledge of his/her students to justify instructional plans?
Level 1
Candidate’s justification of
learning tasks is either missing
OR represents a deficit view
of students and their
backgrounds.
Level 2
Candidate justifies learning
tasks with limited attention to
students’
• prior academic learning OR
• personal, cultural, or
community assets.
Level 3
Candidate justifies why
learning tasks (or their
adaptations) are
appropriate using
examples of students’
• prior academic
learning OR
• personal, cultural, or
community assets.
Candidate makes
superficial connections
to research and/or
theory.
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Level 4
Candidate justifies why learning
tasks (or their adaptations) are
appropriate using examples of
students’
• prior academic learning
AND
• personal, cultural, or
community assets.
Level 5
Level 4 plus:
Candidate’s justification is
supported by principles from
research and/or theory.
Candidate makes connections
to research and/or theory.
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Planning Rubrics continued
Rubric 4: Identifying and Supporting Language Demands
How does the candidate identify and support language demands associated with a key literacy learning task?
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Language demands4 identified
by the candidate are not
consistent with the selected
language function5 OR task.
Language supports primarily
address one language
demand (vocabulary, function,
syntax, discourse).
General language supports
address use of two or more
language demands
(vocabulary, function, syntax,
discourse).
Targeted language supports
address use of
• vocabulary,
• language function, AND
• one or more additional
language demands
(syntax, discourse).
Level 4 plus:
Language supports are
designed to meet the needs
of students with different
levels of language learning.
OR
Language supports are
missing or are not aligned with
the language demand(s) for
the learning task.
4 Language demands include: language function, vocabulary, syntax and grammar, and discourse (organizational structures, text structure, etc.).
5 Language function refers to the learning outcome (verb) selected in prompt 4a (e.g., analyze, interpret).
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Planning Rubrics continued
Rubric 5: Planning Assessments to Monitor and Support Student Learning
How are the formal and informal assessments selected or designed to monitor students’ use of the essential
literacy strategy to comprehend OR compose text and related skills?
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
The assessments only provide
evidence of students’ use of
skills.
The assessments provide
limited evidence to monitor
students’ use of
• the essential literacy
strategy OR
• related skills
during the learning segment.
The assessments provide
evidence to monitor students’
use of
• the essential literacy
strategy AND
• related skills
during the learning segment.
The assessments provide
multiple forms of evidence to
monitor students’ use of
• the essential literacy
strategy AND
• related skills
throughout the learning
segment.
Level 4 plus:
The assessments are
strategically designed to
allow individuals or groups
with specific needs to
demonstrate their learning.
OR
Candidate does not attend to
ANY ASSESSMENT
requirements in IEPs and 504
plans.
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Instruction Task 2: Instructing and
Engaging Students in Learning
What Do I Need to Think About?
In Instruction Task 2, you will demonstrate how you support and engage students in literacy
learning. Before you begin your instruction, you need to think about the following:
ï‚¡ What kind of learning environment do you want to develop in order to establish
respect and rapport, and to support students’ engagement in learning?
ï‚¡ What kinds of learning tasks actively engage students in the central focus of the
learning segment?
ï‚¡ How will you elicit and build on student responses in ways that develop and deepen
content understanding?
 In what ways will you connect new content to your students’ prior academic learning
and personal, cultural, or community assets during your instruction?
ï‚¡ How will you use evidence from your instruction to examine and change your
teaching practices to more effectively meet a variety of student learning needs?
What Do I Need to Do?
 Obtain required permission for videorecording. Before you record your video, ensure
that you have the appropriate permission from the parents/guardians of your students
and from adults who appear in the video. Adjust the camera angle to exclude individuals
for whom you do not have permission to film.
 Examine your plans for the learning segment and identify challenging learning tasks
in which you and students are actively engaged. The video clips you select for
submission should provide a sample of how you interact with students to develop an
essential literacy strategy and related skills.
 Identify lessons to videorecord.
 Provide 2 video clips (together totaling no more than 20 minutes, but not less than
3 minutes) that demonstrate how you interact with students in a positive literacy
environment to develop an essential literacy strategy and related skills. The two clips
can come from the same or two different lessons in the learning segment.
ï‚¡ One clip should show how you actively engage students while modeling the
essential literacy strategy.
ï‚¡ A second clip should show how you support students to practice and apply the
essential literacy strategy to comprehend OR compose text in meaningful contexts.
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 (Optional) Provide evidence of students’ language use. You may provide evidence
of language use with your video clips from Instruction Task 2, an additional video clip of
one or more students using language within the learning segment (no more than 5
minutes in length), AND/OR through the student work samples analyzed in
Assessment Task 3.
 Determine whether you will feature the whole class or a targeted group of students
(minimum of 4 students) within the class.
 Videorecord your classroom teaching. Tips for videorecording your class are
available from your teacher preparation program.
 Select video clips to submit and verify that the clips meet the following requirements:
ï‚¡ Check the video and sound quality to ensure that you and your students can be seen
and heard on the video clips you submit. If most of the audio in a clip cannot be
understood by a scorer, submit another clip. If there are occasional audio portions
of a clip that cannot be understood that are relevant to your commentary responses,
do one of the following: 1) provide a transcript with time stamps of the inaudible
portion and refer to the transcript in your response; 2) embed quotes with time-stamp
references in the commentary response; or 3) insert captions in the video (captions
for this purpose will be considered permissible editing).
ï‚¡ A video clip must be continuous and unedited, with no interruption in the events.
ï‚¡ If you have inadvertently included individuals for whom you do not have permission
to film in the video clips you plan to submit, you may use software to blur the faces of
these individuals. This is not considered editing. Other portions of the submitted
video clips, including the classroom, your face, and the faces of individuals for whom
you have obtained permission to film, should remain unblurred.
ï‚¡ Do not include the name of the state, school, or district in your video. Use first names
only for all individuals appearing in the video.
 Respond to the prompts listed in the Instruction Commentary section below after
viewing the video clips.
