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English 1302
Final Exam
Professor S. Davis
8 December 2020 by 11:59 pm (Due Date) I will Not Accept Late Work
This is your final exam. Read this information thoroughly. It will help you choose your topic
you want to write your research paper on. Read it allow, so you will understand. You have seen
several documentaries that will help. You have access to them. Use the notes (supplements I gave you
in class), and of course, use the internet for online research. Take your time; you have 3 weeks to
The civil rights movement was an empowering yet precarious time for blacks in American. The
efforts of civil rights activists and countless protestors of all races brought about legislation to end
segregation, black voter’s suppression, and discriminatory employment and housing practices. The civil
rights movement was organized by Black Americans to end racial discrimination and gain equal rights
under the law. It began in the late 1940s and ended in the late 1960s reportedly, but it is an ongoing
situation. Although tumultuous at times, the movement was mostly non-violent and resulted in laws.
The civil war had officially abolished slavery, but it did not end discrimination against blacks-they
continued to endure the devastating effects of racism, especially in the south. By the mid-20th century
African Americans had more than enough of prejudice and violence against them. They along with many
whites, mobilized and began an unprecedented fight for equality that spanned two decades.
In 1868, the 14th Amendment to the Constitution gave blacks equal protection under the law. In
1870, the 15th Amendment granted blacks the right to vote. Still, many whites, especially those in the
south, were unhappy that people they had once enslaved were now on a more-or-less equal playing
field. To marginalize Blacks, keep them separate from whites and erase the progress they had made
during Reconstruction, “Jim Crow” laws were established in the south beginning in the late 19th century.
Blacks could not use the same public facilities as whites, live in many of the same towns or go to the
same schools. Interracial marriage was illegal, and most blacks couldn’t vote because they were unable
to pass the voters literacy test (as most poor whites could not read nor pass the literacy test nor asked
to take the test, but they could vote). Jim Crow was not adopted in northern states; however, blacks still
experienced discrimination at their jobs or even when they tried to buy/rent houses or to get an
education. To make matters worse, laws were passed in some states to limit voting rights for blacks.
Moreover, southern segregation gained ground in 1896 when the U.S. Supreme Court declared Plessy v.
Ferguson that facilities for Blacks and whites could be “separate but equal.”
Blacks went on a journey to attain their civil rights (and set the groundwork for other groups:
women, gays etc.).
**Blacks were discouraged to join the military during World War II. By the 1940s, war related
work was booming, but most blacks were not given the better paying jobs. Thousands of blacks
threatened to march on Washington to demand equal employment rights. President Franklin D.
Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 on June 25, 1941; this opened national defense jobs and other
government jobs to all Americans regardless of race, creed, color or national origin.
**As the Cold War began, President harry Truman initiated a Civil Rights agenda, and in 1948
issued Executive Order 9981 to end discrimination in the military. These events help set the stage for
grassroots initiatives to enact racial equality legislation and incite the civil rights movement
**1955 Black community leaders formed the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) led
by Baptist Minister Martin Luther King, Jr.—this role placed him front and center in the fight of Civil
Rights. Rosa Parks’ (who was not the first black person to do this) courage to not give up her bus seat to
a white man, incited the MIA to stage a boycott of the Montgomery bus system. This boycott lasted 381
days. November 14, 1956 the Supreme Court ruled segregated seating was unconstitutional.
**1954, the civil rights movement gained momentum when the United Supreme Court made
segregation illegal in public schools in the case of Brown v. Board of Education—a case won by the first
African American Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall who at the time of the case was a defense
attorney for the NAACP.
**Even though all Americans had gained the right to vote, many southern states made it difficult
for Blacks. On September 9, 1957, President Eisenhour signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957. It allowed
federal prosecution of anyone who tried to prevent someone from voting. It also created a commission
to investigate voter’s fraud.
