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LENGTH: At least 10 pages of text, not including References or Works Cited list (there is no specific upper limit for length of paper; the length of your paper may vary)

GUIDELINES: Please compose a paper that demonstrates your ability to pose a specific research question relating to your area of interest, and to provide the answer to that question that you arrived at through your research. Think of your audience as a relatively specialized audience, in contrast with the more general college-educated audience to whom you may have directed your writing for English 101. After all, what all of you have in common – different as your particular majors are – is a specialized discourse community of which you are becoming a member, and with which you will be communicating throughout the rest of your educational and working life.

Throughout the semester, you have been conducting research regarding your field – both the relatively general research needed for the discipline awareness report, and the more specific research necessary for the research proposal and the literature review exercise. Now, you will build upon that work by discussing what you found through your research. Was the answer that you found to your research question what you expected it to be? How? And why, or why not?

To put together this final research project, you will be combining the three major papers that you have already written, with some new research and conclusions of your own. Recall that in the past, you have written the following:

A

Discipline Awareness Essay,

in which you looked at peer-reviewed scholarly articles, trade journal articles, and general-interest articles to get a sense of contemporary developments and general areas of concern in your field overall;

A

Research Proposal,

in which you selected from among those general areas of interest to choose a specific topic that you would research and study this semester;

and

A

Literature Review,

in which you reviewed, analyzed, and commented upon relevant scholarly literature pertaining to the topic that you chose to study.

Now, for the Final Research Project, you will combine these three course elements with a fourth course element:

A

Findings Report,

in which you utilize first-hand primary-source research of your own to arrive at your answer to your research question.

Remember: the Discipline Awareness Essay + the Research Proposal + the Literature Review + the Findings Report = the Final Research Project.

By this point in the semester, you have already shown your ability to read the research of others. I am hoping that, for this final project, you will show your ability to conduct some primary research of your own. Options for conducting your own research include the following:

Interview.

Whether in person, by telephone, or via e-mail, you could ask questions of, and gain answers from, someone who has knowledge of and/or experience with your topic. For example, a person studying American policy in Afghanistan or Iraq could interview a George Mason University professor whose area of expertise is modern U.S. foreign policy, or could interview a fellow student, relative, or friend who served with U.S. forces in Afghanistan and/or Iraq.

Survey.

You could use a survey form to seek out opinions, beliefs, and perspectives from fellow members of the George Mason community. For instance, a student researching the attitudes of contemporary students with regard to changes in dating norms could send out a survey asking students to share their experiences and perspectives with regard to contemporary dating.

Ethnographic observation.

You could visit a site frequented by people whose life experiences and/or interests relate to your topic. For example, a student researching issues relating to religious belief could attend a meeting of a Mason student group for whom such issues are of particular interest. By observing the group, listening to what the members of the group say, and taking careful notes regarding details of what the members of the group wear, what insider terms or key language they share, what signage or documents can be seen at their meetings, etc., you can gain a strong sense of what the members of the group find interesting and important, and can connect those perspectives with what you have already learned through your prior studies.

As the fields in which you work are diverse, you may use either APA or MLA documentation, according to your preference. Please be aware that it might be a good idea to try to utilize the form of documentation that is and will be customary for upper-level courses in your major field, and/or for written work in your future professional career. Additionally, remember the reasons for the norms of documentation in both of these documentation styles; choose one and be consistent. Do not devise your own documentation style that contains different elements of APA and MLA; a paper in “AMPLAA” will not be acceptable.

In the past, we have discussed how it is often a norm in social-science research for papers to follow a structure of IMRAD (Introduction, Methods, Results, And Discussion) – something that is standard practice in many papers written in APA, though not in MLA. Following the IMRAD structure is not required for this assignment, though you may do so as you wish. You also have the option of titling the sections “Discipline Awareness,” “Research Proposal,” “Literature Review,” and “Findings Report,” if you like, or of giving the sections creative titles of your own.

You may draw upon your prior work for the class as you see fit; the key distinction is that, where prior work set forth the questions that you were asking, the emphasis in this final paper should be upon the answers that you found and the reasons why they matter. Whatever specific choices you make regarding how to organize and present your paper, remember that, like any other piece of writing, it will need to have a clear thesis or main idea: what answer you found to your research question, and why it should matter to your readers. And your claim should be supported by reasons for that claim; and your claim and reason should be supported by the evidence that you found in the process of your research.