 Determine if additional information is needed to understand what you and the
students are doing in the video clips. For example, if there are graphics, texts, or
images that are not clearly visible in the video, or comments that are not clearly heard,
you may insert digital copies or transcriptions at the end of the Instruction Commentary
(no more than 2 pages in addition to the responses to commentary prompts).
See the Instruction Task 2: Artifacts and Commentary Specifications in the
Elementary Literacy Evidence Chart for instructions on electronic submission of
evidence. This evidence chart identifies templates, supported file types, number of
files, response length, and other important evidence specifications. Your evidence
cannot contain hyperlinked content. Any web content you wish to include as part of
your evidence must be submitted as a document file, which must conform to the file
format and response length requirements.
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What Do I Need to Write?
Instruction Commentary
In Instruction Task 2, you will write a commentary, responding to the prompts below. Your
commentary should be no more than 6 single-spaced pages, including the prompts. If
needed, insert no more than 2 additional pages of supporting documentation for the
videorecordings at the end of the commentary (e.g., digital copies of indiscernible materials
or transcriptions of inaudible comments). These additional pages do not count toward the
commentary page limit noted above.
1. Which lesson or lessons are shown in the video clips? Identify the lesson(s) by
lesson plan number.
2. Promoting a Positive Learning Environment
Refer to scenes in the video clips where you provided a positive learning
environment.
a. How did you demonstrate mutual respect for, rapport with, and responsiveness to
students with varied needs and backgrounds, and challenge students to engage
in learning?
3. Engaging Students in Learning
Refer to examples from the video clips in your responses to the prompts.
a. Explain how your instruction engaged students in developing an essential literacy
strategy and related skills.
b. Describe how your instruction linked students’ prior academic learning and
personal, cultural, and community assets with new learning.
4. Deepening Student Learning during Instruction
Refer to examples from the video clips in your explanations.
a. Explain how you elicited and built on student responses to promote thinking
and apply the essential literacy strategy using related skills to comprehend OR
compose text.
b. Explain how you modeled the essential literacy strategy AND supported students
as they practiced or applied the strategy to comprehend OR compose text in a
meaningful context.
5. Analyzing Teaching
Refer to examples from the video clips in your responses to the prompts.
a. What changes would you make to your instruction—for the whole class and/or for
students who need greater support or challenge—to better support student
learning of the central focus (e.g., missed opportunities)?
Consider the variety of learners in your class who may require different
strategies/support (e.g., students with IEPs or 504 plans, English language
learners, struggling readers, underperforming students or those with gaps in
academic knowledge, and/or gifted students).
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b. Why do you think these changes would improve student learning? Support your
explanation with evidence of student learning AND principles from theory and/or
research.
How Will the Evidence of My Teaching Practice Be
Assessed?
For Instruction Task 2, your evidence will be assessed using rubrics 6–10, which appear on
the following pages. When preparing your artifacts and commentaries, refer to the rubrics
frequently to guide your thinking, instruction, and writing.
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Instruction Rubrics
Rubric 6: Learning Environment
How does the candidate demonstrate a positive literacy learning environment that supports students’
engagement in learning?
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
The clips reveal evidence of
disrespectful interactions
between teacher and students
or between students.
The candidate demonstrates
respect for students.
The candidate demonstrates
rapport with and respect for
students.
The candidate demonstrates
rapport with and respect for
students.
The candidate demonstrates
rapport with and respect for
students.
AND
AND
AND
Candidate provides a positive,
low-risk learning
environment that reveals
mutual respect among
students.
Candidate provides a
challenging learning
environment that promotes
mutual respect among
students.
OR
Candidate allows disruptive
behavior to interfere with
student learning.
AND
Candidate provides a
learning environment that
serves primarily to control
student behavior, and
minimally supports the
learning goals.
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Candidate provides a
challenging learning
environment that provides
opportunities to express
varied perspectives and
promotes mutual respect
among students.
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Instruction Rubrics continued
Rubric 7: Engaging Students in Learning
How does the candidate actively engage students in integrating strategies and skills to comprehend OR
compose text?
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Students are participating in
tasks that are vaguely or
superficially related to the
central focus.
Students are participating in
learning tasks focusing
primarily on skills with little
attention to the essential
literacy strategy for
comprehending OR composing
text.
Students are engaged in
learning tasks that address
their understanding of
• the essential literacy
strategy for comprehending
OR composing text AND
• related skills.
Students are engaged in
learning tasks that integrate
their understanding of
• the essential literacy
strategy for
comprehending OR
composing text AND
• related skills.
Students are engaged in
learning tasks that deepen
and extend their
understanding of
• the essential literacy
strategy for
comprehending OR
composing text AND
• related skills.
There is little or no evidence
that the candidate links
students’ prior academic
learning or personal,
cultural, or community
assets with new learning.
Candidate makes vague or
superficial links between
prior academic learning and
new literacy learning.
Candidate links prior
academic learning to new
literacy learning.
Candidate links prior academic
learning AND personal,
cultural, or community
assets to new literacy
learning.
Candidate prompts students
to link prior academic learning
AND personal, cultural, or
community assets to new
literacy learning.
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Instruction Rubrics continued
Rubric 8: Deepening Student Learning
How does the candidate elicit student responses to promote thinking and apply the essential literacy
strategy AND related skills to comprehend OR compose text?
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Candidate does most of the
talking and the students
provide few responses.
Candidate primarily asks
surface-level questions and
evaluates student responses
as correct or incorrect.
Candidate elicits student
responses to support use of
• the essential literacy
strategy OR
• related skills
to comprehend OR compose
text.
Candidate elicits and builds
on students’ responses to
explicitly portray, extend, or
clarify
• the essential literacy
strategy AND
Level 4 plus:
Candidate facilitates
interactions among students
so they can evaluate their
own abilities to apply the
essential literacy strategy in
meaningful reading or
writing contexts.
OR
Candidate responses include
significant content
inaccuracies that will lead to
student misunderstandings.
