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Book access: American Psychological Association (2020).

Publication Manual of the American Psychological

Association

(7th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association>>>>>>

https://b-ok.cc/book/11590127/b2d14e

Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice>>>>

https://b-ok.cc/book/11830338/9240ed

Assignment below:

Please answer the following questions based on the material presented in the module(

Attached below

):

1) Why is it important to adhere to ethical principles when conducting research? Please provide at least 1 source cited in your answer and provide a reference list. (25 Points)

Choose one of the following research studies: Humphrey’s Tearoom Trade, Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment, or Milgram’s Obedience Study. Explain the purpose of the study. Do you believe ethical principles were violated? Why or why not? Defend your position. (25 points)

Supplement for Chapter 7
Prominent Conceptual Models
of Nursing Used by Nurse
Researchers
Numerous conceptual models of nursing have been developed, and nurse researchers have
been inspired by these models in formulating research questions and hypotheses. The table
in this supplement to Chapter 7 lists 10 conceptual models that have been used by nurse
researchers and identifies a study that claimed the model as its framework.
Theorist and Reference
Name of
Model/Theory
Key Thesis of the Model
Research Example
Imogene King (1981)
Theory of Goal
Attainment
The patient and nurse
need to work together
when setting goals and
working toward achieving
these goals.
Park et al. (2017) studied the effect of an
educational program
based on the Theory
of Goal Attainment
on cardiovascular
risks and behavioral
changes among patients with an acute
myocardial infarction.
Madeline Leininger
(McFarland &
Wehbe-Alamah, 2015)
Theory of Culture
Care Diversity and
Universality
Caring is a universal phenomenon but varies transculturally; fundamental
belief is that people in different cultures can inform
and are capable of guiding
health care professionals
to receive the kind of care
they need and desire.
Guided by Leininger’s
theory, Chiatti (2019)
explored the culture
care beliefs and practices of Ethiopian immigrants in the United
States.
Myra Levine (1996)
Conservation
Model
Conservation of energy,
structural integrity, personal integrity, and social
integrity by nurses contributes to maintenance of
a person’s wholeness.
Yangzom and an interprofessional team
of researchers
(2015)
(continued)
used Levine’s Conservation Model as the organizing framework for
their study of the effect
of diphenhydramine
on sleep in pediatric
ICU burn patients.
(continued)
1
2
Supplement for Chapter 7 Prominent Conceptual Models of Nursing Used by Nurse Researchers
Theorist and Reference
Name of
Model/Theory
Key Thesis of the Model
Research Example
Betty Neuman
(Neuman & Fawcett,
2010)
Health Care
Systems Model
Each person is a complete
system; the goal of nursing is to assist in maintaining client system stability.
Şengün İnan and
Üstün (2018) used
Neuman’s model to
structure their study
of the effects of a
psychoeducational
intervention on the
quality of life and distress of breast cancer
survivors.
Margaret Newman
(1999)
Health as Expanding Consciousness
Health is viewed as an
expansion of consciousness with health and
disease parts of the same
whole; health is seen in
an evolving pattern of the
whole in time, space, and
movement.
Fujiwara and Endo
(2017) used Newman’s
theory to explore the
process of caring partnerships in the family
of a cancer patient.
Dorothea Orem (Orem
et al., 2003)
Self-Care Deficit
Nursing Theory
Self-care activities are
what people do on their
own behalf to maintain
health and well-being;
the goal of nursing is to
help people meet their
own therapeutic self-care
demands.
Lee and colleagues
(2018) studied patterns
of self-care in relation to clinical events
among adults with
heart failure.
Rosemarie Rizzo Parse
(2014)
Humanbecoming
Paradigm
The principles of Humanbecoming are structuring
meaning, configuring
rhythmical patterns, and
cotranscending with
possibles.
Doucet (2018) studied
the living experience
of feeling peaceful,
guided by Parse’s research method.
Martha Rogers (1994)
Science of Unitary
Human Beings
The individual is a unified
whole in constant interaction with the environment;
nursing helps individuals achieve maximum
well-being within their
potential.
Notte and colleagues
(2016) used Rogers’
Science of Unitary Human Beings as their
framework for a study
of the impact of Reiki
