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Ethics in Computer Games & Cinema
Worksheet #5: The Ethics of Care and Virtue Ethics
1. What is the Ethics of Care? Explain what this school of thought believes in your own words (3
points).
2. What is Virtue Ethics? Explain what this school of thought believes in your own words (3
points).
3. Of all the normative moral frameworks we’ve discussed this quarter, which one do you think
is the best? Explain your answer (4 points).
Ethics in Computer Games & Cinema
Worksheet #6: How Movies and Games Depict Morality (Pt. 1)
1. Do you think it’s possible for our future to one day resemble the future that Minority Report
is portraying? Explain your answer (3 points).
2. Do you think it’s possible for our future to one day resemble the future that Detroit: Become
Human is portraying? Explain your answer (3 points).
3. After everything we’ve discussed this week, which piece of media do you think is best at
challenging us to think about morality: Minority Report or Detroit: Become Human? Explain
your answer (4 points).
Discussion
Select any ONE of the following moral ideas brought up in lecture…
(1) Donating to Charity
(2) Animal Rights
Q1. Both of these ideas have very different viewpoints from the Ethics of Care and
Utilitarianism.
For whichever idea you selected, which viewpoint of this issue would you side with?
Ethics of Care or Utilitarianism? (See Video Lecture/PowerPoint for more
information).
Q2. What is it that makes someone courageous? How do we know when someone
goes beyond courage or isn’t courageous enough? Are the images of courage
brought up in the PowerPoint slides accurate depictions of this virtue and the vices
that surround it? Or should courage be defined differently?
Q3. Consider unique games with controversial content. A controversial game could
be seen as ambitious but it could also be in poor taste. Therefore this kind of nonmoderate, possibly excessive approach could be seen as bad from a virtue ethics
perspective. We will now explore this idea further…
Some games have explored controversial subject matters. For instance, COD: World
War II has parts involving concentration camps, which certain people might find to
be offensive. What if there was an entire game about the Holocaust or the Septem ber
11th attacks, and let’s also say it was a well made game that could be enjoyable just
for the gameplay alone. Would this be something you could accept or would there be
too many moral difficulties involved? In other words, is it virtuous to release a game
like this?
Q4 Answer any ONE of the following questions on Minority Report.
(1) After everything we’ve discussed, do you think Pre-Crime is worth implementing?
Or is it not worth it, given the issues we went over?
(2) What are your thoughts on the spider issue? Is this something you would be in
favor of, because of the security it promotes? Or would it not be worth it, given
obvious violations of privacy and autonomy?
(3) What do you think about moral issues having to do with technology in the film?
Do you think these technological issues present any moral problems? Or would you
personally be okay with living in a society in which this were the norm?
Question #5
Answer any ONE of the following questions on Detroit: Become Human.
(1) How would you solve the Connor/Hostage Dilemma? In other words, if you were
playing this game, what exactly would you do here? (See PowerPoint Slides for more
information).
(2) How would you solve the Kara/Stealing Dilemma? In other words, if you were
playing this game, and realized you had the option to steal or not steal, what, for
whatever reason, would you do? (See Slides).
Question #6
Video Games could arguably be better than Film when it comes to having us think
about morality, as games allow us to not only reflect on the ethical decisions made
by the characters, but also make ethical decisions on our own through gameplay.
Do you agree with this statement? Or do you believe it’s unfair to say gameplay has
greater potential for ethical evaluation than film?
ETHICS IN
COMPUTER GAMES
AND CINEMA:
LECTURE FIVE
THE ETHICS OF CARE
AND VIRTUE ETHICS
LEARNING
OBJECTIVES
Understand the meaning behind the Ethics of Care.
Understand the meaning behind Virtue Ethics.
HOW MEN AND WOMEN VIEW ETHICS
According to some psychologists, men and women
view ethics differently.
According to our text…
Men view ethics in terms of Abstract Principles
Women view ethics in terms of Close and
Intimate Personal Relationships.
