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Need help with this project. I will include lecture notes to help guide and assist you. Please help me complete the java code needed to run this.

Morgan State University
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering
EEGR 415: Java Programing Applications
Project 2.1
Objective:
Transform Project 1 into a full-fledged GUI application for the classification of fruit feature data.
Create the graphical user interface
Create a graphical user interface for project 1 as follows:
The file menu has the following options:
The view menu only has one menu option, which is a check box that is checked by default.
The combo box under (View Data Samples) has the following:
Hints:
•
•
To get the text in the frames around each main panel, use TitledBorder (Google it)
You should add your Menu bar object to your Frame object using the method setJMenuBar (add
it before you make the frame visible)
Lecture 10
Multidimensional Arrays & Basic
Graphical User Interfaces
1
Two-Dimensional Arrays
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An two-dimensional array is an array of
references to other arrays:
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â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
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The top-level array contains references to
other arrays
The lower-level arrays contain data
All arrays must be of the same type
This creates a two-dimensional data structure
Individual elements in the array are addressed with
two subscripts, specifying the row and the column
(in that order) of the particular data item
These arrays store data that is a function of two
independent variables.
2
Two Dimensional Arrays
a1[0][0] a1[0][1] a1[0][2] a1[0][3] a1[0][4]
a1[0]
a1[1][0] a1[1][1] a1[1][2] a1[1][3] a1[1][4]
a1[1]
a1
a1[2]
a1[2][0] a1[2][1] a1[2][2] a1[2][3] a1[2][4]
a1[3]
a1[3][0] a1[3][1] a1[3][2] a1[3][3] a1[3][4]
Array of references
to other arrays
Arrays containing data
3
Declaring 2D Arrays
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We must first declare an array of
references to other arrays, and then
declare the arrays themselves
Example:
double[][] x; // Create ref to an array of arrays
x = new double[3][5]; // Create array objects
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These steps can be combined on a single
line:
double[][] x = new double[3][5];
4
Initializing 2D Arrays
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2D arrays may be initialized with nested
array initializers
int[][] b = { {1,2,3}, {4,5,6} };
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They may also be initialized by reading
data from a file into the array using
nested for loops.
5
Using Two-Dimensional Arrays
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2D arrays are used to represent data
that is a function of two independent
variables
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A 2D array element is addressed using
the array name followed by a integer
subscript in brackets: a[2][3]
Example:
for ( igen = 0; igen < MAX_GEN; igen++ ) { for ( itime = 0; itime < MAX_TIME; itime++ ) { powerSum[itime] += power[igen][itime]; } } 6 Lab 1 ◼ ◼ Initialize a 4x4 array to the values of the multiplication table Display the values from the double dimensioned array using a nested for loop 7 Lab 2 ◼ Write a program that initializes the following 2 dimensional arrays : ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ itemNames Women Double-faced wool coat Women Floral Silk Tank Blouse Women Chiffon Blouse Men Cotton Polo Shirt Children Cable-knit Sweater Children Bear Coverall Cotton 947783 934687 973947 739579 367583 743937 275.25 180.05 50.00 45.55 25.65 28.25 itemNumbers Unit Prices Ask the user to enter a price range and display all information for items within the price range 8 Lab 2 9 Higher-Order Arrays ◼ ◼ The same ideas that apply to 2D arrays can be extended for arrays of any order Example: the following statement creates a 3D array containing a total of 30 elements double[][][] x = new double[3][5][2]; ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ The first element has the subscript range 0 - 2 The second element has the subscript range 0 - 4 The third element has the subscript range 0 - 1 These arrays are used to represent data that is a function of more than two independent variables 10 Basic Graphical User Interfaces 11 Java GUIs ◼ The Java SDK contains to different Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ The Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT), which contained the original Java GUI The Swing package, which is a newer, more flexible Java GUI JavaFX which is the newest package that ships with JDK 8.0 and above Only the Swing GUI is taught in this class 12 How GUIs Work ◼ ◼ ◼ GUIs provide a user with a familiar environment in which to work, with push