therapy on the pain
perception of patients
undergoing total knee
arthroplasty.
Sr. Callista Roy (Roy &
Andrews, 2009)
Adaptation Model
Humans are adaptive
systems who cope with
change through adaptation; nursing helps to
promote client adaptation
during health and illness.
Bockwoldt and coresearchers (2017) used
Roy’s Adaptation
Model in their study
of the experience of
diabetes medication
among African Americans living with type 2
diabetes.
Supplement for Chapter 7 Prominent Conceptual Models of Nursing Used by Nurse Researchers
Theorist and Reference
Jean Watson (2005)
(also Turkel et al., 2018)
Name of
Model/Theory
Theory of Caring
3
Key Thesis of the Model
Research Example
Caring is the moral ideal
and entails mind-bodysoul engagement with one
another.
Durmazoğlu et al.
(2020) used Watson’s
theory in a study of
maternal emotions and
experiences of mothers who had breastfeeding problems.
THEORETICAL REFERENCES
King, I. M. (1981). A theory for nursing: Systems, concepts,
process. Albany, NY: Delmar.
Levine, M. E. (1996). The conservation principles: A retrospective. Nursing Science Quarterly, 9, 38–41.
McFarland, M. R., & Wehbe-Alamah, H. (2015). Culture
care diversity and universality: A worldwide nursing theory
(3rd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
Neuman, B., & Fawcett, J. (2010). The Neuman Systems
Model (5th ed.). Englewood, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Newman, M. (1999). Health as expanding consciousness (2nd
ed.). New York, NY: National League for Nursing.
Orem, D. E., Taylor, S. G., Renpenning, K. M., & Eisenhandler, S. A. (2003). Self-care theory in nursing: Selected
papers of Dorothea Orem. New York, NY: Springer
Publishing.
Parse, R. R. (2014). The Humanbecoming Paradigm: A
transformational worldview. Pittsburgh, PA: Discovery
International.
Rogers, M. E. (1994). The science of unitary human beings: Current perspectives. Nursing Science Quarterly,
7, 33–35.
Roy, C., & Andrews, H. (2009). The Roy Adaptation Model.
(3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Turkel, M., Watson, J., & Giovannoni, J. (2018). Caring
science or science of caring. Nursing Science Quarterly,
31, 66–71.
Watson, J. (2005). Caring science as sacred science. Philadelphia,
PA: F. A. Davis.
ST U D I E S
Bockwoldt, D., Staffileno, B., Coke, L., Hamilton, R.,
Fogg, L., Calvin, D., & Quinn, L. (2017). Understanding experiences of diabetes medications among African
Americans living with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 28, 363–371.
Chiatti, B. (2019). Culture care beliefs and practices of
Ethiopian immigrants. Journal of Transcultural Nursing,
30, 340–349.
Doucet, T. (2018). Feeling peaceful: A universal living experience. Nursing Science Quarterly, 31, 55–65.
Durmazoglu, G., Yenal, K., & Okumus, H. (2020). Maternal emotions and experiences of mothers who had
breastfeeding problems: A qualitative study. Research
and Theory for Nursing Practice, 34, 3–20.
Fujiwara, Y., & Endo, E. (2017). A patient with cancer and
her family in caring partnership based on Margaret
Newman’s Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness. Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing, 4, 265–268.
Lee, C., Bidwell, J., Paturzo, M., Alvaro, R., Cocchieri, A.,
Jaarsma, T., . . . Vellone, E. (2018). Patterns of self-care
and clinical events in a cohort of adults with heart failure: 1 year follow-up. Heart & Lung, 47, 40–46.
Notte, B., Fazzini, C., & Mooney, R. (2016). Reiki’s effect
on patients with total knee arthroplasty: A pilot study.
Nursing, 46, 17–23.
Park, M., Song, R., & Jeong, J. O. (2017). Effect of goal
attainment theory based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute
myocardial infarction: Randomized study. International
Journal of Nursing Studies, 71, 8–16.
Sengün İnan, F., & Üstün, B. (2018). Home-based psychoeducational intervention for breast cancer survivors.
Cancer Nursing, 41, 238–247.
Yangzom, N., Gottschlich, M., Ossege, J., Wangmo, T., &
Kagan, R. (2015). The effect of diphenhydramine on
sleep in pediatric burn patients. Journal of Burn Care
Research, 36, 266–271.
UNDERSTANDING
THEORETICAL AND
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS
Narciso Quidley-Rodriguez, PhD, BSN, RN
Objectives
• Identify major characteristics of theories, conceptual
models, and frameworks.
• Identify several conceptual models or theories frequently
used by nurse researchers.
• Describe how theory and research are linked in quantitative
and qualitative studies.
• Appraise the appropriateness of a conceptual/theoretical
framework-or its absence-in a study.
• Define new terms in the chapter.