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• related skills
to comprehend OR compose
text.
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Instruction Rubrics continued
Rubric 9: Subject-Specific Pedagogy
How does the candidate support students to learn, practice, and apply the essential literacy strategy for
comprehending OR composing text in a meaningful context?
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Candidate does not teach
students how to use the
essential literacy strategy to
support comprehension OR
composition of text.
Candidate engages students
with the essential literacy
strategy without
opportunities for students to
practice or apply it to
comprehend OR compose
text.
Candidate models the
essential literacy strategy to
comprehend OR compose text
WITH limited opportunities
for practice.
Candidate explicitly teaches
students how to apply the
essential literacy strategy to
comprehend OR compose text
AND provides opportunities
for guided practice.
Level 4 plus:
Candidate explicitly teaches
students when to apply the
essential literacy strategy to
comprehend OR compose text
in meaningful contexts.
OR
There is a clear mismatch
between or among strategies,
skills, and students’ readiness
to learn.
OR
Materials used in the clips
include significant content
inaccuracies that will lead to
student misunderstandings.
OR
Candidate models/shows
how to apply skills to
comprehend OR compose
text without attending to the
essential literacy strategy.
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Instruction Rubrics continued
Rubric 10: Analyzing Teaching Effectiveness
How does the candidate use evidence to evaluate and change teaching practice to meet students’ varied
learning needs?
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Candidate suggests changes
unrelated to evidence of
student learning.
Candidate proposes
changes to teacher practice
that are superficially related
to student learning needs
(e.g., task management,
pacing, improving directions).
Candidate proposes changes
that address students’
collective learning needs
related to the central focus.
Candidate proposes changes
that address individual and
collective learning needs
related to the central focus.
Level 4 plus:
Candidate justifies changes
using principles from
research and/or theory.
Candidate makes superficial
connections to research
and/or theory.
Candidate makes
connections to research
and/or theory.
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Assessment Task 3: Assessing Student
Learning
What Do I Need to Think About?
In Assessment Task 3, you will analyze both student learning and student use of language.
Before you begin the analysis, you need to think about the following:
ï‚¡ How will you gather evidence and make sense of what students have learned?
ï‚¡ How will you provide meaningful feedback to your students?
ï‚¡ How will you use evidence of what students know and are able to do to plan next
steps in instruction?
 How will you identify evidence of and explain students’ use of language that
demonstrates the development of content understanding?
What Do I Need to Do?
 Select one assessment from your learning segment you will use to evaluate your
students’ developing knowledge and skills. It should be an assessment that is completed
by the whole class featured in the learning segment. (If you are teaching only a group
within the class for the learning segment, that group will be “the whole class.”) The
assessment should reflect the work of individuals, not groups, but may be individual
work from a group task. The assessment should provide opportunities for students to
demonstrate
ï‚¡ the essential literacy strategy
ï‚¡ related skills
 Define and submit the evaluation criteria you will use to analyze student learning
related to the literacy understandings described above.
 Collect and analyze student work from the selected assessment to identify
quantitative and qualitative patterns of learning within and across learners in the class.
You may submit text files with scanned student work OR, for oral assessments of
primary grade students (e.g., reading aloud, dictating text, or orally demonstrating the
essential literacy strategy), a video or audio file. (Note that the oral assessment must be
given to the whole class, though not necessarily at the same time.) For each focus
student, a video or audio work sample must be no more than 5 minutes in total running
time.
 Select 3 student work samples that represent the patterns of learning (i.e., what
individuals or groups generally understood and what a number of students were still
struggling to understand) you identified in your assessment analysis. These students will
be your focus students for this task. At least one of the focus students must have
specific learning needs, for example, a student with an IEP (Individualized Education
Program) or 504 plan, an English language learner, a struggling reader or writer, an
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underperforming student or a student with gaps in academic knowledge, and/or a gifted
student needing greater support or challenge. Note: California candidates must include
one focus student who is an English language learner.6
 Document the feedback you gave to each of the 3 focus students on the work sample
itself, as an audio clip, or as a video clip. You must submit evidence of the actual
feedback provided to each focus student, and not a description of the feedback.
 If you submit a student work sample or feedback as a video or audio clip and comments
made by you or your focus student(s) cannot be clearly heard, do one of the following: 1)
attach a transcription of the inaudible comments (no more than 2 additional pages) to
the end of the Assessment Commentary; 2) embed quotes with time-stamp references in
the commentary response; or 3) insert captions in the video (captions for this purpose
will be considered permissible editing).
 If you submit a student work sample or feedback as a video or audio clip and additional
students are present, clearly identify which students are your focus students in the
relevant prompts (1d and 2a) of the Assessment Commentary (in no more than 2
sentences).
 Respond to the prompts listed in the Assessment Commentary section below after
analyzing student work from the selected assessment.
 Include and submit the chosen assessment, including the directions/prompts
provided to students. Attach the assessment (no more than 5 additional pages) to
the end of the Assessment Commentary.
 Provide evidence of students’ understanding and use of the targeted academic
language function and other language demands. You may choose evidence from the
video clips submitted in Instruction Task 2, an additional video clip of one or more
students using language within the learning segment (no more than 5 minutes in
length), AND/OR student work samples submitted in Assessment Task 3.
See the Assessment Task 3: Artifacts and Commentary Specifications in the
Elementary Literacy Evidence Chart for instructions on electronic submission of
evidence. This evidence chart identifies templates, supported file types, number of
files, response length, and other important evidence specifications. Your evidence
cannot contain hyperlinked content. Any web content you wish to include as part of
your evidence must be submitted as a document file, which must conform to the file
format and response length requirements.
What Do I Need to Write?
Assessment Commentary
In Assessment Task 3, you will write a commentary, responding to the prompts below. Your
commentary should be no more than 10 single-spaced pages, including the prompts.
6 California candidates—If you do not have any English language learners, select a student who is challenged by academic
English.