buttons, menus, dropdown lists, text fields, etc. GUI-based programs are harder to program, since they must be ready for mouse clicks or keyboard input to any component at any time Mouse clicks or keyboard inputs are known as events, and GUI-based programs are event-driven 13 How GUIs Work (2) ◼ A GUI consists of: ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ GUI Components, which represent elements on the screen such as push buttons, text fields, etc. A Container to hold the components. The containers in this lecture are JPanel and JFrame. A Layout Manager to control the placement of GUI components within the container. Event handlers to respond to mouse clicks or keyboard inputs on any component or container in the GUI 14 Creating and Displaying a GUI ◼ To create a GUI: ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Create a container class to hold the GUI components Select and create a layout manager for the container Create components and add them to the container Create “listener” objects to detect and respond to the events expected by each GUI component Register the listeners with appropriate components Create a JFrame object, and place the completed container in the center of content pane associated with the frame. 15 Creating and Displaying a GUI ◼ Goal: Create a window with a button that displays the count of the number of times clicked 16 Creating and Displaying a GUI (2) Required packages Create GUI in init method Set layout manager Create GUI components Method (s) to implement actions 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 import import import public java.awt.*; java.awt.event.*; javax.swing.*; class FirstGUI extends JPanel { // Instance variables private int count = 0; // Number of pushes private JButton pushButton; // Push button private JLabel label; // Label // Initialization method public void init() { // Set the layout manager setLayout( new BorderLayout() ); // Create a label to hold push count label = new JLabel("Push Count: 0"); add( label, BorderLayout.NORTH ); label.setHorizontalAlignment( label.CENTER ); // Create a button pushButton = new JButton("Test Button"); pushButton.addActionListener( new ButtonHandler(this) ); add( pushButton, BorderLayout.SOUTH ); } // Method to update push count public void updateLabel() { label.setText( "Push Count: " + (++count) ); } Add listener for button } 17 Creating and Displaying a GUI (3) Create JFrame Create and add window listener Add GUI to JFrame Define listener class for pushbutton 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 public static void main(String s[]) { // Create a frame to hold the application JFrame fr = new JFrame("FirstGUI ..."); fr.setSize(200,100); // Create a Window Listener to handle "close" events WindowHandler l = new WindowHandler(); fr.addWindowListener(l); // Create and initialize a FirstGUI object FirstGUI fg = new FirstGUI(); fg.init(); // Add the object to the center of the frame fr.getContentPane().add(fg, BorderLayout.CENTER); // Display the frame fr.setVisible( true ); } class ButtonHandler implements ActionListener { private FirstGUI fg; main method, so the program starts here Method init called here, so GUI created here // Constructor public ButtonHandler ( FirstGUI fg1 ) { fg = fg1; } // Execute when an event occurs public void actionPerformed( ActionEvent e ) { fg.updateLabel(); } } 18 Creating and Displaying a GUI (3) ◼ Need a window listener to close program class WindowHandler extends WindowAdapter { /* This method implements a simple listener that * detects the "window closing event" and stops * the program. */ public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) { System.exit(0); }; } 19 Events and Event Handling ◼ ◼ An event is an object that is created by some external action (mouse click, key press, etc.) When an event such as a mouse click occurs, Java automatically sends that event to the GUI object that was clicked on. ◼ When the event is received by the GUI object, the object checks to see if any listener object has registered with it to receive the event, and it forwards the event to the actionPerformed method of that object. 20 Events and Event Handling (2) ◼ ◼ The actionPerformed method is known as an event handler because it performs whatever steps are required to process the event. In many cases, the event handler makes a call to a callback method in the object that created the GUI, since such methods can update instance variables within the object directly ◼ In the previous example, class ButtonHandler was a listener, its method actionPerformed was an event handler, and method updateLabel was a callback method 21 Events and Event Handling (3) ◼ ◼ That method calls the method updateLabel (callback) updateLabel updates the label Inherited Method(s) Constructors Methods () bel eLa t a upd Constructors Instance variables ButtonHandler object Instance variables Methods FirstGUI object