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Book access: American Psychological Association (2020).

Publication Manual of the American  Psychological Association

(7th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association>>>>>>

https://b-ok.cc/book/11590127/b2d14e

Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice>>>>

https://b-ok.cc/book/11830338/9240ed

Assignment below:

Each assignment will have 1-5 questions that you will be expected to answer

using APA format and, in some cases, provide references.

In terms of the length of the short written assignments, it is a difficult question to answer. On average, these short paper assignments should be 2 double spaced pages of written content (do not use the page count as evidence that you have completed the assignment).

Please answer the following questions based on the material presented in the module(

Which are attached below

):

1) Describe in your own words: What is quantitative research? When looking through a research article, what are some ways to determine if the article uses quantitative methods? (15 Points)

2) Describe in your own words: What is qualitative research? When looking through a research article, what are some ways to determine if the article uses qualitative methods? (15 Points)

3) Locate an article through Florida Atlantic University’s library system

https://library.fau.edu/

. What search terms did you use? Using APA style, provide the reference for the article you found. Tell me if the article is a quantitative or qualitative research article? (15 Points)

Finding and
Reviewing
Research
Evidence in the
Literature
DR. NARCISO QUIDLEY-RODRIGUEZ

Basic Issues
Relating to
Literature
Reviews:
Purpose

Literature Review – A summary of research on
a topic, often prepared to put a research
problem in context or to summarize existing
evidence; typically, less rigorously conducted
than a systematic review

Literature reviews inform consumers about
what is known and unknown concerning a
topic

Literature reviews can be stand alone reports
or introductions to research reports
In qualitative research, research opinions
differ regarding doing a literature review prior
to beginning study
Basic Issues
Relating to
Literature
Reviews:
Types of
Information

Primary Sources – Firsthand reports of facts or
findings; in research, the original report
prepared by the investigator who conducted
the study

Secondary Sources – Secondhand accounts
of events or facts; in research, a description
of a study written by someone other than the
original researcher

Literature reviews are considered secondary
sources – great place to start when learning
about a new topic
Basic Issues Relating to Literature
Reviews: Major Steps and
Strategies in Doing a Literature
Review

A researcher starts with
a question and then
must gather, analyze,
and interpret the
information

Reviews should be
unbiased, thorough,
and up-to-date.
Another reviewer
should be allowed to
follow the steps
detailed and produce
similar results

Locating
Relevant
Literature:
Develop a
Search
Strategy

One of the early steps is to devise a strategy
to locate relevant studies

Search bibliographic databases (watch the
video to see how it is specifically done using
CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar)

Ancestry approach (footnote chasing) –
Citations from relevant studies are used to
track down previous research

Descendancy approach – Finding a pivotal
early study and searching forward to find more
recent studies that cited the key study
Decisions must be made about limiting the
search


For example, limit studies based on language
or year published
https://library.fau.edu/
Searching
Bibliographic
Databases:
Getting
Started with
an Electronic
Search

Bibliographic Databases – Data files containing bibliographic (reference)
information that can be accessed electronically to conduct a literature
search

Keyword – A word or phrase that capture key concepts in your review; an
important term used to search for references on a topic in bibliographic
databases, identified by authors or indexers to enhance the likelihood that
the report will be found

Boolean operators – Words (AND, OR, NOT) used as conjunctions to
combine or exclude keywords in a search. Words MUST be written in ALL
CAPS (I am not shouting, just emphasizing a point)


AND – Delimits a search. For example, if I search “pain AND children”
the software would only retrieve articles that discussed pain and
children. Both terms must be in the article

OR – Expands a search. For example, if I search “pain OR children”
the software would retrieve articles that mentioned the words pain
or children. Only one of the words has to be in the article

NOT – Narrows a search. For example, if I search “pain NOT children”
the software would retrieve articles that discussed pain that did not
include the term children
Truncation – Technique used to broaden search. Use the asterisk (*) to
produce the truncation symbol.

