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So I completed an essay that followed these grading rubrics..



Your goal in writing an explanatory essay, or informative report, is not to argue a particular point; rather, you must

present the facts in a reasonably objective manner

. Like all other academic essays, your explanatory essay should be based on a thesis.

For this assignment, your essay’s topic will be generated from “Chapter 12: Artificial Intelligence” in

Writing and Reading across the Curriculum

and respond to the following writing prompt:

Dominic Basulto writes that “complex ethical and philosophical questions [lie] at the heart of AI.” In an explanatory synthesis that draws on three print,

not video

, sources in Chapter 12, explain some of these ethical and philosophical questions and discuss their complexity. To help you limit your focus and craft a meaningful thesis, your synthesis should build on an account of how AI systems “learn” and the ways in which recent developments in AI are forcing us to reexamine the boundaries between human and machine intelligence.

This question is broad enough to help you discover and create a meaningful thesis: Remember, the more interested in the topic you are, the more interesting your writing will be. A minimum of three sources from “Chapter 12” is required for this essay: Absolutely no outside research is permitted for this assignment. Failing to follow this simple requirement will result in an automatic “F” on this essay, regardless of how brilliant the work may be.

Turn to “Formulate a Thesis” on pages 114-116 of your textbook, as well as “Develop an Organizational Plan” and “Organize a Synthesis by an Idea, Not by Source” on pages 115-116 for guidance on how to construct a thesis and organize your discussion Also, remember that your thesis should be manageable and focused so that you can fully develop your 1000-word essay.

All your sources will come from the textbook and, a Works Cited page (MLA) or Reference page (APA) will be required. Refer to the

sample Works Cited or Reference page

posted to Moodle’s Week 2 block under “Resources”: Follow these examples exactly. Also, frequently review the assigned documentation lectures and resources posted in our website–these provide you with explicit instructions for citing work parenthetically, creating Works Cited and Reference pages, and formatting essays. All articles from our text will be treated as “works in an anthology” (in the MLA resources) and as “a selection from an edited work (in the APA resources).


975 to 1025 words, not including the Works Cited page/ Reference page, appropriate MLA-style headings, running heads, or APA-style cover page (refer Purdue OWL’s

general format for APA essays

). Follow appropriate formatting requirements (Again, the resources posted in Moodle provide examples of MLA- and APA-style essays). Essays over 1025 words will NOT be graded.


Follow either MLA- or APA-style format requirements (see Week 1’s lectures).

Requirements: 975 to 1025 words

My teacher responded

” I’ve been quickly scanning over everyone’s essays–it looks like there are concerns with the sources you’ve used in the essay. Sources should come directly from the textbook (no videos, no external files) so that everyone can practice basic documentation of paginated sources.

Many of the authors directly in our textbook share ideas similar to those you’ve included in the essay, so you should be able to replace the sections from external links and videos with material that meets assignment expectations.”

The Book that we are using is “Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen’s

Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum

, 14th edition.”