1
Discourse Community
Arian Dabiri
George Mason University
English 302
2/14/21
2
Discourse Community
I am currently pursuing a major in Criminology Law and Society. My interest is mainly
with the enforcement of federal laws, hence working in Federal agencies would be best. The
interest in Criminology law and society as my major springs from the desire to acquire vast
information on the motivations of criminal activity and the effects thereof. Criminal activity is a
never ceasing phenomenon that is as old as society itself. From a point of altruism, criminology
is an appropriate major for me since it shall enable me to make a positive impact with regard to
law enforcement. Peace and harmonious living are crucial for the development of society. By
studying Criminology, I will have an opportunity to take active steps to attain this aspiration.
These ambitions correspond with those of other individuals taking criminology as well, since the
profession is concerned with maintaining the integrity of the society through the law. In this
paper, there shall be a discussion of the common goals, insider terms, shared assumptions,
expertise expectations, the avenues for communication and unwritten roles which shall give an
insight into the field of criminology law.
In the field of criminology law, there are shared goals, which members of the profession
resonate with. Firstly, the profession has a goal to maintain order. There are many disruptions
that can interfere with the smooth running of operations in the society and affect the peace of the
community. Unrest is detrimental to the community in social, economic and political aspects. As
such, it is key that the profession have a devotion to maintaining the peace of the community.
Secondly, stakeholders in criminology are concerned with the prevailing distrust of the police in
society (Fontaine, et al. 2017). The distrust has become a norm due to past events where the
police and law enforcement has appeared to work against the interest in the public. Wrongful
3
convictions, excessive use of force, unjustified killings and criminal activity within the law
enforcement agencies have diminished trust. Seeing as law enforcement personnel are meant to
serve and protect, it is important to work towards restoring the trust that has been lost. Finally,
serviced to the people is a shared goal in my profession. The law is meant to serve and regulate
society. The heart of the operation of my profession is the people.
There are certain terms or ways of communicating that only find meaning in the career of
Criminology law and society. These phrases are peculiar to the profession and their usages are
usually understood by people with knowledge of criminology. One example is the doctrine of the
fruit of the poisonous tree. These words may mean a variety of things to lay men. However, in
the profession, they make up a key tenet, which governs admissibility of evidence. Evidence that
is acquired illegally cannot be adduced or rendered admissible in court as per the doctrine.
Another term that is only used by people in the profession is ‘to skate’. Typically, the term
would mean the action of skate on a skate board or in roller skates. But in Criminology law, the
term holds much more meaning. There are instances where accused people are released from
court not because they have been acquitted or their matter has been withdrawn, but because of
mere technicality. The law contains both procedural and substantive aspects (Reisig & Lloyd,
2009). When the procedures are not followed properly, a person may be let off, seeing as a
conviction based on procedural irregularities is illegal. In such instances, the accused is said to
have skated. Finally, a term that is peculiar to the profession is ‘deuce’. Deuces are crimes that
pertain to drunk driving. In some states, the law is called a ‘502’. Since the reference ends with a
number 2, it is referred to as a deuce. To mention a few, these are the insider terms that are
present in the field of criminology law.
4
There are assumptions which are shared in the profession of criminology. Some of these
are derived from academic discourses learnt in the field, while others are the result of general
operations of the professions. Rationality is one of the assumptions that is derived from the
philosophy of criminology. There is a general assumption that men are free to do what they
please, and are conscious of their choices, thus crime and the commission are a matter of choice.
Drawing from this assumption, the law of criminology sets out aspects such requirements for
intention or malice for certain crimes. Hedonism is another assumption which stipulates that
people will choose to act in a way that brings them pleasure rather than that which inflicts pain.
This hedonism is one of the foundation or causes of criminal activity. That someone would
choose to commit a crime, based on the belief that committing it will bring about the desired
effect. Finally, a primary assumption is that a society ought to be peaceful and orderly, such that
any threat to such peace ought to be expunged or managed. This is the foundation of the
activities of criminal law.
In order for an individual to practice in the field of criminology law and society
competently, and to make a significant impact, there are certain conditions that ought to be met.
The first is to gain academic qualifications. These qualifications are crucial since they impart on
an individual pertinent skills and competencies, which are useful in the execution of duties as a
professional in criminology law and society. There are degrees that are instrumental in