**On February 1, 1960, four college students took a stand against segregation in Greensboro,
North Carolina when they refused to leave a Woolworth’s lunch counter without being served. Over the
next few days hundreds of people joined their cause in what became the Greensboro sit-ins. There
efforts led to peaceful sit-ins and demonstrations in dozens of cities and help launch Student Nonviolent
Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to encourage students to get involved in the Civil Rights Movement.
This movement caught the eye of young college graduate Stokely Carmichael, who joined SNCC during
Freedom Summer of 1964 to register black voters in Mississippi.
**On May 4, 1961 13 Freedom Riders—seven (7) African Americans and six (6) whites-mounted
a Greyhound bus in Washington D.C. embarking on a bus tour of the American south to protest
segregated bus terminals. Facing violence from both police officers and white protesters, the Freedom
Riders drew international attention. On Mother’s Day 1961, the bus reached Anniston, Alabama, where
a mob mounted the bus and threw a bomb into it. The Freedom Riders reached Jackson, Mississippi May
24, 1961. The group was arrested for trespassing in a “white-only” facility and sentenced to 30 days in
jail. Hundreds of new Freedom Riders were down for the cause and the riders continued.
Which Freedom Rider do you admire the most? Do extensive research on him/her. Is
he/she still alive? If so, what are they doing now? If not, what did they do after the movement?
**The most famous event of the Civil Rights Movement took place on August 28, 1963: The
March on Washington. It was organized and attended by Civil Rights leaders such as A. Philip Randolph
and Bayard Rustin and Martin Luther King, Jr. More than 200,000 people, black and white, congregated
in Washington DC for the peaceful March with the main purpose of forcing civil rights legislation and
establishing job equality for everyone.
**Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed into Law on July 2, 1964 by President Lyndon B.
**On March 7, 1965, the Civil Rights Movement in Alabama took an especially violent
turn as 600 peaceful demonstrators participated in the Selma to Montgomery March to protest the
killing of black civil rights activist Jimmie Lee Jackson by a white police officer and to encourage
legislation to enforce the 15th Amendment, the protestors were severely beaten and teargassed by
white police. This entire incident was televised and became known as Blood Sunday.
President Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act into Law on August 6, 1965. The new law banned
all voters’ literacy tests and provided federal examiners in certain voting jurisdictions.
**Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated April 4, 1968. Emotionally- charged looting and riots
**Fair Housing Act of 1968 became law on April 11, 1968 just days after the assassination. It
prevented housing discrimination based on race, sex, national origin and religion. It was the last
legislation enacted during the Civil Rights era.
The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9,
1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. Arguably one of the most consequential
amendments to this day, the amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection under the
law and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the Civil War. If an
amendment is a formal or official change made to a law, contract, constitution or legal document,
why do you think it was not forced in 1868? If so, would things be different, and how or how not?
Explain your answers in a well-developed research using evidence/incidences/information to make
your point. (Think about how Thurgood Marshall used the 14th amendment to help win civil rights
cases.) You have a broad choice here. You can specify …gay rights, marital rights, women’s rights
(abortion) etc.
Black Panther Party founders Huey Newton and Bobby Seale met while students at Merritt
College in Oakland, California. They protested the college’s “Pioneer Day” celebration, which honored
the pioneers who came to California in the 1800s but omitted the role of African Americans in settling
the American west. Seale and Newton formed the Negro History Fact Group, which called on the school
to offer classes in black history. The Black Panthers, also known as the Black Panther Party, was a
political organization founded to challenge police brutality against the African American community.
This organization was founded on the wake of the assassination of Malcolm X and after police in San
Francisco shot and killed an unarmed black teen name Matthew Johnson. The Black Panthers for selfdefense was founded in October 1966. The early activities primarily involved monitoring police activities
in black communities across America. They instituted a number of social programs and engaged in
political activities; their popularity grew.