For our purposes, the male approach to ethics
represents most of the ethics we’ve discussed so far
(Utilitarianism, Kantian Ethics, Social Contract
Theory, etc.).
Meanwhile, the female approach is what we will call
the Ethics of Care.
HOW MEN AND WOMEN VIEW ETHICS
(CONT.)
Psychologists first formed this
theory after creating a moral
problem they call the Heinz
Dilemma.
Afterwards, they asked children of
different genders how they would
react to this dilemma.
THE HEINZ DILEMMA (P. 157)
The Heinz problem states the following: “Heinz’s
wife is near death, and her only hope is a drug
that was discovered by a pharmacist who is now
selling it for an outrageously high price. The
drug costs $200 to make, and the pharmacist is
selling it for $2,000. Heinz can raise $1,000, but
the pharmacist told him that half wasn’t enough.
When Heinz promised to pay the rest later, the
pharmacist still refused. In desperation, Heinz
considers stealing the drug.”
JAKE AND AMY RESPONSES
After creating the Heinz Dilemma, psychologists asked
two children, a boy named Jake and a girl named Amy,
how they would solve the problem.
Jake said that a human life is worth more than money, so
while stealing is generally wrong, in this particular
situation, it would be right, since it’s either steal or let
your wife die.
Amy took a different approach and instead tried to solve
the problem by focusing more on the relationship
between Heinz and the Pharmacist, hoping that if they
talked more, then they could come up with a solution.
Jake’s response to this is similar to Utilitarianism.
Amy’s response will represent a new form of ethics
known as the Ethics of Care.
WHAT IS THE ETHICS OF CARE?
Certain moral philosophers believe
that abstract principles are too
distanced from what really matters.
Instead, these philosophers
consider the Ethics of Care, a
school of thought that says we
offer moral help only to those we
care for and with whom we have a
close personal relationship.
Here, we ought to do what’s natural,
and for the Ethics of Care, what
feels natural is helping the people
we care about.
WHAT IS THE ETHICS OF CARE? (CONT.)
This is very different from something like
Utilitarianism, which believes we should be
impartial and treat everyone as equals in
achieving the greatest happiness for the
greatest number.
However, philosophers in the Ethics of Care
believe that helping total strangers we’ve
never met will seem meaningless and
unnatural, while helping those we’re closely
related to and care about will feel like the
right thing to do.
ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE
ETHICS OF CARE…
The Ethics of Care is not about ONLY helping
our blood relatives or ONLY helping our best
friends.
We can devote ourselves to helping our family
or friends, but we can also help people we
don’t know well, but still have some kind of
relationship with.
If you’re able to communicate with someone
over a span of time, then you will eventually
care for them, and thus it will feel natural to
want to help them.
WE WILL NOW TAKE A LOOK AT
SOME MORAL EXAMPLES THAT
WILL HELP US SEE SOME OF THE
MAJOR DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
ONE OF THESE ABSTRACT MORAL
PRINCIPLE APPROACHES TO
ETHICS AND THE ETHICS OF CARE.
MORAL IDEA #1
DONATING TO CHARITY
Consider the following thought experiment: Imagine you come
across a small pond, where you notice a child is drowning. In
this situation, you may be tempted to save the child. However, in
doing so, you will have to make a small sacrifice and get your
clothes muddy in the process. Now consider helping children
who are near-death and in desperate need of medicine on the
other side of the world. Once again, you will have to make a
small sacrifice and donate a small amount of your money to
help these children survive. If it’s worth it to save the drowning
child, then is it also worth it to save the starving children on the
other side of the world?
MORAL IDEA #1
DONATING TO CHARITY
Ethics of Care Response: There is a huge difference
between both of these children, because the
drowning child is someone you naturally care for.
Utilitarianism Response: There is no difference,
because either way, you’re making a small sacrifice
to save a life. Just because the latter has more of a
disconnect does not mean the consequences will be
any different.