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Attach the assessment used to evaluate student performance (no more than 5 additional
pages) and, if necessary, a transcription of inaudible portions of a video or audio clip of
feedback or a work sample (no more than 2 additional pages) to the end of the
Assessment Commentary. These additional pages do not count toward the commentary
page limit noted above.
1. Analyzing Student Learning
a. Identify the specific learning objectives measured by the assessment you chose
for analysis.
b. Provide a graphic (table or chart) or narrative that summarizes student learning
for your whole class. Be sure to summarize student learning for all evaluation
criteria submitted in Assessment Task 3, Part D.
c. Use evidence found in the 3 student work samples and the whole class
summary to analyze the patterns of learning for the whole class and
differences for groups or individual learners relative to
ï‚¡ the essential literacy strategy
ï‚¡ related skills
Consider what students understand and do well, and where they continue to
struggle (e.g., common errors, confusions, need for greater challenge).
d. If a video or audio work sample occurs in a group context (e.g., discussion),
provide the name of the clip and clearly describe how the scorer can identify the
focus student(s) (e.g., position, physical description) whose work is portrayed.
2. Feedback to Guide Further Learning
Refer to specific evidence of submitted feedback to support your explanations.
a. Identify the format in which you submitted your evidence of feedback for the 3
focus students. Choose one of the following:
ï‚¡ Written directly on work samples or in separate documents that were
provided to the focus students
ï‚¡ In audio files
ï‚¡ In video clips from Instruction Task 2 (provide a time-stamp reference) or in
separate video clips
If a video or audio clip of feedback occurs in a group context (e.g., discussion),
clearly describe how the scorer can identify the focus student (e.g., position,
physical description) who is being given feedback.
b. Explain how feedback provided to the 3 focus students addresses their individual
strengths and needs relative to the learning objectives measured.
c. Describe how you will support each focus student to understand and use this
feedback to further their learning related to learning objectives, either within the
learning segment or at a later time.
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3. Evidence of Language Understanding and Use
When responding to the prompt below, use concrete examples from the video clip(s)
and/or student work samples as evidence. Evidence from the clip(s) may focus on
one or more students.
You may provide evidence of students’ language use from ONE, TWO, OR ALL
THREE of the following sources:
1.
Use video clips from Instruction Task 2 and provide time-stamp references for
evidence of language use.
2.
Submit an additional video file named “Language Use” of no more than 5
minutes in length and cite language use (this can be footage of one or more
students’ language use). Submit the clip in Assessment Task 3, Part B.
3.
Use the student work samples analyzed in Assessment Task 3 and cite
language use.
a. Explain and provide concrete examples for the extent to which your students
were able to use or struggled to use the
ï‚¡ selected language function,
ï‚¡ vocabulary or key phrases, AND
ï‚¡ discourse or syntax
to develop content understandings.
4. Using Assessment to Inform Instruction
a. Based on your analysis of student learning presented in prompts 1b–c, describe
next steps for instruction to impact student learning:
ï‚¡ For the whole class
ï‚¡ For the 3 focus students and other individuals/groups with specific needs
Consider the variety of learners in your class who may require different
strategies/support (e.g., students with IEPs or 504 plans, English language
learners, struggling readers, underperforming students or those with gaps in
academic knowledge, and/or gifted students needing greater support or
challenge).
b. Explain how these next steps follow from your analysis of student learning.
Support your explanation with principles from research and/or theory.
How Will the Evidence of My Teaching Practice Be
Assessed?
For Assessment Task 3, your evidence will be assessed using rubrics 11–15, which appear
on the following pages. When preparing your artifacts and commentaries, refer to the rubrics
frequently to guide your thinking, planning, instruction, assessment, and writing.
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Assessment Rubrics
Rubric 11: Analysis of Student Learning
How does the candidate analyze evidence of student learning related to the essential literacy strategy and
related skills?
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
The analysis is superficial or
not supported by either
student work samples or the
summary of student
learning.
The analysis focuses on what
students did right OR wrong.
The analysis focuses on what
students did right AND wrong.
Analysis uses specific
examples from work
samples to demonstrate
patterns of learning
consistent with the
summary.
Analysis uses specific
evidence from work samples to
demonstrate the
connections between
quantitative and qualitative
patterns of learning for
individuals or groups.
OR
The evaluation criteria are not
aligned with the learning
objectives and/or analysis.
AND
Analysis includes some
differences in whole class
learning.
AND
Patterns of learning are
described for whole class.
OR
The analysis is not aligned with
the learning objectives.
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Assessment Rubrics continued
Rubric 12: Providing Feedback to Guide Further Learning
What type of feedback does the candidate provide to focus students?
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Feedback is unrelated to the
learning objectives OR is
developmentally
inappropriate.
Feedback is general and
addresses needs AND/OR
strengths related to the
learning objectives.
Feedback is specific and
addresses either needs OR
strengths related to the
learning objectives.
Feedback is specific and
addresses both strengths
AND needs related to the
learning objectives.
Level 4 plus:
Feedback for one or more
focus students
• provides a strategy to
address an individual
learning need OR
• makes connections to
prior learning or
experience to improve
learning.
OR
Feedback contains
significant content
inaccuracies.
OR
No feedback is provided to one
or more focus students.
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Assessment Rubrics continued
Rubric 13: Student Understanding and Use of Feedback
How does the candidate support focus students to understand and use the feedback to guide their further
learning?
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Opportunities for
understanding or using
feedback are not described.
Candidate provides vague
description of how focus
students will understand or
use feedback.
Candidate describes how
focus students will understand
or use feedback related to the
learning objectives.
Candidate describes how s/he
will support focus students to
understand and use feedback
on their strengths OR
weaknesses related to the
learning objectives.
Candidate describes how s/he
will support focus students to
understand and use feedback
on their strengths AND
weaknesses related to the
learning objectives.
OR
Candidate provides limited or
no feedback to inform
student learning.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Assessment Rubrics continued
Rubric 14: Analyzing Students’ Language Use and Literacy Learning
How does the candidate analyze students’ use of language to develop content understanding?