set T ex t(" P + (ush C ++c oun ou n t: t)) " Constructors Instance variables Methods ButtonHandler object io n P (Ac erfo tio rme nE v d ent e) JButton object action-Performed method of the Methods Methods act Original event: Mouse click on button Inherited Method(s) ◼ Instance variables Methods ◼ A mouse click on the button creates an event The event is sent to the JButton object The JButton object sends the event to the Inherited Method(s) ◼ n eve u se Mo Constructors n ut to to J B t n t se Methods In the previous example: Inherited Method(s) ◼ Methods JLabel object 22 Creating and Displaying a GUI (4) ◼ Result after three mouse clicks on the button: 23 Lab 3 ◼ Create a GUI application (based on the prior example) that has two buttons that either decrement or increment a counter when pressed 24 The JLabel Class ◼ A label is an object that displays a single line of read-only text and/or an image. ◼ ◼ It does not respond to mouse clicks or keyboard input. Constructors: public public public public public public ◼ JLabel(); JLabel(String s); JLabel(String s, int horizontalAlignment); JLabel(Icon image); JLabel(Icon image, int horizontalAlignment); JLabel(String s, Icon image, int horizontalAlignment); These constructors create a label containing text s, image image, or both 26 The JLabel Class (2) ◼ Methods: Method public Icon getIcon() Description Returns the image from a JLabel. public String getText() Returns the text from a JLabel. public void setIcon(Icon image) Sets the JLabel image. public void setText(String s) Sets the JLabel text. public void setHorizontalAlignment( int alignment) Sets the horizontal alignment of the JLabel text and image. Legal values are LEFT, CENTER, and RIGHT. public void setHorizontalTextPosition( int textPosition) Sets the position of the text relative to the image. Legal values are LEFT, CENTER, and RIGHT. public void setVerticalAlignment( int alignment) Sets the vertical alignment of the JLabel text and images. Legal values are TOP, CENTER, and BOTTOM. public void setVerticalTextPosition( int textPosition) Sets the position of the text relative to the image. Legal values are TOP, CENTER, and BOTTOM. 27 Example: The JLabel Class // Get the images to display ImageIcon right = new ImageIcon("BlueRightArrow.gif"); ImageIcon left = new ImageIcon("BlueLeftArrow.gif"); // Create a label with icon and text l1 = new JLabel("Label 1", right, JLabel.LEFT); add( l1, BorderLayout.NORTH ); // Create a label with text and icon l2 = new JLabel("Label 2", left, JLabel.RIGHT); add( l2, BorderLayout.CENTER ); l2.setHorizontalTextPosition( JLabel.LEFT ); // Create a label with text only l3 = new JLabel("Label 3 (Text only)", JLabel.CENTER); add( l3, BorderLayout.SOUTH ); } 28 The JButton Class ◼ The ◼ ◼ JButton When a mouse clicks on a button, an ActionEvent is generated and passed to any registered listeners. Constructors: public public public public ◼ class creates a pushbutton. JButton(); JButton(String s); JButton(Icon image); JButton(String s, Icon image); These constructors create a pushbutton containing text s, image image, or both 29 Example: Creating Buttons // Create buttons b1 = new JButton("Enable",right); b1.addActionListener( this ); b1.setMnemonic('e'); b1.setToolTipText("Enable middle button"); add(b1); String s = "Count = " + c; b2 = new JButton(s,green); b2.addActionListener( this ); b2.setMnemonic('c'); b2.setEnabled(false); b2.setToolTipText("Press to increment count"); b2.setPressedIcon(yellow); b2.setDisabledIcon(red); add(b2); b3 = new JButton("Disable",left); b3.addActionListener( this ); b3.setMnemonic('d'); b3.setEnabled(false); b3.setToolTipText("Disable middle button"); add(b3); } 30 ActionEvent Events ◼ JButtons generate ActionEvent objects when an ◼ event (mouse click) occurs on them. A listener class for these events must implement the ActionListener interface, and have an actionPerformed method. ◼ ◼ A listener object must be registered to listen for ActionEvents on each button. When a mouse click occurs, the actionPerformed method of the corresponding listener object will be called to handle the event 31 Lab 4 ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Modify lab 3 so that the user can not decrement counter below 0 Disable the “Decrement” button when count is at 0 Add tool tips to each button Add a title label to the window 32 The JTextField Class ◼ The ◼ ◼ JTextField When a user types text and presses the ENTER key, an ActionEvent is generated and passed to any registered listeners. Constructors: public public public public ◼ class creates a text field. JTextField(); JTextField(int cols); JTextField(String s); JTextField(String s, int cols); These constructors create a text field containing a blank space large enough for cols characters, the text string s, or both 34 The JPasswordField Class ◼ ◼ The class is identical to the JTextField class, except the text typed into the field