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I have my essay completed, but my professor told me to add more explanation to 2 paragraph which I already highlighted them in Blue. I just need the explanation of how it connects.

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Student’s Name
Instructor’s Name
November 19, 2020
Machiavelli and Lao-tzu
Machiavelli and Lao-tzu are political ideologists who existed in two different times and
places. Lao- Tzu was a renowned Chinese philosopher who lived in the 6th BC era. On the other
hand, Machiavelli was an Italian based philosopher and the author of The Prince; he existed
2000 years after Lao-tzu. However, both of them are philosophers, although they have varying
perspectives on leadership. Furthermore, both of their writings and philosophies are instructive.
Lao- Tzu advises from a detached view of a universal leader (Jacobus 203). Conversely,
Machiavelli’s philosophies are demanding and very personal. Despite these differences within
Machiavelli’s The Prince and Lao Tzu’s Tao-Teh –Ching there are similar perceptions concerning
how a leader should ensure order and how they can enhance their authority. Therefore, this paper
will discuss the various similarities between Lao Tzu and Machiavelli’s political theories on
Lao Tzu advised about the governing of a country. According to Tao-Teh- Ch’ing, by Lao
Tzu, a leader should only allow his/her subjects to want or know about the things that would not
result in social immorality. Lao Tzu believed that a leader can only ensure this if the leader
controls the thoughts and desires that could result in illegal behavior. Hence, a leader should not
expose his/her people to anything that could make them corrupt. Additionally, Lao Tzu claims
that if a leader fulfills his/her people’s needs, they would not be suspicious of the ruler’s
authority; instead, they may believe that the leader’s powers are related to the people’s well
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being. Lao Tzu states that “If a country is governed wisely, its inhabitants will be content”
(Jacobus 214). He further says that a good ruler should not implement many restrictions because
numerous rules and regulations cause the rise of new crimes. To avoid such scenarios and using
force to lead his/her people, a ruler should not interfere with his/her people’s everyday affairs.
Similarly, Machiavelli believes that there are numerous methods through which a leader
can control his/ her territory. Like Lao Tzu, Machiavelli advises the new leaders to avoid using
excessive force to manage a newly acquired domain; he states that “I say that every prince must
desire to be considered merciful and not cruel; nevertheless, he must take care not to misuse this
mercy” (Jacobus 27). Also, Machiavelli advises the new ruler to avoid political confusion in an
established territory; the leaders should neither raise the taxes nor change the laws. Hence,
Machiavelli insists that the new leaders should not intervene in the citizens’ lives, especially if it
places their authority at risk or disrupts the societal peace. Furthermore, interfering with the
citizen’s wealth will lead to the downfall of the leaders; he states that “he should avoid the
property of others, for men forget more quickly the death of their father than the loss of their
patrimony.” (Jacobus 228). Through this statement, Machiavelli highlights the importance of
citizens’ wealth and why leaders should not interfere with property ownership. (Needs to explain
better about how Lao Tzu is liked up with these ideas)
Lao Tzu suggests various qualities that an influential leader should have. According to
Lao Tzu, the people qualified to rule are fluid and limpid in their leadership style. He believed
that the citizens who are governed least are administered best. Also, an influential leader should
not use a display of force to enhance their powers. He states that “whoever relies on the Tao in
governing men doesn’t try to force issues or defeat enemies by force of arms” (Jacobus 208).
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Through the statement, Lao Tzu cautions leaders about forcing their will on the nation. Abiding
by this law will ensure political longevity.
Machiavelli also addresses the various forms of government that have immoral leaders
and those under the papal authority. He claims, “You must, therefore, know that there are two
means of fighting: one according to the laws, the other with force; the first way is proper to man,
the second to beasts” (Jacobus 229). The statement explains that even though such methods
could threaten a leader’s power, they also ensure that the leader takes over a state. However,
cruelty and other evil acts put a leader in danger because extreme violence cases will make the
people insecure about their ruler and make them want another leader. (Needs a little bit more
explanation of how this is truly similar to Lao Tzu)
Machiavelli suggested that a leader must be widely feared instead of greatly revered and
loved. Although considered a second best, it still falls within Lao Tzu’s ideology; for
Machiavelli, a feared leader is necessary to protect the nation. Despite Machiavelli’s firm belief
that a leader must also learn how not to be good, it is imperative to avoid the worst case of vices–
both of these behaviors may destroy one’s reputation and loss of the state or be a source of safety
and prowess. Machiavelli emphasized that the prince should avoid being despised and hated by
not being cowardly, indecisive, adequately carrying out the duties for the state and its people and
steer clear of danger brought about by the vices; such vices include forceful acquisition of
properties and women– all driven by greed. Likewise, Lao Tzu emphasized that a leader should
not be full of greed and not be blinded by it through subjecting its people to paying high taxes, as
this does not only provide joyous moments for the state and its people, removes distress, but it
will also create a steady flow of governance, as people became intertwined with the beauty of
ethics and moral, and hinders or limit the path to committing crimes and violence. “Try to make
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people happy, and you lay the groundwork for misery. Try to make people moral, and you lay the
groundwork for vice” (Jacobus 211-212).
In conclusion therefore, various similarities come up in the discussion about the
leadership ideologies of both Machiavelli and Lao Tzu. For instance, they both emphasized the
need for leaders to serve and fulfill their people’s needs. Also, they cautioned leaders about the
use of violence and cruelty, for they would lead to their downfall. According to both Lao Tzu and
Machiavelli, leaders should be merciful and compassionate towards their subjects. Furthermore,
they advised the leaders to respect the wealth of their people so as to avoid resentment.
Ultimately, philosophy is concerned with a myriad of factors but there is a consensus that to
human beings, the most important thing is happiness and love. Even though Machiavelli and Lao
Tzu are ancient philosophers with very different ideas, both of their ideologies are still useful and
valuable today.
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Works Cited
Jacobus, Lee A. A World Of Ideas: Essential Readings For College Writers. Bedford/St. Martin’s,

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