Discussion Question: Which viewpoint would you
side with here?
MORAL IDEA #2
ANIMAL RIGHTS
Consider the issue of animals. Some
people enjoy eating meat. Meanwhile,
others are completely against harming
animals, and certain philosophers are in
between, thinking that it depends on the
animal whether or not it’s worth it to bring
the animal harm.
MORAL IDEA #2
ANIMAL RIGHTS
Ethics of Care Response: It’s only wrong to mistreat
animals, hunt, or eat meat, if doing so requires you to
hurt an animal you care about (such as your pets, for
example).
Utilitarianism Response: All animals capable of feeling
pleasure or pain deserve moral consideration. Not just
our pets/animals we personally care about.
Discussion Question: Which viewpoint would you side
with here?
UPSIDES AND DOWNSIDES TO THE
ETHICS OF CARE…
UPSIDES…
(1) More human/relatable when compared to
other frameworks.
(2) Provides a good definition for human nature
that could rival other nature-based schools of
thought.
DOWNSIDES…
(1) Less Logical when compared to other
frameworks.
(2) Fails to provide motivations for pursuing
certain good actions.
NEXT
VIRTUE ETHICS
INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUE ETHICS
Image of Aristotle – Founder of Virtue Ethics
(384-322 B.C.)
Throughout the history of ethics, moral
philosophers have been trying to figure
out how to create the best ethical
obligations.
Long before ethical schools of thought
like Kantian Ethics or Utilitarianism, one
of the first moral theories was Virtue
Ethics, developed by Aristotle, an Ancient
Greek philosopher.
INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUE ETHICS
Image of Aristotle – Founder of Virtue Ethics
(384-322 B.C.)
It seems that if ethical schools of thought
like Utilitarianism or Kantian Ethics are
going to have so many issues, then perhaps
it might make sense to go back to Virtue
Ethics.
As we go through Virtue Ethics, we will see
if it works better or worse than the other
schools of thought. However, it is a moral
theory that many moral philosophers find to
be very respectable, as we shall soon see.
WHAT IS VIRTUE ETHICS?
While other schools of thought are interested
in fulfilling moral acts, VIRTUE ETHICS is
more interested in helping each of us achieve
the best moral character, one that is made up
of as many virtues as possible.
According to Aristotle, if we decide to practice
being virtuous, then overtime through habit,
we will naturally become virtuous people and
then we won’t have to worry about what to do
and what not to do, because our natural
behavior will be morally acceptable.
WHAT IS VIRTUE ETHICS?
What does it take to be virtuous? How do I know
I’m following a virtue and not a vice?
For Aristotle, virtue is moderation. To not have
too much or too little of something means we are
acting out of virtue.
Aristotle defines VIRTUE as “a trait of character
manifested in habitual action” which is
“commendable” (as opposed to a vice).
Furthermore, he says virtue is “the mean by
reference to two vices: the one of excess and the
other of deficiency” (Rachels 171-172).
We will see how this works in the following
slides…
EXAMPLES OF VIRTUES
Deficiency (vice)
Mean (virtue)
Excess (vice)
Aggression
Patience
Apathy
Laziness
Perseverance
Obsessiveness
Intolerance
Tolerance
Stupidity
Cowardice
Courage
Foolhardiness
COURAGE AS A VIRTUE
Deficiency (vice)
Mean (virtue)
Excess (vice)
Cowardice
Courage
Foolhardiness
Discussion Question: What is it that makes someone courageous? How do
we know when someone goes beyond courage or isn’t courageous
enough? Are these accurate images of courage and the vices that surround
it? Or should courage be defined differently?
WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM VIRTUE ETHICS?
According to Virtue Ethics, we shouldn’t
worry about how to act. Instead we worry
about who we should be (character).
Therefore, all of the virtues we’ve explored
this lecture are ones we need to have if we
want to have the best moral character
possible.
The challenge involves not only being able to
practice all of these virtues (and others)
habitually, but also making sure we are in fact
being virtuous (mean) and not acting out of
vice (excess or deficiency).