is not visible. Instead, a string of asterisks are shown to represent the characters typed. Constructors: JPasswordField public public public public JPasswordField(); JPasswordField(int cols); JPasswordField(String s); JPasswordField(String s, int cols); 35 Example: Creating Text Fields // Create first Text Field l1 = new JLabel("Visible text here:",JLabel.RIGHT); add( l1 ); t1 = new JTextField("Enter Text Here",25); t1.addActionListener( handler ); add( t1 ); // Create Password Field l2 = new JLabel("Hidden text here:",JLabel.RIGHT); add( l2 ); t2 = new JPasswordField("Enter Text Here",25); t2.addActionListener( handler ); add( t2 ); // Create third Text Field l3 = new JLabel("Results:",JLabel.RIGHT); add( l3 ); t3 = new JTextField(25); t3.setEditable( false ); add( t3 ); 36 Lab 5 ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Modify lab 3 so that a text box is placed at the bottom of the window to allow user to set counter directly (default text to show is “Set counter”) Do not allow negative values Handle errors associated with not entering an integer Use ActionEvent.getActionCommand() method in text handler to get actual text entered Make sure Decrement button is disabled if 0 is entered 37 The JComboBox Class ◼ ◼ The JComboBox class field in which a user can either type text or select a choice from a drop down list of options. Constructors: public JComboBox(); public JComboBox( Object[] ); public JComboBox( Vector ); ◼ ◼ These constructors create a combo containing list of choices from the Object or Vector A user can be forced to select from the drop down list only using the method setEditable(false) 40 Example: Creating Combo Boxes // Create the JComboBox String[] s = {"Serif","SansSerif","Monospaced", "Dialog"}; c1 = new JComboBox(s); c1.addActionListener( handler ); add( c1 ); // Create the text field with default font Font font = new Font(c1.getItemAt(0).toString(), Font.PLAIN, 14); t1 = new JTextField("Test string",30); t1.setEditable( false ); t1.setFont( font ); add( t1 ); 41 Example: Creating Combo Boxes Handling Item Selected Event 42 The JCheckBox Class ◼ ◼ ◼ The JCheckBox class creates a special type of button that toggles between “on” and “off” each time it is clicked. It looks like a small box with a check mark, but it is really a full-fledged button Selected Constructors: public JCheckBox( String s, boolean state ); public JCheckBox( Icon image, boolean state ); public JCheckBox( String s, Icon image, boolean state ); ◼ These constructors create a check box containing text s, image image, or both, in initial state state 43 Example: Creating Check Boxes // Create the JComboBox for font names String[] s = {"Serif","SansSerif","Monospaced", "Dialog"}; c1 = new JComboBox(s); c1.addActionListener( h1 ); add( c1 ); // Create the text field with default font Font font = new Font( c1.getItemAt(0).toString(), Font.PLAIN, 14); t1 = new JTextField("Test string",20); t1.setEditable( false ); t1.setFont( font ); add( t1 ); // Create check boxes for bold and italic cb1 = new JCheckBox("Bold"); cb1.addActionListener( h1 ); cb1.setMnemonic('b'); add( cb1 ); cb2 = new JCheckBox("Italic"); cb2.addActionListener( h1 ); cb2.setMnemonic('i'); add( cb2 ); 44 The JRadioButton Class ◼ ◼ The JRadioButton class creates a radio button, a small circle with a dot in the center when “on”. Selected Constructors: public JRadioButton( String s, boolean state ); public JRadioButton( Icon image, boolean state ); public JRadioButton( String s, Icon image, boolean state ); ◼ These constructors create a radio button containing text s, image image, or both, in initial state state 45 Button Groups ◼ ◼ ◼ Radio buttons are grouped together into groups known as button groups. Only one button within a group may be on at any time. If one is turned on, the other radio buttons in the group will be forced off Constructor: public ButtonGroup(); ◼ Methods: public void add(AbstractButton b); // Add button to group public void remove(AbstractButton b); // Remove from group 46 Example: Creating Radio Buttons // Create radio buttons b1 = new JRadioButton("Plain", true ); b1.addActionListener( h1 ); add( b1 ); b2 = new JRadioButton("Bold", false ); b2.addActionListener( h1 ); add( b2 ); b3 = new JRadioButton("Italic", false ); b3.addActionListener( h1 ); add( b3 ); b4 = new JRadioButton("Bold Italic", false ); b4.addActionListener( h1 ); add( b4 ); // Create button group, and add radio buttons bg = new ButtonGroup(); bg.add( b1 ); ButtonGroup bg.add( b2 ); bg.add( b3 ); bg.add( b4 ); ensures that the 4 radio buttons are mutually exclusive 47 Layout Managers ◼ Layout managers are classes that control the location of components within a container Element BorderLayout Standard Layout Managers Description A layout manager that lays out elements in a central region and four surrounding borders. This is the default layout manager for a JFrame. BoxLayout A layout manager