Theory
Classic Theory-abstract generalization that explains how
phenomena are interrelated
• Two or more concepts and a set of propositions that form a
logically interrelated system, providing a mechanism for
deducing hypotheses.
• Broad characterization of a phenomenon
• Provide the “what” and “why” of
natural phenomena occurrence
Types of Theories
Descriptive Theoriesthoroughly describe
a phenomenon
Middle-range
Theoriesfocus on a specific
aspect of the human
experience
Grand Theoriesexplain large
segments of human
experience
Models
Conceptual Model-concepts assembled as they relate to a common
theme
• Representation of the common aspects of a phenomenon and how
they relate
• Help generate hypotheses
Schematic Model (concept map)-visual representation of
phenomena and their related concepts
• Used in both qualitative and quantitative research
Concept Maps
Framework
Conceptual backbone of a study; every study has a framework
Theoretical Framework-the framework of the study is based on a
theory
Conceptual Framework-the framework of the study is based on a
conceptual model
Theories and Conceptual Models
Created, not discovered
Based on observable evidence
Require well-defined concepts
Used to generate hypotheses
Stimulate research
Cannot be proven, but can be supported through research
Built by continuously creating and testing hypotheses
Conceptual Models of Nursing
• Formal explanation of nursing discipline and practice
• Four main concepts addressed: Human beings,
Environment, Health, Nursing
• Each model has a unique way of defining the concepts and
relating them to each other.
• Commonly used in nursing education and clinical practice.
• Many have also been used by nurse researchers.
Conceptual Models Commonly Used
in Nursing Research
Imogene King’s (1981) Theory of Goal Attainment
Madeline Leininger’s (1991) Theory of Culture Care Diversity and
Universality
Dorothea Orem’s (2003) Self-Care Deficit Theory
Sr. Callista Roy’s (2009) Adaptation Model
Jean Watson’s (2005) Theory of Caring
Middle-range Theories Used in
Nursing Research
• Beck’s (2015) Theory of Traumatic Childbirth
• Mishel’s (1990) Uncertainty in Illness Theory
• Pender’s (2015) Health Promotion Model
• Kolcaba’s (2003) Comfort Theory
Nonnursing Theories used in Nursing
Research (Shared Theories)
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
Prochaska’s Transtheoretical Model
Becker’s Health Belief Model (HBM)
Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)
Constructs from Shared Theories
Self-efficacy from Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory is people’s belief in
their own ability to carry out certain behaviors
Becker’s Health Belief Model states that health-related behavior is
influenced by a person’s perception of a threat posed by a health
problem and value on actions associated with reducing the threat.
Behavioral intentions from Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior states
that self-imposed behavior is influenced by intention which is affected by
attitudes toward the behavior
Theories in
Qualitative
Research
Substantiative
theoryconceptualizations
of a specific
phenomenon
Grounded theoryconceptually dense
understanding of a
phenomenon
grounded in actual
observations
Ethnographycultural
perspective shapes
studies; ideational
and materialistic
theories
Phenomenologyphenomenological
philosophy of
human experience
Grounded Theory
Based on symbolic interaction or how
experiences shape the meaning people assign to
things
Three central ideas:
• People act based on the meanings that
things have for them.
• The meaning of things is based on a
person’s social interactions.
• Meaning is not permanent; it can change
based on one’s own interactions.
Test hypotheses deduced from an
existing theory
Theories or
Models in
Quantitative
Research
Test theory-based interventions
Using a theory or model as the
organizing or interpretive structure
Fitting a problem into theory, after
the fact (not recommended)
Guidelines to Appraise the Theoretical
Context of a Research Report
Questions? Comments?
IDENTIFYING RESEARCH
PROBLEMS, RESEARCH
QUESTIONS,
AND HYPOTHESES
Narciso Quidley-Rodriguez, PhD, BSN, RN
OBJECTIVES
•
Describe the process of developing and refining a research problem
•
Distinguish the functions and forms of purpose statements and
research questions for quantitative and qualitative studies
•
Describe the purpose and characteristics of research hypotheses
•
Critically appraise statements of purpose, research questions, and
hypotheses in research reports with respect to their placement, clarity,
wording, and relevance to nursing