For example, if I search “child*”, the software would retrieve articles
that mention “child”, “children”, “childhood”, and “childbearing”
Searching Bibliographic
Databases:
CINAHL


CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health
Literature) is an electronic database for nurses

Contains over 6 million records

Basic search involves entering keywords in the search
field

Advanced search allows you to restrict your search to
records with certain features (published in English,
published during a certain year)
The retrieved source contains. Make sure you see where the
information is located so you know where to find it for your
article. Most of the information is in the “source” header

The name of the journal

Year of Publication

Volume

Issue

Page Numbers

DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
Searching Bibliographic
Databases:
MEDLINE Database

MEDLINE – Developed by the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Premier source for biomedical literature

PubMed – Website where MEDLINE articles can be accessed for
free

MeSH – Medical Subject Headings, the system used to index
articles in MEDLINE

Consistent way to retrieve information that may use
different terminology for the same concept
 Heart attack and myocardial infarction
 Cancer and malignancy and tumor

Can you find all the same information on this record example?
Searching
Bibliographic
Databases:
Google
Scholar

Google Scholar – A bibliographic search engine that
was launched in 2004

Contains scholarly articles published in all disciplines

https://scholar.google.com/

Not all articles may be available on Google Scholar
Screening,
Documentation,
and Abstracting

References that have been identified in the
search need to be screened for relevance

Search strategies can be complex. It is wise
to document your search actions and results

Note what databases you used, keywords
used, limits instituted, and any other
information important to keep track of what
you did

When a large number of studies are used, a
formal system of recording information from
each study may be needed.

This is similar to making the quant/qual table
Critical
Appraisal of
the Evidence

Researchers need to assess the quality of the
evidence to draw conclusions about the
overall body of evidence and about gaps in
the evidence

The focus is on the identification of important
themes

Substantive Themes – What findings
predominate? How much evidence is there?
How consistent s the body of evidence?

Methodologic Themes – What methods have
been used to address the question? What are
major methodologic deficiencies