that lays out elements in a row horizontally or vertically. Unlike FlowLayout, the elements in a BoxLayout do not wrap around. This is the default layout manager for a Box. CardLayout A layout manager that stacks components like a deck of cards, only the top one of which is visible. FlowLayout A layout manager that lays out elements left-to-right and top-tobottom within a container. This is the default layout manager for a JPanel. GridBagLayout A layout manager that lays out elements in a flexible grid, where the size of each element can vary. GridLayout A layout manager that lays out elements in a rigid grid. 48 BorderLayout Layout Manager ◼ ◼ The BorderLayout layout manager arranges components in five regions, known as North, South, East, West, and Center Constructors: public BorderLayout(); public BorderLayout(int horizontalGap, int verticalGap); ◼ A layout manager is associated with a container using the container’s setLayout method: setLayout( new BorderLayout() ); ◼ Components are added to specific regions with a special option of the container’s add method: add(new Button("North"), BorderLayout.NORTH); ◼ Default layout manager for JFrame 49 Example: Creating a BorderLayout setLayout(new BorderLayout()); add(new Button("North"), BorderLayout.NORTH); add(new Button("South"), BorderLayout.SOUTH); add(new Button("East"), BorderLayout.EAST); add(new Button("West"), BorderLayout.WEST); add(new Button("Center"), BorderLayout.CENTER); 50 FlowLayout Layout Manager arranges components in order from left to right and top to bottom across a container ◼ The FlowLayout layout manager ◼ Constructors: public FlowLayout(); public FlowLayout(int align); public FlowLayout(int align, int horizontalGap, int verticalGap); ◼ ◼ The alignment can be LEFT, RIGHT, or CENTER Default layout manager for JPanel 51 Example: Creating a FlowLayout setLayout(new FlowLayout(FlowLayout.CENTER,5,0)); add(new JButton("Button 1")); add(new JButton("Button 2")); add(new JButton("Long Button 3")); add(new JButton("B4")); add(new JButton("Button 5")); 52 GridLayout Layout Manager ◼ ◼ The GridLayout layout manager arranges components in a rigid rectangular grid structure. Constructors: public GridLayout(int rows, int cols); public GridLayout(int rows, int cols, int horizGap, int vertGap); ◼ Components are added to the grid in order from left to right and top to bottom 53 Example: Creating a GridLayout setLayout(new GridLayout(3,2)); add(new JButton("1")); add(new JButton("2")); add(new JButton("3")); add(new JButton("4")); add(new JButton("5")); add(new JButton("6")); 54 BoxLayout Layout Manager ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ The BoxLayout layout manager arranges components within a container in a single row or a single column. The spacing and alignment of each element on each row or column can be individually controlled. Containers using BoxLayout managers can be nested inside each other to produce complex layouts Constructor: public BoxLayout(Container c, int direction); ◼ ◼ The direction can be X_AXIS or Y_AXIS Rigid areas and glue regions can be used to space out components within a BoxLayout 55 Example: Creating a BoxLayout // Create a new panel JPanel p = new JPanel(); // Set the layout manager p.setLayout(new BoxLayout(p, BoxLayout.Y_AXIS)); // Add p.add( p.add( p.add( p.add( p.add( buttons new JButton("Button 1") Box.createRigidArea(new new JButton("Button 2") Box.createRigidArea(new new JButton("Button 3") ); Dimension(0,20)) ); ); Dimension(0,5)) ); ); // Add the new panel to the existing container add( p ); 56 Combining Layout Managers to Produce a Result ◼ ◼ ◼ To create just the look you want, it is sometimes useful to create multiple containers inside each other, each with its own layout manager For example, a top-level panel might use a horizontal box layout, and that panel may contain two or more panels using vertical box layouts The result is complete control of component spacing in both dimensions 57 Example: Nested Containers and Layouts // Create a new high-level panel JPanel pHoriz = new JPanel(); pHoriz.setLayout(new BoxLayout(pHoriz, BoxLayout.X_AXIS)); add( pHoriz ); // Create two subordinate panels JPanel pVertL = new JPanel(); JPanel pVertR = new JPanel(); pVertL.setLayout(new BoxLayout(pVertL, BoxLayout.Y_AXIS)); pVertR.setLayout(new BoxLayout(pVertR, BoxLayout.Y_AXIS)); // Add to pHoriz with a horizontal space between panels pHoriz.add( pVertL ); pHoriz.add( Box.createRigidArea(new Dimension(20,0)) ); pHoriz.add( pVertR ); // Create degrees Celsius field l1 = new JLabel("deg C:", JLabel.RIGHT); pVertL.add( l1 ); t1 = new JTextField("0.0",15); t1.addActionListener( cHnd ); pVertR.add( t1 ); Structure: pHoriz pVertL pVertR l1 t1 l2 t2 Result: // Create degrees Fahrenheight field l2 = new JLabel("deg F:", JLabel.RIGHT); pVertL.add( l2 ); t2 = new JTextField("32.0",15); t2.addActionListener( fHnd ); pVertR.add( t2 ); 58 Example 