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David Craig’s Research Essay (MLA Style)
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2
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Craig 1
David Craig
Professor Turkman
English 219
Name, instructor,
course, and date
aligned at left
margin and doublespaced
8 December 2003
Instant Messaging: The Language of Youth Literacy
The English language is under attack. At least, that is what
many people would have you believe. From concerned parents to
local librarians, everybody seems to have a negative comment on
Title centered;
engages
readers’ interest
Opens with
attention-getting
statement
the state of youth literacy today, and many pin the blame on new
technology. They say that the current generation of grade school
students will graduate with an extremely low level of literacy and,
worse yet, that although language education hasn’t changed
much, kids are having more trouble reading and writing. Slang is
more pervasive than ever, and teachers often must struggle with
Background on
the problem of
youth literacy
students who refuse to learn the conventionally correct way to
use language.
In the #HRONICLE OF (IGHER %DUCATION, for instance, Wendy
Leibowitz quotes Sven Birkerts of Mount Holyoke College as saying
“[Students] read more casually. They strip-mine what they read”
on the Internet. Those casual reading habits, in turn, produce
Quotation used
as evidence
“quickly generated, casual prose” (A67). When asked about the
causes of this situation, many point to instant messaging (IMing),
which coincides with new computer technology.
Instant messaging allows two individuals who are separated
by any distance to engage in real-time, written communication.
Definition and
example of
IMing provided
Although IMing relies on the written word to transmit meaning,
many messagers disregard standard writing conventions. For
Source: Andrea A. Lunsford, The St. Martin’s Handbook, 6th ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008)
Last name and
page number
in upper righthand corner
Explanatory
note; see 18c
1”
Craig 2
example, here is a snippet from an IM conversation between two
teenage girls:1
Teen One: sorry im talkinto like 10 ppl at a time
Teen Two: u izzyful person
Teen Two: kwel
Teen One: hey i g2g
As this brief conversation shows, participants must use words to
communicate via IMing, but their words do not have to be in
standard English.
Overview of the
criticism of IMing
Instant messaging, according to many, threatens youth
literacy because it creates and compounds undesirable reading and
writing habits and discourages students from learning standard
literacy skills. Passionate or not, however, the critics’ arguments
Explicit thesis stated
don’t hold up. In fact, instant messaging seems to be a beneficial
force in the development of youth literacy because it promotes
regular contact with words, the use of a written medium for
communication, and the development of an alternative form of
literacy. Perhaps most important, IMing can actually help students
learn conventional English. Before turning to the pros and cons
of IMing, however, I wish to look more closely at two background
issues: the current state of literacy and the prevalence of IMing.
Writer considers
argument that
youth literacy
is in decline
Regardless of one’s views on IMing, the issue of youth literacy does demand attention because standardized test scores for
language assessments, such as the verbal section of the College
1 This transcript of an IM conversation was collected on 20
Nov. 2003. The teenagers’ names are concealed to protect privacy.
Source: Andrea A. Lunsford, The St. Martin’s Handbook, 6th ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008)
Craig 3
Board’s SAT, have declined in recent years. This trend is illustrated
in a chart distributed by the College Board as part of its 2002
analysis of aggregate SAT data (see Fig. 1).
The trend lines, which I added to the original chart, illustrate
Figure explained
in text and cited
in parenthetical
reference
a significant pattern that may lead to the conclusion that youth
literacy is on the decline. These lines display the seven-year paths
(from 1995 to 2002) of math and verbal scores, respectively.