ADVANTAGES TO VIRTUE ETHICS
(1) Moral Character (not obligation)
Virtue Ethics is about developing a virtuous moral
character for yourself. Therefore, the virtuous person acts
not out of duty or obligation, but out of who they are.
(2) Doubts about the ideal of impartiality
A big part of Virtue Ethics concerns caring for other
people. For instance, loyalty is a virtue, and therefore a
virtuous person will be there for his or her friends and
family. However, this would also require him or her to be
partial to some and not care for all people equally. We can
look at this as an upside, since unlike many schools of
thought that strive for cold impartiality, virtue ethics gives
us the freedom to care for our loved ones.
DISADVANTAGES TO VIRTUE ETHICS
(1) Virtue Ethics seems incomplete, since it doesn’t
specify when we should follow certain virtues.
One issue with Virtue Ethics is that virtues can
sometimes conflict. What if I find myself in a situation
where a close family member is on trial for committing
murder? Here, I can either be loyal and lie in court to
protect him or her from getting in trouble. Or I could
be honest and tell the truth. The problem is that virtue
ethics does not specify which virtue should be
followed in cases of virtues conflicting with each
other.
DISADVANTAGES TO VIRTUE ETHICS
(2) Virtue Ethics seems incomplete, since every
explanation for why we should be virtuous causes us
to use other moral theories.
For instance, consider why we should use the
virtue of kindness. Perhaps we can justify being kind,
since doing so would be best for others (utilitarianism)
or for ourselves and our reputations (ethical egoism)
or because we want others to be kind to us (social
contract theory). The reason why this is a problem is
because it makes it seem as though Virtue Ethics can’t
exist without other schools of thought to assist it.
VIDEO GAME DISCUSSION QUESTION
Consider unique games with controversial content. A
controversial game could be seen as ambitious but it could
also be in poor taste. Therefore this kind of non-moderate,
possibly excessive approach could be seen as bad from a
virtue ethics perspective. We will now explore this idea
further…
Some games have explored controversial subject matters.
For instance, COD: World War II has parts involving
concentration camps, which certain people might find to
be offensive. What if there was an entire game about the
Holocaust or the September 11th attacks, and let’s also say
it was a well made game that could be enjoyable just for
the gameplay alone. Would this be something you could
accept or would there be too many moral difficulties
involved? In other words, is it virtuous to release a game
like this?
NEXT LECTURE:
MORALITY
IN FILM AND GAMES
VIEWING ASSIGNMENTS:
MINORITY REPORT
(ON COLTUBE)
DETROIT: BECOME HUMAN [CLIPS]
(ON YOUTUBE)
ETHICS IN
COMPUTER GAMES
AND CINEMA:
LECTURE SIX
HOW MOVIES AND GAMES
DEPICT MORALITY (PT. I)
LEARNING
OBJECTIVES
Learn about moral dilemmas presented in a Film.
Learn about moral dilemmas presented in a Video Game.
Evaluate how we might solve these dilemmas using several
normative frameworks.
MINORITY REPORT: A FILM ABOUT ETHICS
In the 2002 film Minority Report (dir:
Steven Spielberg), a lot of thought
provoking moral dilemmas are presented
to the viewer.
The film depicts a futuristic world in which
psychics (or precogs) are able to predict
when crimes are about to happen, thus
allowing for a pre-crime division to arrest
anyone about to break the law.
Therefore in the futuristic year of 2054, not
only are people arrested for committing
crimes, but they’re also arrested for
almost committing a crime, even if they
didn’t actually do anything wrong.
THE GOAL FOR THE FIRST HALF
We will take a look at several moral
dilemmas presented in the film, and then
determine what some of our normative
frameworks would most likely say in
response to each dilemma.
MORAL FRAMEWORKS IN MINORITY REPORT
Each of the following Moral Frameworks will be used to
solve the dilemmas presented in Minority Report.