Newton and Seale drew on Marxist ideology for the party’s platform. They outlined the
organization’s philosophical views and political objectives in a Ten-Point Program. The 10-point Program
called for an immediate end to police brutality; employment for African Americans, land, housing and
justice for all.
The Black Panthers were part of the larger Black Power Movement, which emphasized black
pride, community control and unification for Civil Rights. While the Black Panthers were often portrayed
as gangs, their leadership saw the organization as a political party whose goal was getting more African
Americans elected to political office. The Black Panthers did start a number of popular community social
programs, including free breakfast programs for school children and free health clinic in 13 African
American communities across the United States
3. The Black Panthers leading revolutionary leaders, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale,
created the national organization as a way to collectively combat white oppression.
After constantly seeing black people suffer from the torturous practices of police
officers around the nation, they helped form the black liberation group to help build
community and confront corrupt systems of power. With these positive social
programs going on and making individuals socially conscience, why do you think they
(the Black Panther Party) were investigated by the FBI, harassed by the police and not
able to continue their successful social services of Free Breakfast for Children, Free
Clinics and Neighborhood Protection for their communities? Explain your answer with
information you’ve researched through documentaries and online discoveries in a welldeveloped research with documentations.
The Black Panthers’ socialist message and black nationalist focus made them the target of a
secret FBI counterintelligence program called COINTELPRO. In 1969, the FBI declared the Black
Panthers a communist organization and an enemy of the United States government. The first FBI
Director J. Edgar Hoover called the Black Panthers, “One of the greatest threats to the nation’s
internal security.” The FBI worked to weaken the Panthers by exploited existing rivalries
between black nationalist groups. They also worked to undermine and dismantle the Free
Breakfast for Children Program and other community social programs instituted by the Black
4. In 1966, police violence ran rampant in Los Angeles and the need to protect black men
and women from state-sanctioned violence was crucial. Armed Black Panther members
would show up during police arrest of black men and women, stand at a legal distance
and surveil their interactions. It was “to make sure there was no brutality,” Newton
said. Both Panther members and officers would stand armed with guns, an act that
agreed with the open carry law in California at the time. These confrontations in many
ways, allowed the Panthers to protect their communities and police the police.
Accordingly this was done legally (by law) why do you think the FBI deemed them a
gang, dangerous and “One of the greatest threats to the nation’s internal security.”
This was penned by J. Edgar Hoover. What was the relationship with the FBI and the
Black Panther Party? What was COINTELPRO? Answer these questions as you write a
well-developed research. Use evidence from documentaries and online discoveries.
In 1969, Chicago police gunned down and killed black Panther Party members Fred Hampton and Mark
Clark, who were asleep in their apartment. About 100 bullets were fired in what police described as a
fierce gun battle with members of the Black Panther Party. However, ballistics experts later determined
that only one of those bullets came from the Panthers’ side. Although the FBI was not responsible for
leading the raid, a federal grand jury later indicated that the bureau played a significant role in the
events leading up to the raid. The black Panther Party officially dissolved in 1982.
5. Who was Fred Hampton, and what was his role in the Black Panther Party? What was
significant about his role, and had he lived, what direction do you think the Party
would have gone? Write a well-developed research using information from the
documentaries and other online discoveries.
6. Which Black Panther do you admire the most? Is he/she alive today? If so, what is
he/she doing now? If he/she is not living, what did they do after the movement? Write
a well-developed research using information from the documentaries and other online
7. Compare and contrast the Freedom Riders to the Black Panthers. Use information from
documentaries and other online discoveries.
You have seven (7) prompts to choose only one (1) to write your research paper. It is to be done in MLA
format (please check the Purdue Owl for guidance). Proofread your paper before you before you upload
and email. The due date is December 8, 2020 by 11:59 pm. This is your Final Exam. I can not and I will
not accept late papers. If you do not understand or have questions, let me know. I am here to help you.
However, I must know in time to be able to help you. Do not seek help the day before or the date you
have to turn the exam in.

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