2: Plot Sine/Cosine Program Structure: Result: pVert pHoriz JCheckBox 1 JCheckBox 2 59 Lab 6 ◼ ◼ Modify lab 5 so that you use a combination of vertical and horizontal box layouts Add a combo box that allows the user to set the counter at increments of 10 Vertical Box Layout Horizontal Box Layout 60 Java Programming for Engineers L EC T UR E 8 : I N HER ITANCE, P OLYM OR PHISM , A N D I N T ER FACES DR . KOF I N YAR KO 1 Subclasses and Superclasses All classes form a part of a class hierarchy. ◦ Every class except Object is a subclass of some other class, and it inherits instance variables and methods from its parent class. ◦ The class can add additional instance variables and methods, and can also override the behavior of methods inherited from its parent class. Any class above a specific class in the class hierarchy is a superclass of that class. Any class below a specific class in the class hierarchy is a subclass of that class. 2 Defining Superclasses and Subclasses Methods and instance variables defined in class Employee are inherited by the two subclasses Employee Because of inheritance, objects of the Salaried-Employee and HourlyEmployee classes are also objects of the Employee class Object SalariedEmployee HourlyEmployee 3 Creating Subclasses A subclass is defined using the extends keyword to indicate that it inherits from a superclass public class SalariedEmployee extends Employee { The subclass then inherits all non-private instance variables and methods from its parent class Instance variables in class Employee should be declared protected so that they are visible to subclasses but not to the outside world Methods inherited from the superclass can be overridden in the subclass to change behaviors 4 Class Inheritance User ‘super’ to access the parent class 5 Constructors in Subclasses When an object of a subclass is instantiated, a constructor for its superclass is called either implicitly or explicitly before any other initialization is performed: Implicit call to 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // Constructors public SalariedEmployee() { salary = 0; } public SalariedEmployee( String first, String last, String ssn, double salary) { // Explicit call to Employee(first, last, ssn) super(first, last, ssn); this.salary = salary; pay = this.salary; } default constructor Employee() before line 20 Explicit call to Employee(first, last, ssn) 6 Lab 1 Create a program called AccountDemo Create a class ‘Account’ that has private members, ‘name’ and ‘amount’ ◦ Has constructor to set the name and amount of account ◦ Has method ‘deposit’ to add a deposited amount to the account ◦ Has methods getName, getAmount, and setAmount Create a sub class ‘SavingsAccount’ that simply calls the ‘Account’ constructor with a given amount and the name ‘Savings’ 7 Lab 1 Continued Create a ‘CheckingAccount’ class ◦ The constructor calls the super class constructor with name ‘Checking’ and a given amount ◦ Provide a withdraw method In main method of AccountDemo class ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Create a new ‘SavingsAccount’ object with initial amount of $10,000 Display the name and the amount Deposit $5,000 and display the account balance Create a ‘CheckingAccount’ object with $20,000 Display the name and the amount Deposit $6,000 and display the account balance Withdraw $3,000 and display the account balance 8 Lab 1: Output 9 Treating Subclass Objects as Superclass Objects Since an object of a subclass is also an object of its superclass, the object can be addressed with either subclass or superclass references. This means that objects of many different subclasses can be combined and manipulated as objects of a single superclass. 10 Treating Subclass Objects as Superclass Objects (2) Objects created with subclass references Objects used with subclass references Objects used with superclass references 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 // Create a SalariedEmployee object SalariedEmployee s1 = new SalariedEmployee( "John","Jones","111-11-1111",3000); // Create an HourlyEmployee object HourlyEmployee h1 = new HourlyEmployee( "Jane","Jones","222-22-2222",12.50); // Create an array of Employee objects Employee e[] = new Employee[2]; e[0] = s1; e[1] = h1; // Caclulate pay using subclass references System.out.println("Calculation with subclass refs:"); System.out.println("Pay = " + s1.calcPay(160)); System.out.println("Pay = " + h1.calcPay(160)); // Caclulate pay using superclass references System.out.println("nCalculation with superclass refs:"); for ( int i = 0; i < e.length; i++ ) System.out.println("Pay = " + e[i].calcPay(160)); // List employee info with superclass refs System.out.println("nEmployee information:"); for ( int i = 0; i < e.length; i++ ) System.out.println("Info: " + e[i].toString()); 11 Polymorphism (1) Defines method1 If a superclass declares a method method1, then all subclasses of the class will inherit the method. Each subclass can override the inherited method to provide its own implementation, but they will all have a method with the inherited method’s name and calling parameters. SuperClass Object SubClass1 Overrides method1 with a new definition. SubClass2 Overrides method1 with a new definition. 