criminology such as; sociology, psychology, criminal justice and criminology. Work experience
in the field of criminology law is crucial to gain authority in the field. Work experience gives an
individual a chance to apply theoretical knowledge in practical settings. Such application refines
a person’s understanding of the intricate aspects of criminology law. Experience can be gained
from volunteering or working with the police of other law enforcement agencies. Licensing is
5
part of the conditions that ought to be met. One takes a national licencing exam and a test on
ethics in order to get a licence. Thereafter, an individual requests the board of psychology to
permit him to practice. Licencing allows on to practise with the force of the law.
There are unspoken or unwritten rules and codes of conduct to be found in the profession
of criminology law. These rules are norms that help with the easy execution of operations
(Steinberg, 2008). Some of the rules are in place in order to maintain professional courtesy, so as
to enhance the quality of relations in the profession. One such rule is that when a colleague is
found in wrong-doing, unnecessary attention is not brought to the incident (Los Angeles Times,
2019). The practice is to deal with the matter discreetly. This is important in order to maintain
the integrity of the profession and its agencies as a whole. There are interpersonal relationships
in the field of criminology law. These relationships are governed by effective communication.
Communications made in the profession ought to be courteous and professional (O’Connell,
1986). The modes of communication vary from emails, phone calls, radio calls for police and
memos. These avenues for communication are crucial since they facilitate the transmission of
key information. Reports and important messages are relayed through such avenues. Maintaining
the acceptable standards of communication is key in order to maintain the integrity of the system.
Inappropriate communications can lead to the disintegration of agencies and as a result, lead to
low efficiency.
The analysis herein highlights some key aspects of the profession of criminology law.
The paper discusses the shared goals, assumptions, the modes of communications, insider terms,
unwritten rules and expertise expectations of the profession. These serve to show the workings of
the profession and the essence of its operations.
6
References
Fontaine, J. et al. (2017). Mistrust and ambivalence between residents and the police. Urban
Institute.
Los Angeles Times. (2019, December 7). Unwritten Rules for police.
https://www.pressreader/usa/los-angeles-times/20191207/281655371948554
O’Connell, S. W. (1986). “The manager as communicator”. Rowman & Littlefield.
Reisig, M. D & Lloyd, C. (2009). Procedural justice, police legitimacy and helping the police
fight crime: Results from a survey of Jamaican adolescents. Justice Quarterly, 17(3),
pp.607-630.
Steinberg, J. (2008). “Thin blue: The unwritten rules of policing South Africa”. Jonathan Ball.
1
Research Proposal: Gun Control
Arian Dabiri
George Mason University
English 302 M24
Paul Haspel
03/11/2021
2
Research Proposal: Gun Control
Introduction
Gun policies are a debatable topic in the United States for their role in reducing gun
violence. America is one of the countries where the laws allow civilians to own guns for selfdefense. Besides, the policies permit civilians to hold various weapons where some get
considered lethal when in ordinary citizens’ hands. According to data from Pew Research
Center, three in ten American adults admit to owning a gun, while 11% say they live with
someone who owns a gun (Gramlich & Schaeffer, 2019). Additionally, 67% of those with guns
say they have them for protection, while 38% indicate they use guns for hunting and 30% use
guns for sport shooting (Gramlich & Schaeffer, 2019). However, increasing gun violence,
especially in recent years, presents concerns about gun violence’s existing policies. This proposal
aims to study whether gun control will have a significant reduction in gun violence.
Background of the Research and Problem Statement
In December 2012, a mass shooting at the Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown,
Connecticut, shocked the US. The incident, conducted by a 20-year-old lone shooter, left 27
people dead, including 20 children from the school (Barry et al., 2018). In El-Paso, Texas, a
separate incident in August 2019 left 23 people dead and 23 others injured when a lone gunman
stormed at a Walmart store and opened fire to the shoppers (Barry et al., 2019). These two
scenarios represent two of the several occasions where civilians used their weapons to cause
harm to the public. According to Barry et al. (2018), firearms were responsible for 38,658 deaths
in the US. Moreover, about 100,000 Americans get non-fatally injured by guns, while homicide
accounts for a third of firearm-related deaths. Such scenarios create a public perception of
3
whether the existing gun policies are sufficient to address gun violence. Hence, the proposal will
research and determine the association between firearm policies and gun violence.
Literature Review
Research by Barry et al. (2019) examined the trend and reasons why gun ownership
status and political party affiliations favored gun policies. Besides, the authors compared the
public perception about gun policies, including gun owners and non-gun owners. The authors
used a cross-sectional survey administered through the National Survey of Gun Policy of the
Center for Gun Policy and Research. The study occurred in 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019 where
7833 participants got included in the final sample (Barry et al., 2019). According to the study’s