Within this time period, the average SAT math score jumped more
Discussion of
Figure 1
than ten points. The average verbal score, however, actually
dropped a few points–and appears to be headed toward a further
decline in the future. Corroborating this evidence is a report from
Math Scores
Verbal Scores
520
7-year math score trend
515
510
505
500
7-year verbal score trend
495
490
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
Fig. 1. Comparison of SAT math and verbal scores (1992-2002)
4REND LINES ADDED 3OURCE Kristin Carnahan and Chiara Coletti,
4EN 9EAR 4REND IN 3!4 3CORES )NDICATES )NCREASED %MPHASIS ON -ATH
Figure labeled,
titled, and credited
to source; inserted
at appropriate
point in text
)S 9IELDING 2ESULTS 2EADING AND 7RITING !RE #AUSES FOR #ONCERN New
9ORK #OLLEGE “oard, 2002 PRINT 9.
Source: Andrea A. Lunsford, The St. Martin’s Handbook, 6th ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008)
Craig 4
Government source
cited for statistical
evidence
the United States Department of Education’s National Center for
Education Statistics. According to this agency’s study, the percentage of twelfth graders whose writing ability was “at or above the
basic level” of performance dropped from 78 to 74 percent between
1998 and 2002 (Persky, Daane, and Jin 21).
Writer acknowledges
part of critics’
argument; transition
to next point
Based on the preceding statistics, parents and educators
appear to be right about the decline in youth literacy. And this
trend is occurring while IM usage is on the rise. According to the
Pew Internet and American Life Project, 54 percent of American
Statistical evidence
cited
youths aged twelve to seventeen have used IMing (qtd. in Lenhart
and Lewis 20). This figure translates to a pool of some thirteen
million young instant messagers. Of this group, Pew reports, half
send instant messages every time they go online, with 46 percent
spending between thirty and sixty minutes messaging and another
21 percent spending more than an hour. The most conservative
estimate indicates that American youths spend, at a minimum,
nearly three million hours per day on IMing. What’s more, they
seem to be using a new vocabulary, and this is one of the things
that bothers critics. In order to have an effect on youth literacy,
however, this new vocabulary must actually exist, so I set out to
determine if it did.
In the interest of establishing the existence of IM language,
Writer’s field
research introduced
I analyzed 11,341 lines of text from IM conversations between
youths in my target demographic: US residents aged twelve to
seventeen. Young messagers voluntarily sent me chat logs, but
they were unaware of the exact nature of my research. Once all of
the logs had been gathered, I went through them, recording the
Source: Andrea A. Lunsford, The St. Martin’s Handbook, 6th ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008)
Craig
NUMBER OF TIMES )- LANGUAGE WAS USED IN PLACE OF CONVENTIONAL
WORDS AND PHRASES 4HEN ) GENERATED GRAPHS TO DISPLAY HOW OFTEN
THeSE REPLACEMENTS WERE USED
$URING THE COURSE OF MY STUDY ) IDENTIFIED FOUR TYPEs OF )LANGUAGE PHONETIC REPLACEMENTs ACRONYMS ABBREVIATIONS AND
INANITIES !N EXAMPLE OF PHONETIC REPLACEMENT IS USING UR FOR YOU ARE
!NOTHER POPULAR TYPE OF )- LANGUAGE IS THE ACRONYM FOR A MAJORITY
OF THE PEOPLE IN MY STUDY THE MOST COMMON ACRONYM WAS LOL A
CONSTRUCTION THAT MEANS LAUGHING OUT LOUD !BBREVIATIOnS ARE ALSO
COMMON IN )-ING BUT ) DISCOVERED THAT TYPICAL )- ABBREVIATIONS
sUCH AS ETC ARE NOT NEW TO THE %NGLISH LANGUAGE &INALLY ) FOUND A
Findings of field
research presented
CLASS OF WORDS THAT ) CALL INANITIES 4HESE WORDS INCLUDE COMPLETELY
NEW WORDS OR eXPRESSIONS COMBINATIONS OF SEVERAL SLANG CATEGORIES
OR SIMPLY NONSENSICAL VARIATIONS OF OTHER WORDS -Y FAVORITE FROM
THIS CATEGORy IS LOLZ AN INANITY THAT TRANSLATES DIRECTLY TO LOL YET
INCLUDES A TERMINATING Z FOR NO OBVIOUS REASON
In the CHAT TRANSCRIPTS THAT ) ANALYZED THE BEST DISPLAY OF
TYPICAL )- LINGO CAME FROM THE CONVERSATIONS BETWEEN TWO THIR
TEEN yEAR OLD 4EXAN GIRLS WHo ARE AVID )- USERS &IGURE IS A
Figure introduced
and explained
Frequency
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
2
n
w
ut
c
lu
v,l
ub
4
r
y
m
su
u
x
ur
th
an
x,
th
nx
,th
bc
cu
z,
pp
l
0%
Instance
Fig. 5SAGE OF PHONETIC REPLACEMENTS AND ABBREVIATIONS IN )-ING
Figure labeled
and titled
Source: Andrea A. Lunsford, The St. Martin’s Handbook, 6th ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008)
Craig 6
graph showing how often they used certain phonetic replacements
and abbreviations. On the Y axis, frequency of replacement is
plotted, a calculation that compares the number of times a word or
phrase is used in IM language with the total number of times that
it is communicated in any form. On the X axis, specific IM words
and phrases are listed.