Generalizability/Transferability Themes –To
what population does the evidence apply? Do
findings vary for different types of people
(gender; race/ethnicity) or setting (rural vs.
urban)
Critical
Appraisal of
Research
Literature
Reviews
Questions?
UNDERSTANDING
KEY CONCEPTS AND
STEPS IN
QUANTITATIVE AND
QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
DR. NARCISO QUIDLEY -RODRIGUEZ
BUILDING BLOCKS OF RESEARCH:
THE FACE AND PLACES OF RESEARCH
o Research, like any discipline, has its own language that can be intimidating at first
o The Faces and Places of Research
o Subjects – Individuals who participate and provide data in a study; term used in quantitative research
o Study Participants – Individuals who participate and provide information in a study
o Informants – People who provide information to researchers about a phenomenon under study; term used in
qualitative studies
o Settings – The type of places where information is gathered such as clinics, homes, or other community
settings
o Site – The broad location for the research such as an entire community (Palm Beach County) or an institution
(nursing home in Seattle)
BUILDING BLOCKS OF RESEARCH:
CONCEPTS, CONSTRUCTS, AND THEORIES
Concepts – An abstraction based on observation or self-reporting of behaviors
or characteristics (e.g., fatigue, pain, obesity)
Construct – An abstraction or concept that is invented (constructed) by
researchers based on inferences from human behavior or human traits (health
locus of control; self-care); sometimes construct and concept are used
interchangeably, but construct is more abstract
Theory – An abstract generalization that presents a systematic explanation
about relationships among phenomena or that thoroughly describes a
phenomena
BUILDING BLOCKS OF RESEARCH:
VARIABLES
Variable – An attribute that varies, that is, takes on different values (e.g., heart
rate, anxiety)
Independent variable (IV) – The variable that is believed to cause or influence
the dependent variable; in experimental research, the manipulated
(treatment) variable; the independent variable is both the “I” and the “C” in
the PICOT framework
Dependent (outcome) variable (DV) – The variable hypothesized to depend on
or be caused by the independent variable; the outcome of interest
Few research reports explicitly label variables as dependent and independent
CAN YOU IDENTIFY THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT
VARIABLE?
What is the effect of diet and regular soda on blood sugar levels?
How does phone use before bedtime affect sleep?
Does lack of sleep affect learning among 10-year old children?
Does time spent studying affect academic success?
YOU WILL HAVE QUIZ QUESTIONS THAT ASSESS YOUR ABILITY TO RECOGNIZE
INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES. THEY WILL BE DIFFERENT THAN THESE
EXAMPLES.
CAN YOU IDENTIFY THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT
VARIABLE? WITH ANSWERS
What is the effect of diet and regular soda on blood sugar levels?
â—¦ The IV is type of soda (regular or diet) and the DV is blood sugar levels
How does phone use before bedtime affect sleep?
â—¦ The IV is phone use before bedtime and the DV is sleep quality (hours, feeling rested)
Does lack of sleep affect learning among 10-year old children?
â—¦ The IV is sleep and the DV is learning
Does time spent studying affect academic success?
â—¦ The IV is time spent studying and the DV is academic success
BUILDING BLOCKS OF RESEARCH:
CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
Conceptual Definition – The abstract or theoretical meaning of a concept of
interest
Operational Definition – The definition of a concept or variable in terms of the
procedures by which it is to be measured
Sometimes consumers of research do not agree with the researchers’
operational definition
BUILDING BLOCKS OF RESEARCH:
DATA
Data (singular, datum) – The pieces of information obtained in a study
Quantitative Data – Information collected in a quantified (numeric) form
Qualitative Data – Information in narrative (nonnumeric) form, such as the
information provided in an interview
BUILDING BLOCKS OF RESEARCH:
RELATIONSHIPS
Relationship – A bond or a connection between two or more variables
Cause-and-effect (Causal) Relationship – A relationship between two variables
wherein the presence or value of one variable (the “cause”) determine the
presence or value of the other (the “effect”)
Associative (functional) Relationship – An association between two variables
that cannot be described as causal
SUMMARY OF BUILDING BLOCKS OF RESEARCH
MAJOR CLASSES OF RESEARCH:
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: EXPERIMENTAL
AND NONEXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
Experimental Research – Research using a design which the researcher controls
(manipulates) the independent variable by randomly assigning people to
different treatment groups; randomized control trials use experimental designs
Clinical Trials – A study designed to assess the safety, efficacy, and effectiveness
of a new clinical intervention, often involving several phases (Phase III typically