12 Polymorphism (2) If objects of the subclasses are treated as objects of the superclass, and if method1 is called by one of the objects, then the version of method1 called will automatically be the correct one for the subclass that the object belongs to. This behavior is called polymorphism, meaning “many forms”. Objects of many types can be processed together, with the individual behaviors automatically correct for each object. 13 Abstract Classes If a particular method is overridden in all sub-classes of a superclass, and if only objects of the subclasses are to be created, the method code in the superclass will never be executed. ◦ If so, then why write the method code in the superclass at all? ◦ The method header in the superclass is required for poly-morphic behavior, but the body of the method is useless. ◦ We can declare the superclass method header without writing the method body. The method becomes an abstract method. ◦ A class containing one or more abstract methods is an abstract class. 14 Abstract Classes An abstract method or class is declared with the abstract keyword: public abstract double calcPay( double hours ); No object can be instantiated from an abstract class Every subclass of an abstract class that will be used to instantiate objects must provide implementations for all abstract methods in the superclass. Abstract classes save time, since we do not have to write “useless” code that would never be executed. 15 Example—A Shape Class Superclass: contains abstract methods area and perimeter. Shape Object Circle Rectangle Triangle Subclasses: implement concrete methods area and perimeter. 16 Lab 2 Create a program that contains the abstract class ‘Shape’ ◦ Create a ‘counter’ member to keep track of the number of objects instantiated from this superclass ◦ The constructor should increment the counter ◦ Create abstract methods ‘area’ and ‘perimeter’ which will be overridden in the subclasses ◦ Create method ‘getCount’ to return the number of objects created ◦ Create a finalizer to decrement the object count (protected void finalize) 17 Lab 2 (cont) Create a ‘Circle’ class that is a subclass of the ‘Shape’ class ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Has a private member for the radius The constructor sets the radius ‘Area’ method returns PI*r^2 ‘Perimeter’ method returns 2*PI*r ‘toString’ method returns “Circle of radius [x]” Finalizer should call the super class finalizer 18 Lab 2 (cont) Create a ‘Triangle’ subclass of the ‘Shape’ super class ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Has a private member for the length of a side (s) Has a constructor that sets the length of a side ‘Area’ method returns sqrt(3)/4*s^2 ‘Perimeter’ method returns 3*s ‘toString’ method displays “Triangle of length [x]” Finalizer calls the super class finalizer 19 Lab 2 (cont) In ‘main’ method of class ◦ Create an array of 2 shapes ◦ Set first element to a ‘Circle’ object of radius 2 ◦ Set second element to a ‘Triangle’ object of side 2 ◦ Display the number of ‘Shape’ objects created ◦ Use a for loop to display the description of each element of array (toString) and Area and Perimeter of each object 20 Interfaces An interface is a special type of block containing only method signatures. Classes can implement an interface by including an implements clause in the class header, and defining each method declared in the interface. Interfaces exhibit polymorphism. A program can call an interface method, and the proper version of that method will be executed depending on the type of object passed by the method. 26 Example of an Interface Interface definition public interface Relation { // Returns true if a > b
public boolean isGreater( Object a, Object b );
// Returns true if a < b public boolean isLess( Object a, Object b ); // Returns true if a == b public boolean isEqual( Object a, Object b ); Method headers } Note that the abstract keyword is not used in the interface method headers. 27 Implementing an Interface public class Line implements Relation { // Instance variables private double x1; private double x2; private double y1; private double y2; // // // // Note implements clause First x value Second x value First y value Second y value ... // Calculate length public double length( ) { return Math.sqrt( (x2-x1)*(x2-x1) + (y2-y1)*(y2-y1) ); } // Returns true if a > b
public boolean isGreater( Object a, Object b ) {
return ((Line)a).length() > ((Line)b).length();
}