findings, most participants supported the policies put in place for gun control.
The public supported universal background checks for handgun purchasers and stringent
measures to regulate gun dealers. Moreover, gun owners supported comprehensive tests to
determine whether individuals were fit to carry concealed weapons (Barry et al., 2019). The
research also showed the public supported the accountability of gun dealers and data access.
However, the authors reported uncertainty between the public and gun owners regarding carrying
guns to the public. Nevertheless, the research provided information on how gun owners and nongun owners perceive measures to address gun violence.
A similar study by Barry et al. (2018) explored the different gun policies with the highest
public support and those that needed consideration from the policymakers. The authors used a
survey in the NORC’s AmeriSpeaks online platform where 2124 people participated. The results
showed that most of the respondents supported gun ownership restrictions, universal background
checks, and accountability of the gun dealers. Furthermore, most of the respondents indicated
4
support for the regulations requiring gun-owners to demonstrate safe-handling when carrying
guns to public places (Barry et al., 2018). However, there was a gap in support of policies such
as banning the sale of large-capacity magazines, prohibiting the sale of semiautomatic rifles,
prohibiting individuals below the age of 21 from owning guns, and allowing an individual to
carry concealed weapons to school grounds. The authors concluded by indicating the research
was essential in showing the public’s awareness in supporting regulations to control gun
ownership and gun violence.
The study by Morrall (2018) investigated the relationship between different firearm
policies and gun-related deaths and violent crimes. According to the author, sufficient scientific
evidence was necessary to guide policymakers and the general public in formulating efficient
gun policies. The author conducted a systematic review using the Royal Society of Medicine
guidelines to retrieve reports published since 2013 about gun policies (Morrall, 2018). The
findings from the literature indicated restriction to access prevented suicide cases among the
youth. Besides, sufficient background checks to gun owners reduced suicide cases, homicides,
and violent crimes.
Similarly, limiting access to individuals with mental illness reduced the occurrence of
violent crimes. The author stated that the research effectively established the policies that would
significantly reduce gun violence in the US (Morrall, 2018). The above literature will be
essential in providing background information about the public perception of gun policies and
gun violence. The studies will also provide a base for the research by analyzing findings from
previous analyses.
5
Rationale
The research will examine the various gun policies in place and how they affect access to
firearms by civilians. The specific research questions will be:
1. What are the causes of gun violence in the United States?
2. What are the existing regulations regarding gun ownership?
3. Does limiting access to guns reduce gun violence?
These research questions will show the claim of the relationship between gun violence and
gun policies. Additionally, the research hypothesis for the research will be, sufficient policies
that promote gun control will significantly reduce gun violence.
Method and Design
The research will follow a systematic review of the literature published on gun policies
and gun violence. The scientific literature will be retrieved from the PubMed database and
RAND (Lee et al., 2019). These two databases will provide reputable studies on gun policies
since they contain peer-reviewed journals with reliable research. Moreover, the articles from
these two databases have scientific information appropriate to make decisions regarding gun
policies. The study will include articles published from 2015 to 2021. The keywords used for the
article search will be ‘gun policy’ ‘gun control,’ and ‘gun violence’ to ensure only research about
the subjects gets included for the final review.
The research articles that meet the search criteria will be included in the study, where a
minimum of 20 articles is expected. The analysis will examine the common theme and
significant differences in the various investigations regarding gun policies and violence. The
6
findings and recommendations from each article will be scrutinized to determine their
importance in gun policies and gun control.
Significance and Conclusion
The proposed research will improve on the existing studies about gun control and gun
violence. Although researchers have conducted several studies on the subject, gun violence is
still prevalent in the US. Therefore, the study will include a scientific review of the gun policies
and how they relate to gun violence. Similarly, the study will address the critical issues about
gun control and how they could become integrated into new gun policies. The research findings
will help policymakers review the existing gun policies to ensure restricted access to guns by
civilians (Morrall, 2018). This approach will prevent violent incidences such as mass shootings
and homicide cases. Besides, the research results will be useful in public health since the study
will analyze the importance of comprehensive mental checkups for individuals before they own a
gun. Furthermore, the study will be necessary to the general public since it will create awareness
of the gun policies and the public’s role in recommending policies that limit gun access.