Discussion of
findings presented
in Figure 2
My research shows that the Texan girls use the first ten
phonetic replacements or abbreviations at least 50 percent of the
time in their normal IM writing. For example, every time one of
them writes SEE, there is a parallel time when C is used in its
place. In light of this finding, it appears that the popular IM
culture contains at least some elements of its own language. It
also seems that much of this language is new: no formal dictionary
yet identifies the most common IM words and phrases. Only in the
heyday of the telegraph or on the rolls of a stenographer would
you find a similar situation, but these “languages” were never a
popular medium of youth communication. Instant messaging,
however, is very popular among young people and continues to
generate attention and debate in academic circles.
My research shows that messaging is certainly widespread,
and it does seem to have its own particular vocabulary, yet these
Writer returns to
opposition argument
two factors alone do not mean it has a damaging influence on
youth literacy. As noted earlier, however, some people claim that
the new technology is a threat to the English language, as revealed
Signal verb introduces quotation
in the following passage:
Abbreviations commonly used in online instant
messages are creeping into formal essays that
Source: Andrea A. Lunsford, The St. Martin’s Handbook, 6th ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008)
Craig 7
students write for credit, said Debbie Frost, who
teaches language arts and social studies to sixth-
Block quotation;
quotation within a
quotation
graders. . . . “You would be shocked at the writing I
see. It’s pretty scary. I don’t get cohesive thoughts, I
don’t get sentences, they don’t capitalize, and they
have a lot of misspellings and bad grammar,” she
said. “With all those glaring mistakes, it’s hard to see
the content.” (“Young Messagers”)
Echoing Frost’s concerns is Melanie Weaver, a professor at
Alvernia College, who taught a tenth-grade English class as an
Parenthetical
reference uses
brief title—
author unknown
intern. In an interview with the .EW 9ORK 4IMES, she said, “[When
t]hey would be trying to make a point in a paper, they would put
a smiley face in the end [:)]. . . . If they were presenting an argument and they needed to present an opposite view, they would put
a frown [:(]” (qtd. in Lee).
The critics of instant messaging are numerous. But if we
look to the field of linguistics, a central concept–metalinguistics-challenges these criticisms and leads to a more reasonable
Transition to
support of thesis
and refutation of
critics
conclusion–that IMing has no negative impact on a student’s
development of or proficiency with traditional literacy.