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Candidate identifies student
language use that is
superficially related or
unrelated to the language
demands (function,7
vocabulary, and additional
demands).
Candidate describes how
students use only one
language demand
(vocabulary, function,
syntax, discourse).
Candidate explains and
provides evidence of
students’ use of
• the language function
AND
• one or more additional
language demands
(vocabulary, syntax,
discourse).8
Candidate explains and
provides evidence of students’
use of
• the language function,
• vocabulary, AND
• additional language
demand(s) (syntax,
discourse)
in ways that develop content
understandings.
Level 4 plus:
Candidate explains and
provides evidence of
language use and content
learning for students with
varied needs.
OR
Candidate’s description or
explanation of language use
is not consistent with the
evidence submitted.
7 Previous footnote is now obsolete and has been deleted.
8 Previous footnote is now obsolete and has been deleted.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Assessment Rubrics continued
Rubric 15: Using Assessment to Inform Instruction
How does the candidate use the analysis of what students know and are able to do to plan next steps in
instruction?
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Next steps do not follow from
the analysis.
Next steps primarily focus on
changes to teaching
practice that are
superficially related to
student learning needs, for
example, repeating
instruction, pacing, or
classroom management
issues.
Next steps propose general
support that improves
student learning related to
assessed learning
objectives.
Next steps provide targeted
support to individuals or
groups to improve their
learning relative to
• the essential literacy
strategy OR
• related skills.
Next steps provide targeted
support to individuals AND
groups to improve their
learning relative to
• the essential literacy
strategy AND
• related skills.
Next steps are connected with
research and/or theory.
Next steps are justified with
principles from research
and/or theory.
OR
Next steps are not relevant to
the learning objectives
assessed.
OR
Next steps are not described
in sufficient detail to
understand them.
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Next steps are loosely
connected with research
and/or theory.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Professional Responsibilities
Refer to the following table for an overview of your professional responsibilities in
developing evidence for edTPA. If you are submitting artifacts and commentaries for official
scoring, refer to www.edTPA.com, for complete and current information before beginning
your work. Included here are important information and policies such as submission
requirements and deadlines, registration agreements, attestations, permissions, and
confidentiality. Whether or not you are submitting for official scoring, you should fulfill the
professional responsibilities described below.
Responsibility
Description
Protect
confidentiality
To protect confidentiality, please remove your name and use pseudonyms or general
references (e.g., “the district”) for your state, school, district, and cooperating teacher. Mask or
remove all names on any typed or written material (e.g., commentaries, lesson plans, student
work samples) that could identify individuals or institutions. During videorecording, use
students’ first names only.
To ensure confidentiality of your students and yourself, do not share your video on any
publicly accessible platforms or websites (YouTube, Facebook, etc.).
Before you record your classroom instruction, ensure that you have the appropriate
permission from the parents/guardians of your students and from adults who appear in the
videorecording.
Your program will provide you with procedures and necessary forms to obtain these
permissions, according to agreements with the school or district in which you are student
teaching or completing your internship.
If your program does not provide the necessary forms, you may refer to the sample forms
found on www.edTPA.com.
The release forms are not to be submitted with your materials, but you should follow your
campus policy for retaining them.
Acquire
permissions
Cite sources
Provide citations for the source of all materials that you did not create (e.g., published texts,
websites, and material from other educators). List all citations by lesson number at the end of
the Planning Commentary. Note: Citations do not count toward the commentary page limit.
Align instruction
with state
standards
As part of the assessment, you will document the alignment of your lesson plans with stateadopted academic content standards that are the target of student learning. Refer to the
education agency website for your state to obtain copies of relevant standards for this
assessment.
Follow the
guidelines for
candidate support
at
www.edTPA.com
Follow the guidelines for candidate support found at www.edTPA.com as you develop your
evidence for edTPA. Although you may seek and receive appropriate support from your
university supervisors, cooperating/master teachers, university instructors, or peers during this
process, the ultimate responsibility for completing this assessment lies with you. Therefore,
when you submit your completed work, you must be able to confirm your adherence
with certain statements, such as the following:
ï‚¡ I have primary responsibility for teaching the students/class during the learning segment
profiled in this assessment.
ï‚¡ I have not previously taught this learning segment to the students/class.
ï‚¡ The video clips submitted are unedited (continuous) and show me teaching the
students/class profiled in the evidence submitted.
ï‚¡ The student work included in the documentation is that of my students, completed during
the learning segment documented in this assessment.
ï‚¡ I am author of the commentaries and other written responses to prompts in this
assessment.
ï‚¡ Appropriate citations have been made for all materials in the assessment whose sources
are from published text, the Internet, or other educators.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Elementary Literacy Context for Learning
Information
Use the Context for Learning Information to supply information about your school/classroom
context.
About the School Where You Are Teaching
1. In what type of school do you teach? (Type an “X” next to the appropriate
description; if “other” applies, provide a brief description.)
Elementary school: _____
Middle school: _____
Other (please describe): _____
2. Where is the school where you are teaching located? (Type an “X” next to the
appropriate description.)9
City: _____
Suburb: _____
Town: _____
Rural: _____
3. List any special features of your school or classroom setting (e.g., charter, coteaching, themed magnet, intervention or other leveled small group instruction,
classroom aide, bilingual, team taught with a special education teacher) that will
affect your teaching in this learning segment.
4. Describe any district, school, or cooperating teacher requirements or expectations
that might affect your planning or delivery of instruction, such as required curricula,
pacing plan, use of specific instructional strategies, or standardized tests.
About the Class Featured in this Learning Segment
1. How much time is devoted each day to literacy instruction in your classroom?
2. Is there any ability grouping or tracking in literacy? If so, please describe how it
affects your class.
3. Identify any textbook or instructional program you primarily use for literacy
instruction. If a textbook, please provide the title, publisher, and date of publication.
4. List other resources (e.g., electronic whiteboard, classroom library or other text sets,
online professional resources) you use for literacy instruction in this class.