Ethical and Philosophical Questions on AI
Artificial intelligence just like any other type of technology comes with dispersed views
on ethics and philosophies around it just like any other new technology. There are mixed
concerns about the acceptability of AI in human lives and workplaces. The concerns range from
one sector to the other depending on the threat artificial intelligence poses to the stakeholders in
the sectors. The use of AI currently and in the future are subject to moral philosophies that may
limit their adoption n many spheres (Behrens & Rosen, 1997). The vast ethical and philosophical
questions that artificial intelligence is bound to grace over including privacy and surveillance,
behavior manipulation, the opacity of AI systems and decision-making bias, and the impact of
automation on employment.
There are lots of discussions and philosophies about privacy and surveillance in
information technology involving data access and personaly identifiable data. Privacy in data
management has core aspects including control over information out oneself, personhood aspect
of information, and the right to secrecy. Technology needs to respect all these aspects of personal
data. However, technology as shown in the past has projected more concerns on surveillance
through secret services that access the personal data without necessarily having the consent of
the involved person. According to Müller, (2020), technology has taken a huge shift in its
operational dynamics of data access and use a challenge that regulatory authorities have not risen
to with enough measures. All data storage is now digital and the question remains the ability of
artificial intelligence technology to protect and responsibly use the data they are proxy to. The
truth is that it is very difficult to enforce regulations on AI both at the individual level and at the
state level. The acceptability of artificial intelligence will heavily depend on its ability to internal
and externally control surveillance and ensure the privacy of the users.
Technology tends to be disruptive and, in most cases, it goes beyond the mere
accumulation of data to the direction of attention. Technology can secretly be used in influencing
people to behave in one way or the other which ultimately benefits an individual. Artificial
intelligence is even more advanced in impacting the projection of human behaviors. According
to Burton et al. (2017), allowing AI to, manipulate his behaviors will mean anyone who feels so
profitable will attempt to use the artificial intelligence tool to change how human beings behave
towards personal benefit. many advertisers and marketers will employ the legal means to
maximize their profits which would include, deception, behavioral biases, and generation of
addiction. The major concern with the new artificial intelligence techniques is their ability to
operate free from manipulation of human behaviors. Philosophically, manipulation of human
behavior is morally incorrect. Political Propaganda is another potentially harmful direction the
artificial intelligence can cause. The impact of Cambridge Analytica is still fresh in the minds of
US citizens. The ability of the new artificial intelligence technologies to keep away from human
behavior manipulations a subject that keeps taking diverse directions and must be well addressed
for acceptability of artificial technologies in the future.
The AI system is subject to opacity and bias which are central concerns in data access
also known as data ethics. The automated data handling technologies are not closely monitored
something that raises questions concerning community engagement, due process, and
accountability. technology plays an important part in the process that yields vital decisions used
in societal management and it will be so unfair as these processes are subject to biases on vital
centers. The majority of data analyzing AI systems are simulated that extract decision from a
given data set without necessarily a correct solution provided. The one problem of democratic
political decision-making is allowing a system far complex than ourselves to decides for us that
itself can never understand or explain. some of the decisions made by artificial intelligence are
not transparent for scrutiny and so in most cases, the society is moved on to the decision that the
people are not able to explain the results in the process of generation (Vakkuri & Abrahamsson,
2018). Similarly, the final data from the artificial intelligence output can be marred with lots of
biases. The bases come from the mechanistic decision-making system which assumes that input
of data is enough to predict the output. In a real sense, the natural setups have several other
factors that equally influence the outcome of the processes. The accuracy of the ad the
transparency of the artificial intelligence generated decision is a big question to their
acceptability in the future.
At the heart of artificial intelligence, development is the joblessness that would arise from
the disseminated use of artificial intelligence. There are fears from all corners of the impact
automation is likely to have on employment rates as artificial intelligence takes on the majority
of mechanized industrial roles. The productivity and cost savviness achieved through AI. The
classic automation continues to replace human muscle as digital automation replaces human
thought and information processing (Bostrom & Yudkowsky, 2014). In one way or the other,
these technologies are replacing human labor at workplaces. A comprehensive debate should be
launched on the modality of introducing artificial intelligence to harmoniously incorporate
human labor alongside. The impact of artificial intelligence on human beings is hugely
dependent on the nature of interactions skilled workers have with new technologies responding
to the labor demand and the equilibrium on the technology effects on the labor market. The two
factors can be potent regulators on the projected impact of artificial intelligence on the labor
In a nutshell, the controversies and debates around artificial intelligence can never e
wished away. They have the potential of threatening human exitance and sustainability of life.
Technology should be assistive to human activities but not controlling human activities. aspects
of artificial intelligence technology like privacy and surveillance, control of human attention,
opacity, and biases of the processes and impact of human employment have potential impacts on
humans and should be handle amicably before approving these technologies for use.
Behrens, L., & Rosen, L. J. (1997). Writing and reading across the curriculum. New York:
Bostrom, N., & Yudkowsky, E. (2014). The ethics of artificial intelligence. The Cambridge
handbook of artificial intelligence, 1, 316-334.
Burton, E., Goldsmith, J., Koenig, S., Kuipers, B., Mattei, N., & Walsh, T. (2017). Ethical
considerations in artificial intelligence courses. AI magazine, 38(2), 22-34.
Müller, V. C. (2020). Ethics of artificial intelligence and robotics.
Vakkuri, V., & Abrahamsson, P. (2018, June). The key concepts of ethics of artificial
intelligence. In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Engineering, Technology, and
Innovation (ICE/ITMC) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

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