Scholars of metalinguistics offer support for the claim that
IMing is not damaging to those who use it. As noted earlier, one of
the most prominent components of IM language is phonetic replacement, in which a word such as EVERYONE becomes EVERY . This type
of wordplay has a special importance in the development of an
advanced literacy, and for good reason. According to David Crystal,
an internationally recognized scholar of linguistics at the University
Linguistic authority
cited in support
of thesis
Source: Andrea A. Lunsford, The St. Martin’s Handbook, 6th ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008)
Craig 8
of Wales, as young children develop and learn how words string
together to express ideas, they go through many phases of language
play. The singsong rhymes and nonsensical chants of preschoolers
are vital to their learning language, and a healthy appetite for such
wordplay leads to a better command of language later in life (182).
Evidence to support
connection between
wordplay and
advanced literacy
As justification for his view of the connection between
language play and advanced literacy, Crystal presents an argument
for metalinguistic awareness. According to Crystal, METALINGUISTICS
refers to the ability to “step back” and use words to analyze how
language works. “If we are good at stepping back,” he says, “at
thinking in a more abstract way about what we hear and what we say,
then we are more likely to be good at acquiring those skills which
depend on just such a stepping back in order to be successful–and
Ellipses indicate
omissions in
quotation
this means, chiefly, reading and writing. . . . [T]he greater our
ability to play with language, . . . the more advanced will be our
command of language as a whole” (181).
If we accept the findings of linguists such as Crystal that
metalinguistic awareness leads to increased literacy, then it seems
reasonable to argue that the phonetic language of IMing can also
lead to increased metalinguistic awareness and, therefore, increases
Writer links
Crystal’s views to
thesis about IMing
in overall literacy. As instant messagers develop proficiency with a
variety of phonetic replacements and other types of IM words, they
should increase their subconscious knowledge of metalinguistics.
Metalinguistics also involves our ability to write in a variety of
distinct styles and tones. Yet in the debate over instant messaging
Another refutation of
critics’ assumptions
and literacy, many critics assume that EITHER IMing OR academic
literacy will eventually win out in a person and that the two modes
Source: Andrea A. Lunsford, The St. Martin’s Handbook, 6th ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008)
Craig 9
cannot exist side by side. This assumption is, however, false.
Human beings ordinarily develop a large range of language
abilities, from the formal to the relaxed and from the mainstream
to the subcultural. Mark Twain, for example, had an understanding
of local speech that he employed when writing dialogue for
(UCKLEBERRY &INN. Yet few people would argue that Twain’s knowledge of this form of English had a negative impact on his ability
to write in standard English.
Example from
well-known work
of literature used
as support
However, just as Mark Twain used dialects carefully in dialogue, writers must pay careful attention to the kind of language
they use in any setting. The owner of the language Web site 4HE
$ISCOURAGING 7ORD, who is AN ANONYMOUS %NGLISH LITERATURE
GRADUATE at the University OF #HICAGO BACKS UP THIS IDEA IN AN
e-mail to me:
What is necessary, we feel, is that students learn how
Email correspondence cited in
support of claim
to shift between different styles of writing–that, in
other words, the abbreviations and shortcuts of IM
should be used online . . . but that they should not
be used in an essay submitted to a teacher. . . . IM
might even be considered . . . a different way of
reading and writing, one that requires specific and
unique skills shared by certain communities.
The analytical ability that is necessary for writers to choose
an appropriate tone and style in their writing is, of course, metalinguistic in nature because it involves the comparison of two or
more language systems. Thus, youths who grasp multiple languages
will have a greater natural understanding of metalinguistics. More
Writer synthesizes
evidence for claim
Source: Andrea A. Lunsford, The St. Martin’s Handbook, 6th ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008)
Craig 10
specifically, young people who possess both IM and traditional
skills stand to be better off than their peers who have been trained
only in traditional or conventional systems. Far from being hurt by
their online pastime, instant messagers can be aided in standard
writing by their experience with IM language.
Transition to
writer’s final point
The fact remains, however, that youth literacy seems to be
declining. What, if not IMing, is the main cause of this phenomenon?