1. Utilitarianism
Doing what’s best for the greatest happiness of the
greatest number.
2. Kantian Ethics
Following the Categorical Imperative/Absolute Moral
Rules.
3. The Social Contract Theory
Making sacrifices of our freedom in exchange for security
that benefits everyone in a society, outside the state of
nature.
MORAL DILEMMA #1 – PRE-CRIME DEBATE
Pre-crime can be viewed
as controversial for a
number of different
reasons, but of course it
provides many benefits.
However, should it exist
at all, given that people
are being arrested for
things they haven’t even
done yet?
MORAL DILEMMA #1 – PRE-CRIME DEBATE
Obviously there are good
reasons to implement precrime, given that it aims to
prevent all violent crimes
from happening.
However, we should also
consider that it started
because of Lamar’s
decision to murder Ann
Lively. Is it worth it to take
one human life in order to
save countless others?
MORAL DILEMMA #1 – PRE-CRIME DEBATE
Utilitarian Response: Most likely we
should allow pre-crime to exist,
given that it nearly eliminates crime,
thus making things better for the
greatest number. Even if Lamar is
responsible for killing Ann Lively to
allow all this to happen, it would still
most likely be accepted by a
Utilitarian.
MORAL DILEMMA #1 – PRE-CRIME DEBATE
Kantian Response: Does Pre-Crime violate the
Categorical Imperative?
As we’ve discussed, murder is a clear
violation of both formulations to the
Categorical Imperative, as murder cannot be
universalized and requires us to use someone
as a means to an end, rather than respectfully
treating them as an end in themself.
Therefore, the decision to kill Ann Lively is a
clear violation of the categorical imperative.
MORAL DILEMMA #1 – PRE-CRIME DEBATE
Discussion Question
After everything we’ve
discussed so far, do you
think Pre-Crime is worth
implementing? Or is it not
worth it, given the issues
we went over?
MORAL DILEMMA #2 – SPIDERS
Another issue worth
discussing is
governmental invasions of
privacy using what the film
calls “Spiders”.
Here, spiders are used to
identify people by
sneaking into their homes
and scanning their eyes, to
determine who they are.
MORAL DILEMMA #2 – SPIDERS
Social Contract Theory: Giving up our
freedom of total privacy could be worth
while from a social contract perspective,
given that we are sacrificing something
we would otherwise have in the state of
nature, in exchange for security that
intends on benefiting all rational people.
Therefore, a social contract theorist could
reasonably support the decision to
include spiders within this futuristic
society.
MORAL DILEMMA #2 – SPIDERS
Kantian Ethics: It is wrong to violate people’s
autonomy according to the second formulation
of the categorical imperative.
Therefore, a Kantian will only be against the use
of spiders, if we can confirm that there are good
people who do not wish for spiders to enter their
homes.
If we do establish that these people exist, then
violating their autonomy in this way is the same
as treating them as means to an end, rather than
as ends in themselves, and therefore a Kantian
will easily be against this decision.
MORAL DILEMMA #2 – SPIDERS
Discussion Question:
What are your thoughts on this
moral issue? Is this something
you would be in favor of,
because of the security it
promotes? Or would it not be
worth it, given obvious
violations of privacy and
autonomy?
MORAL DILEMMA #3 – TECHNOLOGY
Within this futuristic setting, technology has
progressed, but has morality regressed?
Not only are spiders an example of futuristic
technology, but in addition to that, whenever you go
on the train or enter a mall/other similar public
space, your eyes are scanned and your identity is
confirmed, whether you like it or not.
EXAMPLE: Whenever characters enter a mall, their
eyes are scanned, and machines immediately
recommend something for the person to buy, based
on their previously recorded purchases.
MORAL DILEMMA #3 – TECHNOLOGY
Utilitarian Response: With
regard to security, it seems as
though this can be a good thing.
It also seems to provide people
with a sense of pleasure.
Therefore it does seem best for
the greatest happiness of the
greatest number.