// Returns true if a < b public boolean isLess( Object a, Object b ) { return ((Line)a).length() < ((Line)b).length(); } // Returns true if a == b public boolean isEqual( Object a, Object b ) { return ((Line)a).length() == ((Line)b).length(); } ... Method definitions for all the interface methods. Note that the Relation interface requires parameters of class Object, so they must be cast to Line before use. } 28 Advantages of Interfaces Any class can implement an interface, regardless of location in object hierarchy. Thus, a method that manipulates the interface can work with many different types of objects without modification, as long as all those objects implement the interface. Example: The method on the next page sorts any objects that implement the Relation interface, regardless of class 29 Example public static Object[] sort ( Object[] o ) { // Declare variables, and define each variable int i, j; // Loop index int iptr; // Pointer to "smallest" value Object temp; // Temporary variable for swapping This method sorts objects of any type that implement the Relation interface. // Sort values for ( i = 0; i < o.length-1; i++ ) { // Find the minimum value in o[i] through o[nvals-1] iptr = i; for ( j = i+1; j < o.length; j++ ) { if ( ((Relation)o[0]).isLess( (Relation) o[j], (Relation) o[iptr] )) iptr = j; } // iptr now points to the min value, so swap // o[iptr] with o[i] if iptr != i. if (i != iptr) { temp = o[i]; o[i] = o[iptr]; o[iptr] = temp; } Note that the objects must be cast to type Relation in order to use the interface! } // Return sorted objects return o; } 30 Project 1 package Project; import java.awt.BorderLayout; import java.awt.Color; import java.awt.event.WindowAdapter; import java.awt.event.WindowEvent; import java.io.File; import java.io.FileNotFoundException; import java.util.Scanner; import javax.swing.JFrame; import javax.swing.JOptionPane; import chapman.graphics.JPlot2D; public class Project1 { private static final int MAX_SAMPLES = 10; private static final int PROCESSES = 2; private static double[][] tcData = new double[MAX_SAMPLES][PROCESSES]; private static double[][] fcData = new double[MAX_SAMPLES][PROCESSES]; public static void main(String[] args) { try { int i = 0; int j = 0; Scanner sc = new Scanner(new File("data.txt")); boolean trueclass = true; while (sc.hasNextDouble()) { double d = sc.nextDouble(); if (d == 1) { break; } if (trueclass) { tcData[i++][j] = d; } else { fcData[i++][j] = d; } if (i % 10 == 0) { j++; i = 0; if (j == 2) { trueclass = false; j = 0; } } } sc.close(); String heading = "X1 TRUE X2 TRUE X1 FALSE X2 FALSE"; String separators = "------- ------- -------- --------"; System.out.println(heading); System.out.println(separators); for (int k = 0; k < MAX_SAMPLES; k++) { System.out.printf("%-7s", tcData[k][0]); System.out.printf(" %-7s", tcData[k][1]); System.out.printf(" %-8s", fcData[k][0]); System.out.printf(" %-8s", fcData[k][1]); System.out.println(); } double[] x1tr = new double[MAX_SAMPLES]; double[] x2tr = new double[MAX_SAMPLES]; double[] x1fls = new double[MAX_SAMPLES]; double[] x2fls = new double[MAX_SAMPLES]; for (int k = 0; k < MAX_SAMPLES; k++) { x1tr[k] = tcData[k][0]; x2tr[k] = tcData[k][1]; x1fls[k] = fcData[k][0]; x2fls[k] = fcData[k][1]; } String x1in = JOptionPane.showInputDialog("Enter X1 feature of new sample"); String x2in = JOptionPane.showInputDialog("Enter X2 feature of new sample"); double x1ind = Double.parseDouble(x1in); double x2ind = Double.parseDouble(x2in); JPlot2D pl = new JPlot2D(x1tr, x2tr); pl.setMarkerState(JPlot2D.MARKER_ON); pl.setMarkerColor(Color.red); pl.setMarkerStyle(JPlot2D.MARKER_CIRCLE); pl.setLineState(JPlot2D.LINE_OFF); pl.addCurve(x1fls, x2fls); pl.setMarkerState(JPlot2D.MARKER_ON); pl.setMarkerColor(Color.blue); pl.setMarkerStyle(JPlot2D.MARKER_TRIANGLE); pl.setLineState(JPlot2D.LINE_OFF); double[] w = { 39.0000, -4.7881, -1.3252 }; double[] xVals = new double[MAX_SAMPLES]; double[] yVals = new double[MAX_SAMPLES]; for (int k = 0; k < MAX_SAMPLES; k++) { xVals[k] = 5 + (9.0 - 5.0) * ((double) (k) / MAX_SAMPLES); yVals[k] = (w[0] + xVals[k] * w[1]) / (-w[2]); } double classification = 1 * w[0] + x1ind * w[1] + x2ind * w[2]; pl.addCurve(new double[] { x1ind }, new double[] { x2ind }); pl.setMarkerState(JPlot2D.MARKER_ON); pl.setMarkerColor(Color.orange); pl.setMarkerStyle(JPlot2D.MARKER_SQUARE); JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, classification >= 0? “The new sample belongs to TRUE class (good fruit)” : “The new sample belongs to
FALSE class (too ripe)”);
pl.addCurve(xVals, yVals);
pl.setMarkerState(JPlot2D.MARKER_OFF);
pl.setLineColor(Color.green);
pl.setLineStyle(JPlot2D.LINESTYLE_SOLID);
pl.setLineState(JPlot2D.LINE_ON);
JFrame fr = new JFrame(“JPlot2D”);
fr.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
System.exit(0);
}
});
fr.getContentPane().add(pl, BorderLayout.CENTER);
fr.setSize(500, 500);
fr.setVisible(true);
} catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
}

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