According to the College Board, which collects data on several
questions from its test takers, enrollment in English composition
Alternate explanation for decline
in literacy
and grammar classes has decreased in the last decade by 14 percent
(Carnahan and Coletti 11). The possibility of instant messaging
causing a decline in literacy seems inadequate when statistics on
English education for US youths provide other evidence of the
possible causes. Simply put, schools in the United States are not
teaching English as much as they used to. Rather than blaming
IMing alone for the decline in literacy and test scores, we must
also look toward our schools’ lack of focus on the teaching of
standard English skills.
Transition to
conclusion
I found that the use of instant messaging poses virtually no
threat to the development or maintenance of formal language skills
among American youths aged twelve to seventeen. Diverse language
skills tend to increase a person’s metalinguistic awareness and,
Concluding paragraph sums up
argument and
reiterates thesis
thereby, his or her ability to use language effectively to achieve a
desired purpose in a particular situation. The current decline in
youth literacy is not due to the rise of instant messaging. Rather,
fewer young students seem to be receiving an adequate education
in the use of conventional English. Unfortunately, it may always be
Source: Andrea A. Lunsford, The St. Martin’s Handbook, 6th ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008)
Craig 11
fashionable to blame new tools for old problems, but in the case of
instant messaging, that blame is not warranted. Although IMing
may expose literacy problems, it does not create them.
Source: Andrea A. Lunsford, The St. Martin’s Handbook, 6th ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008)
Craig 12
Heading centered
Works Cited
First line of each
entry flush with left
margin; subsequent
lines indented
Carnahan, Kristin, and Chiara Coletti. 4EN 9EAR 4REND IN 3!4 3CORES
Report
)NDICATES )NCREASED %MPHASIS ON -ATH )S 9IELDING 2ESULTS
2EADING AND 7RITING !RE #AUSES FOR #ONCERN. New York: #OLLEGE
Board, 2002. 0RINT
Book
Crystal, David. ,ANGUAGE 0LAY. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1998. 0RINT
Email
4HE $ISCOURAGING 7ORD. “Re: Instant Messaging and Literacy.”
E-mail to the author. 13 Nov. 2003. % MAIL
Online newspaper
article
Lee, Jennifer 8. “I Think, Therefore IM.” .EW 9ORK 4IMES .EW 9ORK
Article in
a newspaper
Leibowitz, Wendy R. “Technology Transforms Writing and the Teach-
4IMES Sept. 2002. 7EB 14 Nov. 2003
ing of Writing.” #HRONICLE OF (IGHER %DUCATION 26 Nov. 1999:
A67-68. 0RINT
Report
Lenhart, Amanda, and Oliver Lewis. 4EENAGE ,IFE /NLINE 4HE 2ISE
OF THE )NSTANT -ESSAGE ‘ENERATION AND THE )NTERNET S )MPACT
ON &RIENDSHIPS AND &AMILY 2ELATIONSHIPS. Washington: Pew
Internet and Amer. Life Project, 2001. 0RINT
Government
document
Persky, Hilary R., Mary C. Daane, and Ying Jin. 4HE .ATION S 2EPORT
#ARD 7RITING . NCES 2003-529. Washington: GPO, 2003.
0RINT
Article from an
online database
Works-cited
entries doublespaced
“Young Messagers Ask: Why Spell It Out?” #OLUMBUS $ISPATCH
.OV # ,EXIS.EXIS !CADEMIC 7EB. 14 Nov. 2003
Source: Andrea A. Lunsford, The St. Martin’s Handbook, 6th ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008)
Persuasive Research Paper Check Sheet
or, How to get a better grade on your paper in 60 minutes
Complete the following steps carefully.
1. Is the entire paper (including headers and Works Cited page) in 12pt Times New
Roman? Does the word count come at the end of the paper before the Works Cited page?
2. Does the paper follow the MLA format from the MLA template in Blackboard? Is it
perfect? (See Sample Persuasive Research Paper in Blackboard Week 11 Task 11.1 for
tips.)