7
References
Barry, C. L., Stone, E. M., Crifasi, C. K., Vernick, J. S., Webster, D. W., & McGinty, E. E.
(2019). Trends in public opinion on US gun laws: majorities of gun owners and non–gun
owners support a range of measures. Health Affairs, 38(10), 1727-1734.
https://dx.doi.org/10.13772Fhlthaff.2019.00576
Barry, C. L., Webster, D. W., Stone, E., Crifasi, C. K., Vernick, J. S., & McGinty, E. E. (2018).
Public support for gun violence prevention policies among gun owners and non–gun
owners in 2017. American journal of public health, 108(7), 878-881.
https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304432
Gramlich, J., & Schaeffer, K. (2019). 7 facts about guns in the U.S. Pew Research Center.
Retrieved from: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/10/22/facts-about-guns-inunited-states/
Lee, L. K., Fleegler, E. W., Farrell, C., Avakame, E., Srinivasan, S., Hemenway, D., &
Monuteaux, M. C. (2017). Firearm laws and firearm homicides: a systematic review.
JAMA internal medicine, 177(1), 106-119.
https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.7051
Morrall, A. (2018). The science of gun policy: a critical synthesis of research evidence on the
effects of gun policies in the United States. Rand health quarterly, 8(1).
1
Literature Review
Arian Dabiri
Professor: Paul Haspel
George Mason University
ENG 302
04/06/2021
2
Literature Review
The paper highlights four peer-reviewed journal articles by different authors who address
the causes of gun control violence in the US, the existing regulations, and policies regarding gun
ownership, and whether limiting gun access could reduce gun violence in the US. The literature
review will discuss journals on Public sympathy for abuse against guns, The science of gun
policies, the relationship between firearm laws and firearm homicide cases, and facts about guns
in the US.
Public Support for Gun Violence Prevention Policies Among Gun Owners and Non–Gun
Owners in 2017
This newspaper report from Barry and Webster strongly shows the public support by gun
owners and non-gun owners for measures to curb gun abuse. The newspaper supports the drive
for preventive policies for people with arms. This article is focused on analysis and contrasts
general interest for 24 separate firearms programs for non-gun owners and weapons owners
(Barry, Webster, Vernick & McGinty, 2018). The writers advocate actions to improve American
arms regulations and introduce policies such as ban on firearms for individuals convicted of
domestic abuse and the introduction of better protective security requirements for registered gun
owners. They also support policies that could hold licensed gun dealers accountable for
unaccounted inventory. Barry and Webster smoothly develop the article’s idea by first narrating
the Sandy Hook Elementary School gun incident case in 2012 (Barry, Webster, Vernick &
McGinty, 2018). The authors also illustrate the magnitude of poor gun policies among gun
holders and non-gun holders by citing other examples throughout history where legal and illegal
firearms caused thousands of Americans’ death.
3
However, the authors also highlight the societal divide on implementing strict gun
policies by referring to media reports that have cited the gun ownership divide. Some people
support guns while more society members champion strict guidelines that would reduce gun
violence cases in America. Based on the research conducted by Barry and Webster, policies that
have minimal support gaps and more societal support are feasible to enact (Barry, Webster,
Vernick & McGinty, 2018). Also, the research determines that ease of access to firearms by
people with histories of domestic violence increases chances of homicide by up to 500%
compared to unarmed abusers. In general, the journal recommends that firearms owners and nongun owners enact gun safety laws to minimize domestic abuse and terrorist attacks.
The Science of Gun Policy
Andrew Morall’s article on the science of gun policy critically analyzes the effects of gun
policies adopted by the US. The paper considers RAND Corporations Gun policy implemented
in the US that assesses the scientific evidence of the impact of firearm policies and laws. The
journal insists that gun policies consider factors such as the effect on other procedures,
stakeholder groups’ interests, and law and constitutional rights (Morrall, 2018). However, Morall
argues that the scientific literature that examines gun policies could highlight gun policies’
implications. The journal illustrates data derived from the effects of firearm policies on sport
shooting, hunting, gun industry, violent crime, and firearm death cases reported in the US.
Thirteen classes are considered in the journal: background checks, arms ban, land rules,
mental illness regulations, license and permission standards, and firearms reporting and tracking
conditions. Other weapons measure under review includes child prevention regulation, firearms
freezing zones, processing times, clandestine transit regulations, minimum age standards, and
child prevention legislation. The author backs all claims with evidence from research and
4
scientific evidence (Morrall, 2018). The author did not exclude studies based on their findings,
but those that isolated causal effects. Andrew Morall’s journal summarizes methodological
weaknesses and critical findings of the available scientific evidence. It is also worth noting that
the author has effectively conveyed ideas through transitional words and phrases that smoothly
and logically lead the reader through the paper.
Firearm Laws and Firearm Homicides
The article by Lois Lee and Eric Fleegler critically analyzes firearm laws and firearm