9 If you need guidance when making a selection, reference the NCES locale category definitions
(https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/ruraled/definitions.asp) or consult with your placement school administrator.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
About the Students in the Class Featured in this Learning Segment
1. Grade level(s): _______________________________
2. Number of
ï‚¡ students in the class: _____
ï‚¡ males: _____ females: _____
3. Complete the charts below to summarize required or needed supports,
accommodations, or modifications for your students that will affect your instruction in
this learning segment. As needed, consult with your cooperating teacher to complete
the charts. Some rows have been completed in italics as examples. Use as many
rows as you need.
Consider the variety of learners in your class who may require different
strategies/supports or accommodations/modifications to instruction or
assessment. For example, students
ï‚¡ With Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) or 504 plans
ï‚¡ With specific language needs
ï‚¡ Needing greater challenge or support
ï‚¡ Who struggle with reading
ï‚¡ Who are underperforming students or have gaps in academic
knowledge
For Assessment Task 3, you will choose work samples from 3 focus students.
At least one of these students must have a specified learning need. Note:
California candidates must include one focus student who is an English
language learner.10
10
California candidates—If you do not have any English language learners, select a student who is challenged by academic
English.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Students with IEPs/504 Plans
IEPs/504 Plans:
Classifications/Needs
Example: Visual processing
Number of
Students
2
Supports, Accommodations,
Modifications, Pertinent IEP Goals
Close monitoring, large print text,
window card to isolate text
Students with Specific Language Needs
Language Needs
Example: English language
learners with only a few
words of English
Example: Students who
speak a variety of English
other than that used in
textbooks
Number of
Students
2
5
Supports, Accommodations,
Modifications
Pre-teach key words and phrases
through examples and graphic
organizers (e.g., word cluster,
manipulatives, visuals)
Have students use pre-taught key words
and graphic organizers to
complete sentence starters
Make connections between the language
students bring and the language used in
the textbook
Students with Other Learning Needs
Other Learning Needs
Example: Struggling readers
Number of
Students
5
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Supports, Accommodations,
Modifications
Leveled text, targeted guided reading,
ongoing reading assessment (e.g.,
running records, miscue, conferencing)
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Elementary Literacy Evidence Chart
Your evidence must be submitted to the electronic portfolio management system used by your teacher preparation program. Your
submission must conform to the artifact and commentary specifications for each task. This section provides instructions for all
evidence types as well as a description of supported file types for evidence submission, number of files, response lengths, and
other information regarding format specifications. Note that your evidence cannot contain hyperlinked content. Any web content
you wish to include as part of your evidence must be submitted as a document file, which must conform to the file format and
response length requirements. If you have materials in languages other than English or Spanish, these must be translated into
English as per the edTPA Submission Requirements. Those translations should be added to the original materials as part of the
same file or, if applicable, to the end of the commentary template. There is no page limit for required translations into English.
Planning Task 1: Artifacts and Commentary Specifications
What to
Submit
Supported File
Types
Part A: Context for
Learning
Information
(template provided)
Number of Files
Response
Length
Additional Information
Min
Max
.doc; .docx; .odt; .pdf
1
1
No more than 4
pages, including
prompts
ï‚¡ Use Arial 11-point type.
ï‚¡ Single space with 1″ margins on all sides.
Part B: Lesson
Plans for Learning
Segment
.doc; .docx; .odt; .pdf
1
1
No more than 4
pages per lesson
 Submit 3–5 lesson plans in 1 file.
ï‚¡ Within the file, label each lesson plan (Lesson 1, Lesson 2, etc.).
ï‚¡ All rationale or explanation for plans should be written in the
Part C:
Instructional
Materials
.doc; .docx; .odt; .pdf
1
1
No more than 5
pages of KEY
instructional materials
per lesson plan
ï‚¡ Submit all materials in 1 file.
ï‚¡ Within the file, label materials by corresponding lesson (Lesson 1
Part D:
Assessments
.doc; .docx; .odt; .pdf
Part E: Planning
Commentary
(template provided)
Planning Commentary and removed from lesson plans.
.doc; .docx; .odt; .pdf
1
1
1
1
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No limit
No more than 9
pages of
commentary,
including prompts
Instructional Materials, Lesson 2 Instructional Materials, etc.).
ï‚¡ Order materials as they are used in the learning segment.
ï‚¡ Submit assessments in 1 file.
ï‚¡ Within the file, label assessments by corresponding lesson
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
(Lesson 1 Assessments, Lesson 2 Assessments, etc.).
Order assessments as they are used in the learning segment.
Use Arial 11-point type.
Single space with 1″ margins on all sides.
Respond to prompts before teaching the learning segment.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Instruction Task 2: Artifacts and Commentary Specifications
What to
Submit
Supported File
Types
Part A: Video
Clips11
Part B: Instruction
Commentary
(template
provided)
Number of Files
Response
Length
Additional Information
Min
Max
flv, asf, qt, mov, mpg,
mpeg, avi, wmv, mp4,
m4v
2
2
No more than
20 minutes total
running time (but not
less than 3 minutes)
ï‚¡ Before you record your video, obtain permission from the
.doc; .docx; .odt; .pdf
1
1
No more than 6
pages of
commentary,
including prompts
ï‚¡ Use Arial 11-point type.
ï‚¡ Single space with 1″ margins on all sides.
If needed, no more
than 2 additional
pages of supporting
documentation
parents/guardians of your students and from adults who appear on
the video.
ï‚¡ Refer to Instruction Task 2, What Do I Need to Do? for video clip
content and requirements.
ï‚¡ When naming each clip file, include the number of the lesson
shown in the video clip.
IMPORTANT:
ï‚¡ Insert documentation at the end of the commentary file if
ï‚¡ you or the students are using graphics, texts, or images that
are not clearly visible in the video
ï‚¡ you chose to submit a transcript for occasionally inaudible
portions of the video
ï‚¡ If submitting documentation, include the video clip number, lesson
number, and explanatory text (e.g., “Clip 1, lesson 2, text from a
whiteboard that is not visible in the video,” “Clip 2, lesson 4,
transcription of a student response that is inaudible”).
