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Identify different types of epithelial tissues based on distinguishing structural characteristics under

microscope/in a diagram or figure.

Lab 4 A: Epithelial Tissues (Histology)
Max available = 12 +1 =13 points
Learning Objectives: After completing part 1 of histology lab, the students are expected to
1. acquire a basic background in histology and understand the properties of cells and their interactions with one
another as components of tissues and organs
2. Recognize the different types of epithelia.
3. Relate characteristics of particular epithelia to their function, keeping in mind their essential features including
junctions, apical modifications and polarity.
Reading
Histology is the science that provides the adequate learning of the tissue organization of the body, and is a
fundamental part of medical/health education. Tissues are made from large groups of cells that cluster
together to complete a shared function. From tissues arise organs, and organs keep the body operating.
Histology can help students gain a better understanding of cell behavior and reproduction, making cellular
biology more understandable. Likewise, because tissues are the building blocks of virtually everything in the
body, understanding histology enables students to predict and understand organ behavior and function. “One
must understand the normal to be able to recognize the abnormal” is a common phrase heard by medical
students.
Many diseases occur at the cell/tissue level. Cytology is the examination of a single cell type, as often
found in fluid specimens. It is mainly used to diagnose or screen for cancer. It’s also used to screen for fetal
abnormalities, for pap smears, to diagnose infectious organisms, and in other screening and diagnostic
areas. Histopathology is the examination of biological tissues in order to observe the appearance of
diseased cells in microscopic detail. Histopathology typically involves a biopsy, which is a procedure
involving taking a small sample of tissue, usually undertaken by a pathologist, who are experts in diagnoses
of diseases.
Hospital laboratories prepare microscope sections which are stained to show key features of the cells and
anatomical structures within the tissues. The conventional view of histopathology involves someone looking
down a microscope. Indeed most histological work does
involve preparation of tissues for microscopy, observation of
sections and reporting of the findings. However a pathologist
can often tell a great deal about a tissue without using a
microscope. For example the brain of a person affected by
multiple sclerosis has distinct lesions a few millimeters
across called plaques in which myelin (the
insulating element surrounding nerves) is
damaged by inflammation. The plaques
can readily be seen with the naked eye.
Large specimens that can be examined
macroscopically are usually only available
post mortem or following surgical removal
of tissue; biopsy specimens can only be
examined microscopically.
Understanding the changes that are
characteristic of a disease requires a
detailed knowledge of the normal
appearance of cells and tissues, and the
range of normality. Many tissues change
considerably with age, so that something
that is normal in an adult would not be
normal in a child.
Epithelial Tissues Lab
Microscopic anatomy, location, & functional roles of epithelial tissue
Learning objectives
1. Identify different types of epithelial tissues based on distinguishing structural characteristics under
microscope/in a diagram or figure.
2. Describe locations in the body where each type of epithelial tissue can be found.
3. Describe the functions of each type of epithelial tissue in the human body and correlate function
with structure for each tissue type.
The human body is made up of four basic (primary) tissues: epithelium, connective, muscle, and nervous.
Epi- means above and -thelium means tissue, so epithelium is a group of tissues that are located above
(covering or lining) all other tissues of the body. Connective tissue is named for its general function of
binding (connecting) tissues to one another. Muscular tissue’s general function is movement, while nervous
tissue’s general function is communication.
Epithelium has a free surface and is avascular. Connective tissue can contain many types of cells.
Additionally, connective tissues have large spaces between the cells (extracellular matrix) that is filled with
different types and amounts of protein fibers. Muscle tissue is packed with contractile proteins that interact
with one another causing a shortening (contraction) or allowing a lengthening of the cell (relaxation).
Primary cells of nervous tissue are highly metabolic and allow for electrical impulses. These key features of
the basic tissues reflect their general functions. As we explore each basic tissue this term, we’ll learn how
structure and function are intimately intwined.
five characteristics of epithelia
1. A high rate of regeneration
2. A free and a bounded surface (polarity)
3. Tightly packed cells
4. Avascular with innervation
5. A basement membrane
Epithelium protects, absorbs, secretes, and filters. Specific epithelial tissues’ names are based on:
1. the number of layers that the tissue has;
2. the shape of cells that make up the apical surface. A single layer of cells, where all the cells touch
the basement membrane, is a simple epithelium. Two or more layers of cells indicate the tissue has
strata (layers), and are called stratified. There are three general shapes of epithelial cells:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Cuboidal, cube shaped;
Columnar, column shaped;
Squamous, thin, flat cells that look like the scales of a fish.