•
Define new terms in the chapter
Research problem: an enigmatic or
troubling condition
BASIC
TERMS
TO
KNOW
Problem statement: introduces the problem
and the need for the study
Statement of purpose: the overall goal of
the study
Research question: specific question or
questions to be answered
Hypotheses: researcher’s predictions about
relationships among variables
EXAMPLES OF TERMS
RESEARCH
PROBLEMS
AND
PARADIGMS
Quantitative studies: involve welldeveloped concepts for which
methods of measurement have
been (or can be) developed
Qualitative studies: develop a
rich, context-bound
understanding of a poorly
understood phenomenon
Personal interest
Clinical experience
RESEARCH
TOPIC
ORIGIN
Nursing literature
Global issues
Political issues
Theory
Previous work
Identification of the problem → What is wrong
with the current situation?
Background → What is the context of the
problem?
COMPONENTS
OF
A PROBLEM
STATEMENT
Scope → How big is the problem and how many
people are affected?
Consequences → What are the consequences if
the problem is not fixed?
Knowledge gaps → What information about the
problem is lacking?
Proposed solution → How will the study contribute
to a solution?
STATEMENT OF PURPOSE
QUANTITATIVE STUDY
QUALITATIVE STUDY
Lee and colleagues (2020) studied the
relationship between implantable
cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks
and psychological distress. One of the
stated purposes was to “compare ICDrelated concerns, perceived control,
anxiety, and depressive symptoms
between patients who received shocks
and patients who did not” (p. 67).
“The primary objective of the present
study was to explore cancer patients’
experiences of participating in a 12month individualized comprehensive
lifestyle intervention study focusing on
physical activity, diet, smoking
cessation, and stress management
while undergoing . . . chemotherapy”
(Mikkelsen et al., 2020).
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Research questions are sometimes a rewording of the statement of
purpose.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship
between the functional dependence level of renal transplant
recipients and their rate of recovery.
Question: Is the functional dependence level (I) of renal transplant
recipients (P) related to their rate of recovery (O)?
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
IN QUANTITATIVE STUDIES
Template: In (population-P), what is the
relationship between (independent
variable-IV) and (dependent variableDV)?
Therapy/intervention: In (P), what is the
effect of (IV: intervention vs. an
alternative) on (DV)?
Prognosis: In (P), does (IV: a disease or
illness vs. its absence) affect or
increase the risk of (DV)?
Etiology/harm: In (P), does (IV: exposure
vs. nonexposure) cause or increase the
risk of (DV)?
Descriptive research questions:
What is the frequency with which
nurses use humor as a complementary
therapy with hospitalized cancer
patients?
What are the characteristics of nurses
who use humor as a complementary
therapy with hospitalized cancer
patients?
RESEARCH
QUESTIONS
IN QUALITATIVE
STUDIES
Grounded theory → process
questions
Phenomenology → meaning and
experience questions
Ethnography → cultural description
questions
Not rooted in tradition →
descriptive or exploratory questions
Focus → questions begin as broad
focus and can change
Prediction about the relationship between
two or more variables
Qualitative studies do not use formal
hypotheses
RESEARCH
HYPOTHESES
Must contain relational phrase: more than,
less than, different from, related to, etc.
Tested through statistical procedures
Not always explicitly stated
Directional: specifies the expected direction of
the relationship between the variables
Nondirectional: predicts the existence of a
relationship, but not its direction
TYPES OF
HYPOTHESES
Simple: single independent variable and
dependent variable
Complex: multiple independent or dependent
variables
Research hypothesis: statement of expected
relationship between variables
Null hypothesis: express the absence of a
relationship (only used in statistical testing)
HYPOTHESES
AND PROOF
Hypotheses are never proved or
disproved, only supported or
rejected
Formally tested through
statistical analysis
Statistical analysis does not
prove hypothesis; only shows
probability of being correct or
not
CRITICAL APPRAISAL
KEY TERMS TO REVIEW
•
Directional hypothesis
•
Research hypothesis
•
Hypothesis
•
Research problem
•
Nondirectional hypothesis
•
Research question
•
Null hypothesis
•
Statement of purpose
•
Problem statement

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