homicides in the US. The authors determined that, on aggregate, strong gun policies are
associated with reduced rates of firearm homicides. Lois and Eric highlight that specific law
directed towards banning military assault weapons, child safety, or tracking firearms did not
relate to changes in firearm homicide rates. The author’s study also identified that leniency in
carrying guns and laws that restricted carrying guns in public places were mixed (Lee, Fleegler,
Hemenway, & Monuteaux, 2017). The authors back their claims using peer-reviewed journal
articles published between 1970 and 2016, and they base their facts on the relationship between
firearm homicide and US firearm laws. The authors argue that the scale of fire armament
regulation is widespread and that legislation allowing the procurement and reinforcement of
background checks leads to lower fire armament rates (Lee, Fleegler, Hemenway, & Monuteaux,
2017). The journal clearly illustrates the relationship between firearm laws and firearm homicide
rates using simple phrases and transitional words that the reader can understand.
Seven Facts About Guns in the US
The newspaper review by Katherine Schaeffer and John Gramlich highlights the seven
facts about guns in the US. The authors determine that weapons are rooted in American society
and even though the second amendment requires Americans to possess guns., 30% of citizens
5
own guns. The authors highlight recent mass shootings and big-city murders that have spurred
debates in state legislatures and Congress that propose limiting Americans’ access to owning
firearms. The journal supports its findings from government statistics, and at one point, the
authors note that in 2017, over 30,000 people died due to gun-related violence in the US
(Gramlich & Schaeffer, 2019). The article is also backed by findings from the Pew Research
Center surveys, and it highlights seven facts about guns in the US. The results that the authors
discuss are 40% of adults live in households that own a firearm, most gun owners cite that they
possess guns for personal protection and that there are sizable education and gender differences
that support strict gun regulations (Gramlich & Schaeffer, 2019). The newspaper review also
determines that most gun policy appraisals tend to be politically divisive, although some
Democrats and Republicans agree on and that the public is divided on whether enforcing strict
gun policies would reduce cases of mass shootings. Other facts highlighted in the newspaper
review include that most Americans know someone who has been previously shot and that gunrelated death cases have increased over the years (Gramlich & Schaeffer, 2019). The authors
develop thoughts and ideas in the paper by pointing to facts where necessary, and they use
transitional words and phrases that the reader finds easy to interpret. Generally, Katherine
Schaeffer and John Gramlich effectively demonstrate some seven facts about guns and people’s
divisive opinion on gun control policies.
6
References
Barry, C. L., Webster, D. W., Stone, E., Crifasi, C. K., Vernick, J. S., & McGinty, E. E.
(2018). Public support for gun violence prevention policies among gun owners and non–
gun owners in 2017. American journal of public health, 108(7), 878-881.
https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304432
Gramlich, J., & Schaeffer, K. (2019). 7 facts about guns in the U.S. Pew Research
Center. Retrieved from: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/10/22/facts-aboutguns-in-united-states/
Lee, L. K., Fleegler, E. W., Farrell, C., Avakame, E., Srinivasan, S., Hemenway, D., &
Monuteaux, M. C. (2017). Firearm laws and firearm homicides: a systematic review.
JAMA internal medicine, 177(1), 106-119.
https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.7051
Morrall, A. (2018). The science of gun policy: a critical synthesis of research evidence on
the effects of gun policies in the United States. Rand health quarterly, 8(1).
1
Discourse Community
Arian Dabiri
George Mason University
English 302
2/14/21
2
Discourse Community
I am currently pursuing a major in Criminology Law and Society. My interest is mainly
with the enforcement of federal laws, hence working in Federal agencies would be best. The
interest in Criminology law and society as my major springs from the desire to acquire vast
information on the motivations of criminal activity and the effects thereof. Criminal activity is a
never ceasing phenomenon that is as old as society itself. From a point of altruism, criminology
is an appropriate major for me since it shall enable me to make a positive impact with regard to
law enforcement. Peace and harmonious living are crucial for the development of society. By
studying Criminology, I will have an opportunity to take active steps to attain this aspiration.
These ambitions correspond with those of other individuals taking criminology as well, since the
profession is concerned with maintaining the integrity of the society through the law. In this
paper, there shall be a discussion of the common goals, insider terms, shared assumptions,
expertise expectations, the avenues for communication and unwritten roles which shall give an
insight into the field of criminology law.
In the field of criminology law, there are shared goals, which members of the profession
resonate with. Firstly, the profession has a goal to maintain order. There are many disruptions
that can interfere with the smooth running of operations in the society and affect the peace of the
community. Unrest is detrimental to the community in social, economic and political aspects. As