3. Delete one letter and retype it. Now look for works underlined in red (misspelled) and
green (grammar issues). Fix these.
4. Read the first sentence. Are there any typos or grammar mistakes?
5. Re-read the thesis statement(s). (Revise if necessary.)
6. Are there two situating sections in the paper (beginning and end) in which you discuss
the Global Food Crisis and how your topic relates to the larger whole? If not, fix this.
7. Is the last page titled Works Cited? (i.e. not References or Bibliography) Are sources
in alphabetical order by author’s last name? (Not the order you used them in your paper.)
8. On the Works Cited page underline your 3 scholarly, peer-reviewed sources.
Hint: They’ll look like this:
Hielscher, Stefan, et al. “Rationalizing the GMO Debate: The Ordonomic Approach to
Addressing Agricultural Myths.” International Journal of Environmental
Research and Public Health, vol. 13, no. 5, 09 May 2016. EBSCOhost,
doi:10.3390/ijerph13050476.
9. Be sure your peer-reviewed sources have the database access. (EBSCOhost above)
10. Be sure that the journal name and database access are italicized. (See above.)
11. All entries (at least 5 sources) on the Works Cited page end in a period. Entries are
listed in alphabetical order by first author’s last name.
12. You’re done!
 
ENGL 202
Persuasive Research Paper
The persuasive research paper is an answer to the questions you posed in your Topic
Approval Paper. It is expected that you will discuss the findings of your research, make
claims, and provide evidence. You will make a case (a persuasive argument!) for your
answer(s) to the question(s) you posed. Be prepared to be flexible in your thinking and
your outcomes. Your research may take you down paths you have not considered and
lead you to viewpoints you may not have imagined before you began digging into your
research material. Be open to your discoveries. Ultimately, your paper will ask your
readers to think, feel or do something differently than they did before they read your
paper. Your aim is to persuade.
Assignment Guidelines
Your final research paper should demonstrate thoughtful, researched answers to the
questions you have posed. This paper should clearly demonstrate that you have thought
about your topic deeply and carefully from many angles and that you understand the
complexities of your topic/issue. Imagine your readers to be intelligent, interested people
in your specific topic who have the ability to think about your topic and to form opinions
based on the quality of information you provide.
Beyond your strong arguments and evidence, you should strive for a persuasive and
professional tone to your paper. The paper must be organized logically, should make
good use of topic sentences, transition statements, should follow the order stated in your
thesis, and should conclude with a clear and specific call to action. Be clear on your
stance – it can be complicated and nuanced, but be clear that your reader knows where
you stand on your issue.
Basic Requirements
Failure to meet the basic requirements below will result in a grade of 50 or lower.
• Your paper should be persuasive, detailed, and well organized
• Your essay must identify at least 3 scholarly, peer-reviewed sources
• Your essay must include no fewer than 5 total sources
• Length: 3,500-5,000 words – absolutely no less than 3,500 words for a passing
grade
• You may use graphs, charts, and/or photos as necessary, but they do not count
toward your word count. We can discuss whether to use them in-text or as figures
that appear at the end of the paper.
• Layout: MLA-style: 12 point Times New Roman font, double-spaced pages, page
numbers and last name in the top right corner as a header.
• First Page: Top left corner (not header) should have: (in this order) Your Name,
My Name (Dr. Melissa Birkhofer – spelled correctly), Course Number and
Section (ENGL 202.XX), and a descriptive title centered on the page, not bolded;
no title page
Persuasive Research Paper Assignment Instructions
ENGL 202
Dr. Melissa Birkhofer
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
No more than 1 block quote in paper.
Free of grammatical and mechanical errors. Absolutely no misspellings.
No fragments.
Word Count listed at the end of the paper (Note: falsifying a word count IS
cheating)
Your essay should clearly show that you understand the complexities of your
issue/topic and have thought about your topic deeply, from many angles.