is a RCT using an experimental design)
Nonexperimental Research – Studies in which the researcher collects data
without introducing an intervention; also called observational research
Observational Studies – A study that does not involve an intervention;
phenomena are merely observed
MAJOR STEPS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY
Phase 1: The Conceptual Phase
â—¦ Begin by identifying an interesting research problem and formulate research questions, considering
substantive, theoretical, methodological, and ethical issues
â—¦ Review related research and undertake clinical fieldwork
â—¦ Define framework and conceptual definitions
â—¦ Formulate hypotheses, which is a statement of predicted relationships between variables
Phase 2: The Design and Planning Phase
◦ Research Design – The overall plan for addressing the research question, including strategies for
enhancing the study’s integrity
◦ Intervention Protocol – The specification of what the intervention and alternate (control) treatment
conditions are, how they should be administered, and who should administer them
◦ Population – The entire set of individuals or objects having some common characteristics; the “P” in
PICOT
◦ Sample – A subset of a population comprising those selected to participate in a study
MAJOR STEPS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY (CONT.)
Phase 3: The Empirical Phase
â—¦ May be the most time consuming part of the research. This is when data is collected
and prepared for data analysis
Phase 4: The Analytic Phase
â—¦ Quantitative data is subjected to analysis and interpretation. Researchers attempt to
explain the significance of the findings
◦ Statistical Analyses – The organization and analysis of quantitative data using
statistical procedures, including both descriptive and inferential statistics
Phase 5: The Dissemination Phase
◦ The researchers’ job is incomplete until the results are disseminated
â—¦ A research report must be written to share the results
MAJOR PHASES
OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
VISUAL
MAJOR CLASSES OF RESEARCH:
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: STUDIES
Qualitative Descriptive Research – Qualitative studies that yield rich descriptions
of phenomena but that are not embedded in a qualitative tradition such as
phenomenology or grounded theory
Grounded Theory – An approach to collecting and analyzing qualitative data
that aims to develop theories about social psychological processes grounded
in real-world observations
Phenomenology – A qualitative research tradition with roots in philosophy and
psychology that focuses on the lived experiences of humans
Ethnography – A branch of human inquiry, associated with anthropology, that
focuses on the culture of a group of people, with an effort to understand the
worldview and customs of those studied
ACTIVITIES IN A QUALITATIVE STUDY
While quantitative research followed a linear progression, the progression is
closer to a circle than a line (figure on next slide
Conceptualizing and Planning a Qualitative Study
â—¦ Qualitative researchers generally focus on an topic or idea where very little is known
â—¦ A minimal literature review is done in some cases. Researchers argue they do not
want to be influenced by previous researcher
◦ Emergent Design – A design that unfolds in the course of a qualitative study as the
researcher makes ongoing design decisions reflecting on what has already been
learned
â—¦ Selecting and gaining entrance into a research site
ACTIVITIES IN A QUALITATIVE STUDY (CONT.)
Conducting a Qualitative Study
◦ Themes (categories) – A recurring regularity emerging from an analysis of qualitative
data
◦ Saturation – The collection of qualitative data to the point where a sense of closure is
attained because new data yield redundant information
◦ Trustworthiness – The degree of confidence qualitative researchers have in their data
and analyses, often assessed using the criteria of credibility, transferability,
dependability, confirmability, and authenticity
PRACTICE TIME!
What was the study about? What were
the main phenomena?
What type of study does it appear to be
in terms of type of study? Grounded
theory? Phenomenology? Ethnography?
Do you think an appropriate time was
allocated to the various phases?
Would it have been appropriate to
address the research question using
quantitative methods? Why or why not?
What might be some uses to which the
findings could be put in clinical practice?
ANSWER TIME!
What was the study about? What were the main phenomena?
What type of study does it appear to be in terms of type of study? Grounded
theory? Phenomenology? Ethnography?
Do you think an appropriate time was allocated to the various phases?
Would it have been appropriate to address the research question using
quantitative methods? Why or why not?
What might be some uses to which the findings could be put in clinical
practice?
ACTIVITIES IN A
QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
VISUAL
Questions?
INTRODUCING
NURSING
RESEARCH
DR. NARCISO QUIDLEY-RODRIGUEZ,
PHD, BSN, RN
WHAT IS NURSING
RESEARCH
• Research is the systematic inquiry that