such, it is key that the profession have a devotion to maintaining the peace of the community.
Secondly, stakeholders in criminology are concerned with the prevailing distrust of the police in
society (Fontaine, et al. 2017). The distrust has become a norm due to past events where the
police and law enforcement has appeared to work against the interest in the public. Wrongful
3
convictions, excessive use of force, unjustified killings and criminal activity within the law
enforcement agencies have diminished trust. Seeing as law enforcement personnel are meant to
serve and protect, it is important to work towards restoring the trust that has been lost. Finally,
serviced to the people is a shared goal in my profession. The law is meant to serve and regulate
society. The heart of the operation of my profession is the people.
There are certain terms or ways of communicating that only find meaning in the career of
Criminology law and society. These phrases are peculiar to the profession and their usages are
usually understood by people with knowledge of criminology. One example is the doctrine of the
fruit of the poisonous tree. These words may mean a variety of things to lay men. However, in
the profession, they make up a key tenet, which governs admissibility of evidence. Evidence that
is acquired illegally cannot be adduced or rendered admissible in court as per the doctrine.
Another term that is only used by people in the profession is ‘to skate’. Typically, the term
would mean the action of skate on a skate board or in roller skates. But in Criminology law, the
term holds much more meaning. There are instances where accused people are released from
court not because they have been acquitted or their matter has been withdrawn, but because of
mere technicality. The law contains both procedural and substantive aspects (Reisig & Lloyd,
2009). When the procedures are not followed properly, a person may be let off, seeing as a
conviction based on procedural irregularities is illegal. In such instances, the accused is said to
have skated. Finally, a term that is peculiar to the profession is ‘deuce’. Deuces are crimes that
pertain to drunk driving. In some states, the law is called a ‘502’. Since the reference ends with a
number 2, it is referred to as a deuce. To mention a few, these are the insider terms that are
present in the field of criminology law.
4
There are assumptions which are shared in the profession of criminology. Some of these
are derived from academic discourses learnt in the field, while others are the result of general
operations of the professions. Rationality is one of the assumptions that is derived from the
philosophy of criminology. There is a general assumption that men are free to do what they
please, and are conscious of their choices, thus crime and the commission are a matter of choice.
Drawing from this assumption, the law of criminology sets out aspects such requirements for
intention or malice for certain crimes. Hedonism is another assumption which stipulates that
people will choose to act in a way that brings them pleasure rather than that which inflicts pain.
This hedonism is one of the foundation or causes of criminal activity. That someone would
choose to commit a crime, based on the belief that committing it will bring about the desired
effect. Finally, a primary assumption is that a society ought to be peaceful and orderly, such that
any threat to such peace ought to be expunged or managed. This is the foundation of the
activities of criminal law.
In order for an individual to practice in the field of criminology law and society
competently, and to make a significant impact, there are certain conditions that ought to be met.
The first is to gain academic qualifications. These qualifications are crucial since they impart on
an individual pertinent skills and competencies, which are useful in the execution of duties as a
professional in criminology law and society. There are degrees that are instrumental in
criminology such as; sociology, psychology, criminal justice and criminology. Work experience
in the field of criminology law is crucial to gain authority in the field. Work experience gives an
individual a chance to apply theoretical knowledge in practical settings. Such application refines
a person’s understanding of the intricate aspects of criminology law. Experience can be gained
from volunteering or working with the police of other law enforcement agencies. Licensing is
5
part of the conditions that ought to be met. One takes a national licencing exam and a test on
ethics in order to get a licence. Thereafter, an individual requests the board of psychology to
permit him to practice. Licencing allows on to practise with the force of the law.
There are unspoken or unwritten rules and codes of conduct to be found in the profession
of criminology law. These rules are norms that help with the easy execution of operations
(Steinberg, 2008). Some of the rules are in place in order to maintain professional courtesy, so as
to enhance the quality of relations in the profession. One such rule is that when a colleague is
found in wrong-doing, unnecessary attention is not brought to the incident (Los Angeles Times,
2019). The practice is to deal with the matter discreetly. This is important in order to maintain
the integrity of the profession and its agencies as a whole. There are interpersonal relationships
in the field of criminology law. These relationships are governed by effective communication.
Communications made in the profession ought to be courteous and professional (O’Connell,
1986). The modes of communication vary from emails, phone calls, radio calls for police and