MORAL DILEMMA #3 – TECHNOLOGY
Kantian Response: This will only
be a moral detriment, if there are
people who don’t wish to have
technology know so much about
their purchase history or
identification, just for going into a
store or going on a train, etc. In
cases like that, this could violate
the categorical imperative.
MORAL DILEMMA #3 – TECHNOLOGY
Discussion Question:
What do you think about moral
issues having to do with
technology in the film? Do you
think these technological issues
present any moral problems? Or
would you personally be okay with
living in a society in which this
were the norm?
NEXT:
HOW VIDEO GAMES
DEPICT MORALITY
ETHICS IN VIDEO GAMES
Video Games have the ability to introduce players
to moral dilemmas by having them make tough
decisions through gameplay.
Today we will be looking at some of these
dilemmas and then we will evaluate how we might
solve them using some of our moral frameworks.
We will also be discussing the general importance
of games with moral dilemmas for the gamer to
solve.
More specifically, we will be looking at several
moral dilemmas that appear in the video game,
Detroit: Become Human.
INTRO TO DETROIT: BECOME HUMAN
Detroit: Become Human is a 2018
Science Fiction/Adventure game
developed by Quantic Dream and
written/directed by David Cage.
Taking place in 2038 Detroit, the game
depicts a future in which androids have
become advanced enough to be used
by human beings, in need of
assistance.
The game is taken from the point of
view of three androids: Kara, Connor,
and Markus, all of whom are hired to
complete various tasks for the humans
who own them.
INTRO TO DETROIT: BECOME HUMAN
The game has been praised
for its thoughtful narrative as
well as how it challenges us to
think ethically while solving
moral dilemmas.
It also encourages us to think
about the nature of humanity,
using androids as a method
for making social commentary
(job loss, intolerance,
discrimination, etc.).
MORAL DILEMMAS
IN DETROIT: BECOME HUMAN
The game is filled with numerous moral dilemmas.
These dilemmas involve the player needing to make
difficult decisions that could lead to a wide variety of
different outcomes.
Because of this, the game’s narrative can be
drastically altered by the decisions the player makes
throughout the game.
This can be further understood by looking at the
following flowchart, which shows us the decisions a
player has made, as well as what those specific
choices can lead to…
EXAMPLE OF A DECISION FLOWCHART
“THE HOSTAGE” – FIRST MISSION
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CHOICE-BASED GAMES
It could be argued that choice-based
games (ones that alter the narrative
based on your choices) can hold
more weight than games with a fixed
narrative.
This is because games like DBH
allow us to feel a sense of personal
responsibility while making choices.
THROUGHOUT THIS LECTURE, WE WILL
LOOK AT A FEW OF THESE DILEMMAS
AND THEN THINK ABOUT HOW WE
WOULD PERSONALLY SOLVE THEM.
WE WILL ALSO THINK ABOUT HOW THE
NORMATIVE FRAMEWORKS WE’VE BEEN
LOOKING AT THROUGHOUT THE
COURSE WOULD LIKELY REACT TO THE
DILEMMAS WE’RE ABOUT TO BE
PRESENTED WITH.
FIRST EXAMPLE OF A MORAL DILEMMA
IN DETROIT: BECOME HUMAN
The first dilemma we will look at occurs at the
very beginning of the game.
At this point, your character, an android
named Connor, has to decide between lying to
save the life a young girl, or telling the truth,
thereby decreasing the child’s chance of
survival.
More specifically, you have to choose to lie to
an android (threatening the life of a child), by
telling him you can make a deal to make sure
nothing bad happens to him, or you can be
honest with him and let him know there’s
nothing you can do to meet his demands.
FIRST EXAMPLE OF A MORAL DILEMMA
IN DETROIT: BECOME HUMAN
Utilitarianism: For this dilemma, a Utilitarian would
likely say that it’s okay to lie in this situation,
because doing so could most likely lead to the
child’s survival, whereas telling the truth could
potentially lead to the child’s death.