uses orderly, disciplined methods to
answer questions or solve problems
• Nursing research is the systematic
inquiry designed to develop evidence
about issues of importance to nurses
and clients
• Topics may be related to
therapy/interventions, assessment,
prognosis, etiology/prevention, or
meaning
IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH TO EVIDENCE-BASED
PRACTICE
• Evidence-based Practice (EBP) involves making clinical decisions based on clinical
judgment, patient preferences, and on the best available evidence, usually evidence
from disciplined research
• Best evidence strives to identify and evaluate the best available research
evidence as a tool for solving problems
• Patient preferences and values should be considered when discussing types
of treatment. Additionally, it is important to consider the client’s available
resources
• Nurses’ Clinical Expertise is a combination of academic knowledge,
experiences with patient care, and interdisciplinary sharing of new knowledge
• The role of the nurse in research is along a continuum. On
one end, there are nurses who consume research and on
the other end are nurses who produce research
ROLES OF
NURSES IN
RESEARCH
• Between these two points are nurses who:
• Contribute an idea for a study
• Gather information from those taking part in a
study
• Advise clients about participating in a study
• Search for research evidence to address a
practice problem
NURSING RESEARCH IN THE PAST
•
Nursing research began with Florence Nightingale in the 1850s
•
She conducted skillful analysis of factors affecting soldier mortality and morbidity during the
Crimean war
•
Nursing research did not reappear until the early 1900s – research was focused on nurses’
education
•
Research began to accelerate during the 1950 related to an increase in nurses with advanced
degrees, increase in research funding, and the creation of the journal Nursing Research
•
In 1986, the National Center for Nursing Research (NCNR) was established at the National Institutes
of Health (NIH). In 1993, the NCNR was promoted to full institute status, creating the National
Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)
CURRENT
AND FUTURE
DIRECTIONS
OF
NURSING
RESEARCH
• Funding for nursing research continues to increase. Some
areas of focus include:
• Continued focus on EBP
• Ongoing growth of research syntheses
• Increased emphasis on patient centeredness
• Greater interests in the applicability of the research
• Increased focus on health disparities
• Growing interest in defining and ascertaining clinical
significance
SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE
• Nurses make clinical decisions based on a large repertoire of knowledge
• Tradition and “Experts” – Sometimes nurses learn things based on untested traditions or
“unit culture.” Another source of knowledge is from experts such as nursing faculty,
mentors, and textbooks.
• Clinical Experience and Trial and Error – Personal experience has limitations as a source
of evidence because each nurse’s experience is too narrow to be generally useful and
personal experiences are colored by biases
• Disciplined Research – Considered the best method of acquiring reliable knowledge
PARADIGMS AND
METHODS FOR NURSING
RESEARCH
• Paradigm is a way of looking at natural phenomena – a
worldview – that encompasses a set of philosophical
assumptions that guides one’s approach to inquiry
• Positivist paradigm – The paradigm underlying the
traditional scientific approach, which assumes that
there is an orderly reality that can be objectively
studied; often associated with quantitative research
• Constructivist paradigm (naturalistic paradigm) – An
alternative paradigm to the positivist paradigm that
holds that there are multiple interpretations of reality
and that the goal of research is to understand how
individuals construct reality within their context;
associated with qualitative research
• Research methods are the techniques researchers use to
structure a study and to gather and analyze relevant
information
THE POSITIVIST PARADIGM
• Assumptions are principles that are accepted as being true based on logic or
reason, without proof
• Reality is out there and can be studied and known
• The assumption of determinism refers to the belief that phenomena are not haphazard
but rather have antecedent causes
• Research is aimed at understanding the underlying causes of natural phenomena
• Approach involves the use of orderly, disciplined procedures with tight controls over the
research situation to test hunches about the nature of phenomena being studied and
relationships among them
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
• Scientific Method is a set of orderly, systematic, controlled procedures for acquiring
dependable, empirical, and typically quantitative information; the methodological
approach associated with the positivist paradigm
• Empirical Evidence is evidence rooted in objective reality and gathered using one’s
senses as the basis for generating knowledge; uses instruments to collect data
• Generalizability is the degree to which the research methods justify the inference