Your essay must focus on your issue in a global context. Papers that only focus on
the U.S. are not acceptable.
Note: A typo in the first sentence of your research paper will result in a 0 (zero).
PROOFREAD your work.
Persuasive Research Paper Assignment Instructions
ENGL 202
Dr. Melissa Birkhofer
Alotaibi
Abdullah Alotaibi
Dr. Melissa Birkhofer
ENGL 202
07/22/2022
Annotated Bibliography on International Food Aid
Kuhla, Kilian, et al. “International cooperation could help avert a major food crisis due to the
Russian invasion of Ukraine.” (2022).
The war between Ukraine and Russia is a key threat to the international food system since
Russia and Ukraine are among the major wheat producers in the International markets. Besides,
Ukraine and Russia grow a significant amount of wheat in their fertile soil, increasing their wheat
productivity. Consequently, the war will result in the hiking of wheat supplies worldwide, among
the most used food in many homes. In addition, if the war escalates further international
cooperation should urgently organize an efficient international response which will help address
the impact of the food crisis due to the war.
Moreover, this article gives information on the impact of the food crisis due to the war.
Hence, it is valuable in answering the research questions. The author backs his claims by
referencing other people’s work. In addition, the source is credible since it contains updated
information on the topic. Lastly, I plan to use this article to address the questions on the impact of
the food crisis and the possible solutions to the food crisis.
Alotaibi
Musa, Siti Fatimahwati Pehin Dato, and Khairul Hidayatullah Basir. “Smart farming: towards a
sustainable agri-food system.” British Food Journal (2021).
This article addresses the relationship between sustainable development goals and smart
farming, which aims to solve the food crisis. The article also provides an analysis to
comprehensively comprehend the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with
the implementation of smart farming and also provides practical and research effects for smart
farming to solve the food crisis in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, the article provides an insight into
the impacts of smart farming in solving food crises, such as enhancing food production while
upholding high standards of food quality and safety and providing innovative ways to a profitable
agri-food system. The author claims that the article contributes to literature since it highlights the
role of smart farming in addressing the issue of food crisis. The source is credible since the author
is a well-respected publisher. Additionally, I plan to use this article in my research to address how
smart farming solves the food crisis.
Kinsey, Jean D., and David M. Smallwood. “Domestic food aid programs.” Food, Agriculture, and
Rural Policy into the Twenty-First Century. CRC Press, 2019. 135-152.
The article presents information concerning various international food aid programs, the
controversial issues surrounding the food aid programs, the costs of the food program, and the
number of individuals they serve. The article also discusses the benefits of food aid on society and
producers and explores the future anticipations of food aid. It also provides information concerning
the financing of the food aid programs at the state and local levels. Moreover, the author claims
that food aid programs play a substantial role in helping people from vulnerable communities. The
article is beneficial since it provides in-depth information on food aid programs. The author backs
Alotaibi
his claims through the citation of other authors. The article is credible since it does not involve an
unbiased topic analysis. I plan to use this article to address the issue of the extent of food aid
programs and their benefits and the controversies surrounding international food aid programs.
Morlino, Irene. “Food Assistance: What Role for EU-UN Coordination?.” The European Foreign
Policy Unit, February (2018): 1-9.
The article considers how the European Union (EU) and the United Nations (UN),
committed and major players in offering humanitarian assistance to individuals affected by
artificial and natural crises, coordinate in implementing and shaping food aid policy. Besides, it
addresses the role of the UN and EU in international food aid programs by focusing on cases the
UN and EU have offered food aid. The author claims that the article seeks t contribute to the
empirical research and European Union humanitarian assistance literature on the efficacy of the
synchronization between the United Nations and the European Union. The author backs his claim
by utilizing personal anecdotes and citations of renowned authors on the topic. The article’s
credibility is evident through the citations of the sources utilized and the topic’s relevance. Lastly,
I plan to use the article in my research to address the role of agencies in providing food aid.

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