If an epithelium has a single layer of column shaped cells, the name of the specific tissue is
simple columnar epithelium.
e. Stratified tissues are named based on the shape of the most apical cells. So an epithelium
that has several layers and the apical cells are flattened and scale shaped, the name of the
specific tissue is stratified squamous epithelium.
Directions: Select the Link: https://medtech.med.wayne.edu/webslide/ to reach the following page —>
1. List of Slides to View (Select the best location that clearly represents the specific tissue
organization)
2. Search the slides under virtual microscope to identify specific tissue types and subtypes. Remember
that each slide will be section of organs and will have multiple tissue types.
3. Draw in the circles (microscopic field) and label the parts indicated in the spaces below.
1. Simple Squamous Epithelium
2. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
3. Simple Columnar Epithelium
(Kidney)
WS049
(Kidney)
(Small Intestine)
WS087
WS049
4. Stratified Squamous Nonkeratinized
5. Stratified Squamous Keratinized
Epithelium
Epithelium
(Skin)
WS077
(Esophagus)
WS014
8. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
9. Transitional Epithelium
(Trachea)
(Urinary Bladder)
SL035
MCO0090
Activity: Select the specific link, observe at 400X total magnification, draw what you see or take
a screen shot to place in the space provided, describe distinctive histological features for
identification in view of structure-function location relation and label the specifics indicated for
each type.
1. Tissue: Simple squamous Epithelium (WS049)
This has been completed to provide an example of what is expected
Distinctive histological features for Identification: a single layer of small flat cells arranged around
an empty space. the apical and basal surface clearly defined
Location: lungs (lining of the alveoli), lining of blood vessels, glomeruli in the kidney
Function: exchange gases and small molecules
Features to observe, draw and label: apical surface, cells with nucleus,, cell membrane, basement
membrane
Developing mental image from description
Microscopic observation Drawing/figure
This has been completed to provide an example of what is expected
2. Tissue: Simple Cuboidal Epithelium (WS049)
2 points
Distinctive histological features for Identification:
Location:
Function:
Features to draw and label: Apical surface, cells with nucleus, cell membrane, basement membrane
Developing mental image from description
Microscopic observation Drawing/figure 400 X
3. Simple Columnar Epithelium WS087
2 points
Distinctive histological features for Identification:
Location:
Function:
Features to draw and label: apical surface, cells with nucleus, cell membrane, basement membrane,
goblet cells, nuclei, microvilli
Developing mental image from description
Microscopic observation Drawing/figure 400 X
4. Stratified Squamous Non-keratinized Epithelium WS014
2 points
Distinctive histological features for Identification:
Location:
Function:
Features to draw and label: Apical surface, cells with nucleus, cell membrane, basement membrane
Developing mental image from description
Microscopic observation Drawing/figure
400 X
5. Stratified Squamous Keratinized Epithelium WS077
2 points
Distinctive histological features for Identification:
Location:
Function:
Features to draw and label: keratinized layer, basement membrane, basement membrane, apical
surface, cells with nucleus, living cell layer
Developing mental image from description
Microscopic observation Drawing/figure
400 X
8. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium SL035
2 points
Distinctive histological features for Identification:
Location:
Function:
Features to draw and label:
nucleus, cilia, goblet cells
basement membrane, basement membrane, apical surface, cells with
Developing mental image from description
Microscopic observation Drawing/figure
400 X
2 points
9. Transitional Epithelium MCO0090
Distinctive histological features for Identification:
Location:
Function:
Features to draw and label: Apical surface, cells with nucleus, cell membrane, basement membrane
Developing mental image from description
Microscopic observation Drawing/figure
400 X
Lab 4 A: Epithelial Tissues (Histology) Student Reflection
1 point
Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to
them, e.g., the learning-relevant properties of information or data. Students learn to monitor and direct
their own progress, asking questions such as “What am I doing now?,” “Is it getting me anywhere?,” “What
else could I be doing instead?”
This general metacognitive level helps students avoid persevering in unproductive approachesMetacognition
has been studied as a vehicle for increasing student engagement. Students who are aware of their strengths
and weaknesses as learners, test-takers, and peer group members are more likely to monitor learning
strategies and gauge their readiness for a task.
Metacognitive reflections embedded in course activities allow students to evaluate their learning
immediately following the activities themselves, while providing instructors the opportunity to revise and
optimize instruction to target misconceptions.
1. “Where did I encounter struggles in histology lab, and what did I do to deal with it?” Take time to
think and reflect. Learning and doing – are never without challenges!
2. “What made me curious today?” Curiosity makes our brains more receptive for learning, and as we
learn, we enjoy the sensation of learning.
3. “What could I do to increase my interest and confidence?”
4. How confident am I in my learning about histology? Select a level.
Before doing the Lab:
Low (1)
(2)
Medium (3)
(4)
High (5)
After completing the Lab:
Low (1) (
2)
Medium (3)
(4)
High (5)

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