FIRST EXAMPLE OF A MORAL DILEMMA
IN DETROIT: BECOME HUMAN
Kantian Analysis: We cannot lie, even in this situation.
We must never violate the Categorical Imperative.
Also we don’t know what the results of our actions
will be, but we do know that lying is generally
considered a bad action.
FIRST EXAMPLE OF A MORAL DILEMMA
IN DETROIT: BECOME HUMAN
Discussion Question: How would you solve this
dilemma? In other words, if you were playing
this game, what exactly would you do here?
SECOND EXAMPLE OF A MORAL DILEMMA
IN DETROIT: BECOME HUMAN
The second dilemma occurs shortly after.
Here, you, an android named Kara, has
to decide whether or not to steal food,
laundry, and/or other items for a young
girl named Alice, who you’ve rescued
from the home of an abusive father.
Do you steal to help the kid, or not steal
and also allow the kid not to have what
she needs?
SECOND EXAMPLE OF A MORAL DILEMMA
IN DETROIT: BECOME HUMAN
Utilitarianism: In this dilemma, a Utilitarian would
probably be open to stealing, since the end result of
such is better than the end result of not stealing.
SECOND EXAMPLE OF A MORAL DILEMMA
IN DETROIT: BECOME HUMAN
Kantian Ethics: Here, a Kantian would say that we
should never steal, even in a situation like this,
because again, stealing violates the categorical
imperative.
SECOND EXAMPLE OF A MORAL DILEMMA
IN DETROIT: BECOME HUMAN
Ethics of Care: An Ethics of Care Thinker would likely approve
of stealing in this situation, seeing how you’re stealing so as
to help someone you’ve grown to care for at this point in the
game. Seeing how you have more natural care for the kid
than you do for the strangers you’re stealing from, it seems it
would be acceptable from this perspective.
SECOND EXAMPLE OF A MORAL DILEMMA
IN DETROIT: BECOME HUMAN
Social Contract: Here, we can say that stealing is
wrong, because it’s against the law, and the reason
why it’s against the law is because not stealing
provides a universal benefit for members of a
society.
SECOND EXAMPLE OF A MORAL DILEMMA
IN DETROIT: BECOME HUMAN
Discussion Question: How would you solve this
dilemma? In other words, if you were playing this
game, and realized you had the option to steal or not
steal, what, for whatever reason, would you do?
THE IMPORTANCE OF ETHICS IN GAMEPLAY
There is a huge difference between video games
and movies when it comes to ethical thinking.
In both movies and games, we find ourselves
being introduced to moral dilemmas. However in a
film, it will only be up to the character(s) on screen
to solve the dilemma while the viewer simply
thinks about what he/she would personally do.
Meanwhile, unlike film, video games have the
potential to provide the gamer with the opportunity
to not only think about what the character should
do, but also have the character pursue whatever
choice the player deems necessary.
FINAL DISCUSSION QUESTION
Video Games could arguably be better
than Film when it comes to having us
think about morality, as games allow us
to not only reflect on the ethical
decisions made by the characters, but
also make ethical decisions on our own
through gameplay.
Do you agree with this statement? Or
do you believe it’s unfair to say
gameplay has greater potential for
ethical evaluation than film?
NEXT TIME:
HOW MOVIES AND GAMES
DEPICT MORALITY (PT. 2)
VIEWING ASSIGNMENTS:
DEAR ZACHARY (COLTUBE)
UNDERTALE CLIPS (YOUTUBE)
READING ASSIGNMENT:
UNDERTALE ARTICLES
NEXT TIME:
CONTROVERSIAL MOVIES
AND VIDEO GAMES (PT. 1)
VIEWING ASSIGNMENTS:
PULP FICTION (COLTUBE)
GTA V CLIPS (YOUTUBE)
READING ASSIGNMENTS:
MICHAEL HANEKE ARTICLE
GTA V ARTICLES

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