memos. These avenues for communication are crucial since they facilitate the transmission of
key information. Reports and important messages are relayed through such avenues. Maintaining
the acceptable standards of communication is key in order to maintain the integrity of the system.
Inappropriate communications can lead to the disintegration of agencies and as a result, lead to
low efficiency.
The analysis herein highlights some key aspects of the profession of criminology law.
The paper discusses the shared goals, assumptions, the modes of communications, insider terms,
unwritten rules and expertise expectations of the profession. These serve to show the workings of
the profession and the essence of its operations.
6
References
Fontaine, J. et al. (2017). Mistrust and ambivalence between residents and the police. Urban
Institute.
Los Angeles Times. (2019, December 7). Unwritten Rules for police.
https://www.pressreader/usa/los-angeles-times/20191207/281655371948554
O’Connell, S. W. (1986). “The manager as communicator”. Rowman & Littlefield.
Reisig, M. D & Lloyd, C. (2009). Procedural justice, police legitimacy and helping the police
fight crime: Results from a survey of Jamaican adolescents. Justice Quarterly, 17(3),
pp.607-630.
Steinberg, J. (2008). “Thin blue: The unwritten rules of policing South Africa”. Jonathan Ball.
1
Discourse Community
Arian Dabiri
George Mason University
English 302
2/14/21
2
Discourse Community
A great many people who enter a vocation in law authorization are ignorant of the poisonous
impacts the calling can have on them actually, profoundly, and inwardly. Shockingly, the harm coming
about because of pressure and long, erratic hours can make numerous workers go to practices that, at last,
might be destructive if not tended to. Habit is a pandemic in our calling, just as society in general.
Numerous representatives need to maintain a strategic distance from the subject, albeit nearly everybody
is influenced straightforwardly or in a roundabout way by habit. This illness prompts annihilated lives,
vocations, and families. Unfortunately, law implementation offices lead minimal genuine preparing with
respect to this significant theme. Law Enforcement and leadership ranks need to think about genuine, far
reaching, and successful preparing on compulsion and what the infection means for our calling. They
ought to evaluate their office’s preparation programs and do all that they can to address the issue from the
get-go in an official’s profession. Also, officials should think about their organization’s assets in the event
that issues emerge. They should realize that there are answers for virtually every circumstance they may
confront. Further, they ought to comprehend that looking for help for the illness is certifiably not an
indication of shortcoming, but it is an indication of solidarity. The choice to not looking for help could be
passing. Far reaching dependence preparing helps all law implementation experts become more beneficial
in their everyday obligations. Numerous individuals from the public will communicate with officials as
their very own immediate aftereffect addictions.ethics in order to get a licence. Thereafter, an
individual requests the board of psychology to permit him to practice. Licencing allows on to
practise with the force of the law.
There are unspoken or unwritten rules and codes of conduct to be found in the profession
of criminology law. These rules are norms that help with the easy execution of operations
(Steinberg, 2008). Some of the rules are in place in order to maintain professional courtesy, so as
3
to enhance the quality of relations in the profession. One such rule is that when a colleague is
found in wrong-doing, unnecessary attention is not brought to the incident (Los Angeles Times,
2019). The practice is to deal with the matter discreetly. This is important in order to maintain
the integrity of the profession and its agencies as a whole. There are interpersonal relationships
in the field of criminology law. These relationships are governed by effective communication.
Communications made in the profession ought to be courteous and professional (O’Connell,
1986). The modes of communication vary from emails, phone calls, radio calls for police and
memos. These avenues for communication are crucial since they facilitate the transmission of
key information. Reports and important messages are relayed through such avenues. Maintaining
the acceptable standards of communication is key in order to maintain the integrity of the system.
Inappropriate communications can lead to the disintegration of agencies and as a result, lead to
low efficiency.
The analysis herein highlights some key aspects of the profession of criminology law.
The paper discusses the shared goals, assumptions, the modes of communications, insider terms,
unwritten rules and expertise expectations of the profession. These serve to show the workings of
the profession and the essence of its operations.
References
Fontaine, J. et al. (2017). Mistrust and ambivalence between residents and the police. Urban
Institute.
Los Angeles Times. (2019, December 7). Unwritten Rules for police.
https://www.pressreader/usa/los-angeles-times/20191207/281655371948554
4
O’Connell, S. W. (1986). “The manager as communicator”. Rowman & Littlefield.
Reisig, M. D & Lloyd, C. (2009). Procedural justice, police legitimacy and helping the police
fight crime: Results from a survey of Jamaican adolescents. Justice Quarterly, 17(3),
pp.607-630.
Steinberg, J. (2008). “Thin blue: The unwritten rules of policing South Africa”. Jonathan Ball.

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