11 Video file size requirements: The target file size is 200–300 MB or less. The Pearson ePortfolio System file size limit is 500 MB. Please note that each integrated platform
provider portfolio system may have additional constraints or requirements regarding video formats and file sizes. You may need to use video tools to compress or transcode your
video into smaller file sizes to facilitate uploading of the video. Refer to Recommended Video Formats and Settings on www.edtpa.com for the current requirements.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Assessment Task 3: Artifacts and Commentary Specifications
What to
Submit
Supported File
Types
Part A: Student
Work Samples12
For written work
samples: .doc; .docx;
.odt; .pdf
Number of Files
Min
Max
3
3
For audio work
samples: flv, asf,
wmv, qt, mov, mpg,
avi, mp3, wav, mp4,
wma
For video work
samples: flv, asf, qt,
mov, mpg, mpeg, avi,
wmv, mp4, m4v
Response
Length
Additional Information
No page limit for
written work samples
ï‚¡ For written work samples, use correction fluid, tape, or a felt-tip
No more than
5 minutes per focus
student for video or
audio student work
samples
marker to mask or remove students’ names, your name, and
the name of the school before copying/scanning any work
samples. If your students’ writing is illegible, write a transcription
directly on the work sample.
ï‚¡ On each work sample, indicate the student number (Student 1
Work Sample, Student 2 Work Sample, or Student 3 Work
Sample). If more than one focus student appears in a video or
audio work sample, upload the same work sample separately for
each focus student who is seen/heard and label appropriately.
Describe how to recognize each of the focus students in the clip
and provide the label associated with the clip in prompt 1d of the
Assessment Commentary.
ï‚¡ When naming each work sample file, include the student number.
ï‚¡ If you submit a student work sample or feedback as a video or
audio clip and comments made by you or your focus student(s)
cannot be clearly heard, do one of the following: 1) attach a
transcription of the inaudible comments (no more than 2
additional pages) to the end of the Assessment Commentary; 2)
embed quotes with time-stamp references in the commentary
response; or 3) insert captions in the video (captions for this
purpose will be considered permissible editing).
(Continued on next page)
12 Video file size requirements: The target file size is 200–300 MB or less. The Pearson ePortfolio System file size limit is 500 MB. Please note that each integrated platform
provider portfolio system may have additional constraints or requirements regarding video formats and file sizes. You may need to use video tools to compress or transcode your
video into smaller file sizes to facilitate uploading of the video. Refer to Recommended Video Formats and Settings on www.edtpa.com for the current requirements.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Assessment Task 3: Artifacts and Commentary Specifications (continued)
What to
Submit
Supported File
Types
Part B: Evidence
of Feedback13
For written feedback
not written on the
work samples: .doc;
.docx; .odt; .pdf
And, if included,
video evidence of
academic
language use
Number of Files
Min
Max
0
4
For audio feedback:
flv, asf, wmv, qt, mov,
mpg, avi, mp3, wav,
mp4, wma
For video clips
(feedback and/or
language use): flv,
asf, qt, mov, mpg,
mpeg, avi, wmv, mp4,
m4v
Response
Length
Additional Information
No page limit for
written feedback
ï‚¡ Document the location of your evidence of feedback in the
No more than 3
minutes per focus
student for video or
audio feedback
Assessment Commentary.
ï‚¡ If feedback is not included as part of the student work samples or
ï‚¡
No more than 5
minutes for video
evidence of student
language use
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
recorded on the video clip(s) from Instruction Task 2, submit only 1
file for each focus student—a document, video file, OR audio file—
and label the file with the corresponding student number (Student 1
Feedback, Student 2 Feedback, or Student 3 Feedback).
If more than one focus student appears in a video or audio clip of
feedback, upload the same clip separately for each focus student
who is seen/heard and label appropriately.
When naming each feedback file, include the student number.
If you submit a student work sample or feedback as a video or
audio clip and comments made by you or your focus student(s)
cannot be clearly heard, do one of the following: 1) attach a
transcription of the inaudible comments (no more than 2
additional pages) to the end of the Assessment Commentary; 2)
embed quotes with time-stamp references in the commentary
response; or 3) insert captions in the video (captions for this
purpose will be considered permissible editing).
For Academic Language – If you choose to submit a video clip of
student language use, it should be no more than 5 minutes. You
may identify a portion of a clip provided for Instruction Task 2 or
submit an entirely new clip.
(Continued on next page)

13 Video file size requirements: The target file size is 200–300 MB or less. The Pearson ePortfolio System file size limit is 500 MB. Please note that each integrated platform
provider portfolio system may have additional constraints or requirements regarding video formats and file sizes. You may need to use video tools to compress or transcode your
video into smaller file sizes to facilitate uploading of the video. Refer to Recommended Video Formats and Settings on www.edtpa.com for the current requirements.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Assessment Task 3: Artifacts and Commentary Specifications (continued)
What to
Submit
Supported File
Types
Part C:
Assessment
Commentary
(template
provided)
Part D: Evaluation
Criteria
Number of Files
Response
Length
Additional Information
Min
Max
.doc; .docx; .odt; .pdf
1
1
ï‚¡ Use Arial 11-point type.
No more than 10
pages of commentary, ï‚¡ Single space with 1″ margins on all sides.
including prompts
IMPORTANT: Insert a copy of the chosen assessment, including
directions/prompts provided to students.
Plus
ï‚¡ no more than 5
additional pages
for the chosen
assessment,
ï‚¡ if necessary, no
more than 2
additional total
pages of
transcription of
video/audio
evidence for a
work sample and
feedback, and/or
video evidence of
language use
.doc; .docx; .odt; .pdf
1
1
No limit
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
Elementary Literacy Glossary
Source citations for glossary entries are provided as footnotes in this section.
academic language: Oral and written language used for academic purposes. Academic
language is the means by which students develop and express content understandings.
Academic language represents the language of the discipline that students need to learn
and use to participate and engage in the content area in meaningful ways. There are
language demands that teachers need to consider as they plan to support student learning
of content. These language demands include language functions, vocabulary,
discourse, and syntax.
ï‚¡ language demands:14 Specific ways that academic language (vocabulary, functions,
discourse, syntax) is used by students to participate in learning tasks through
reading, writing, listening, and/or speaking to demonstrate their disciplinary
understanding.
ï‚¡ language functions: The content and language focus of the learning task,
represented by the active verbs within the learning outcomes. Common language
functions in the language arts include identifying main ideas and details; analyzing
and interpreting characters and plots; arguing a position or point of view;
predicting; evaluating or interpreting an author’s purpose, message, and use of
setting, mood, or tone; comparing ideas within and between texts; and so on.
ï‚¡ vocabulary: Includes words and phrases that are used within disciplines, including:
(1) words and phrases with subject-specific meanings that differ from meanings used
in everyday life (e.g., table); (2) general academic vocabulary used across disciplines
(e.g., compare, analyze, evaluate); and (3) subject-specific words defined for use in
the discipline.15
ï‚¡ discourse: Discourse includes the structures of written and oral language, as well as
how members of the discipline talk, write, and participate in knowledge construction.
Discipline-specific discourse has distinctive features or ways of structuring oral or
written language (text structures) that provide useful ways for the content to be
communicated.16 In the language arts and literacy, there are structures for
composing, interpreting, and comprehending expository, narrative, poetic,
journalistic, and graphic print materials as well as video and live presentations. If the
language function is to interpret character development, then appropriate language
forms could include written essays (with particular ways of citing textual evidence) or
pattern sentences, such as, “The author used (action, dialogue, and/or description)
14 O’Hara, S., Pritchard, R., & Zwiers, J. (2012). Identifying academic language demands in support of the common core
standards. ASCD Express, 7(17). Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/ascd-express/vol7/717-ohara.aspx
15 Quinn, H., Lee, O., & Valdés, G. (2012). Language demands and opportunities in relation to next generation science
standards for ELLs. Retrieved from http://ell.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/pdf/academic-papers/03Quinn%20Lee%20Valdes%20Language%20and%20Opportunities%20in%20Science%20FINAL.pdf
16 Quinn, H., Lee, O., & Valdés, G. (2012). Language demands and opportunities in relation to next generation science
standards for ELLs. Retrieved from http://ell.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/pdf/academic-papers/03Quinn%20Lee%20Valdes%20Language%20and%20Opportunities%20in%20Science%20FINAL.pdf
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
to introduce (main character). One example of (action, dialogue, and/or description)
was ____________, which suggested that the character was _______________.”
ï‚¡ syntax: The set of conventions for organizing symbols, words, and phrases together
into structures (e.g., sentences, graphs, tables).17
ï‚¡ language supports: The scaffolds, representations, and pedagogical strategies
teachers provide to help learners understand, use, and practice the concepts and
language they need to learn within disciplines (Santos, Darling-Hammond, Cheuk,
2012).18 The language supports planned within the lessons in edTPA should directly
support learners to understand and use identified language demands (vocabulary,
language function, and discourse or syntax) to deepen content understandings.
aligned: Consistently addressing the same/similar learning outcomes for students.
artifacts: Authentic work completed by you and your students, including lesson plans,
copies of instructional and assessment materials, video clips of your teaching, and student
work samples. Artifacts are submitted as part of your evidence.
assessment (formal and informal): “[R]efer[s] to all those activities undertaken by
teachers and by their students . . . that provide information to be used as feedback to modify
the teaching and learning activities.”19 Assessments provide evidence of students’ prior
knowledge, thinking, or learning in order to evaluate what students understand and how they
are thinking. Informal assessments may include, for example, student questions and
responses during instruction and teacher observations of students as they work or perform.
Formal assessments may include, for example, quizzes, homework assignments, journals,
projects, and performance tasks.
assets (knowledge of students):
ï‚¡ personal: Refers to specific background information that students bring to the
learning environment. Students may bring interests, knowledge, everyday
experiences, family backgrounds, and so on, which a teacher can draw upon to
support learning.
ï‚¡ cultural: Refers to the cultural backgrounds and practices that students bring to the
learning environment, such as traditions, languages and dialects, worldviews,
literature, art, and so on, that a teacher can draw upon to support learning.
ï‚¡ community: Refers to common backgrounds and experiences that students bring
from the community where they live, such as resources, local landmarks, community
events and practices, and so on, that a teacher can draw upon to support learning.
central focus: A description of the important understandings and core concepts that you
want students to develop within the learning segment. The central focus should go beyond a
list of facts and skills, align with content standards and learning objectives, and address the
subject-specific components in the learning segment. In elementary literacy, the central
17 Zwiers, J. (2008). Building academic language: Essential practices for content classrooms. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
18 Santos, M., Darling-Hammond, L., & Cheuk, T. (2012). Teacher development to support English language learners in the
context of common core state standards. Stanford University Understanding Language. Available at
http://ell.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/pdf/academic-papers/10-Santos%20LDH%20Teacher%20Development%20FINAL.pdf
19 Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan,
80(2), 139–148.
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edTPA Elementary Literacy Assessment Handbook
focus is an overarching, big idea for student learning in literacy. The subject-specific
components for the elementary literacy central focus also include (a) an essential literacy
strategy tied to the central focus and (b) related skills.
For example, the central focus for a primary grade learning segment might be retelling. The
learning segment would focus on the essential literacy strategy (e.g., summarizing a story)
and related skills (e.g., decoding, recalling, sequencing). The central focus for an upper
elementary learning segment might be persuasive writing. The learning segment would
focus on the essential literacy strategy (using evidence to support an argument) and related
skills (e.g., writing paragraphs, using correct verb tense, or other conventions). The chart
below provides ONE example of the relationships among the central …
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