that the findings are true for a broader group than study participants, in particular,
the inference that the findings can be generalized from the sample to the population
THE CONSTRUCTIVIST
PARADIGM
• Reality is not a fixed entity, but rather a
construction of the people participating
in the research; reality exists with a
context, and many constructions are
possible
• Knowledge is maximized when the
distance between the inquirer and
participants is minimized. Findings from
a constructivist inquiry are the product
of the interaction between the inquirer
and the participants
CONSTRUCTIVIST METHODS AND QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
• Researchers in constructivist traditions emphasize the inherent complexity of humans, their
ability to shape their own experiences, and the idea that truth is a composite of realities
• Constructivist researchers tend to emphasize the dynamic, holistic, and individual aspects of
human life and try to capture those aspects in their entirety, within the context of those who
experience them
• Flexible, evolving procedures are used to capitalize on findings that emerge during the study,
which typically is undertaken in naturalistic settings
• Constructivist studies yield rich, in-depth information that can potentially clarify the dimensions
of a complication phenomenon
KEY METHODOLOGIC
DIFFERENCES IN THE POSITIVIST
AND CONSTRUCTIVIST
PARADIGMS
MULTIPLE PARADIGMS AND NURSING RESEARCH
• It is important to note that while there are differences between the positivist and the constructivist
paradigms, there are commonalities
• Ultimate goals – Aim of research is to answer questions and solve problems
• External evidence – Both research methods gather and analyze evidence gathered empirically
• Reliance on human cooperation – Human cooperation is essential in both qualitative and quantitative research
• Ethical constraints – Regardless of methods, research with humans is guided by ethical principles
• Fallibility – All studies have limitations. Thus, it is important to know how to critically appraise researchers’
methods when evaluating evidence
• Mixed Methods Research is research in which both qualitative and quantitative data are collected
and analyzed to address different but related questions
PURPOSES OF NURSING RESEARCH: RESEARCH FOR
VARYING LEVELS OF EXPLANATION
• One classification system concerns the extent to which studies provide explanatory information. The
descriptive/explanatory continuum includes studies whose purpose are identification, description,
exploration, prediction/control, and explanation of health-related phenomena
• Identification: What is the phenomenon? What is its name? (Qual)
• Description: How prevalent is the phenomenon? (Quan) What are the dimensions or characteristics of the
phenomenon? (Qual)
• Exploration: What factors are related to the phenomenon? (Quan) What is the full nature of the phenomenon?
(Qual)
• Prediction/Control: If phenomenon X occurs, will phenomenon Y occur? Can the phenomenon be prevented?
(Quan)
• Explanation: What is the underlying cause of the phenomenon? (Quan) What does the phenomenon mean?
(Qual)
PURPOSES OF NURSING
RESEARCH: RESEARCH FOR
PURPOSES RELATED TO
EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE
• Another system has recently emerged to communicate EBPrelated practices:
• Therapy/Intervention Question: A question about the
effects of a treatment
• Diagnosis/Assessment Question: A question about the
accuracy and validity of instruments
• Prognosis Question: A question about the
consequences or long-term outcomes of disease or
health problem
• Etiology (Causation)/Prevention of Harm Question: A
question about the underlying cause of a health
problem, such as an environmental cause or personal
behavior
• Description Question: A question aimed at describing
a health-related phenomenon
• Meaning/Process Question: A question about what
health-related phenomena mean to people or about
how a process or experience unfolds
SOURCES OF “BEST” RESEARCH EVIDENCE
• Primary studies, or original studies, are used to create best evidence
• Systematic review is a rigorous synthesis of research findings on a particular
research question, using systematic sampling, data collection, and data analysis
procedures specified in a formal protocol
• Meta-analysis is a technique for quantitatively integrating results of multiple studies
addressing the same or highly similar research questions
• Meta-synthesis is an interpretive translation of evidence produced by systematically
integrating findings from multiple qualitative studies
EVIDENCE HIERARCHIES
AND LEVEL OF EVIDENCE
SCALES
• Evidence hierarchy – A rank arrangement of the strength
of research evidence based on the rigor of the method
that produced it; traditional evidence hierarchies, usually
evidence from disciplined research
• Level of Evidence (LOE) Scale – A scale that rank orders
evidence for cause-probing questions in terms of risk
bias, based on evidence hierarchies; Level I evidence is
typically systematic reviews of randomized controlled
trials
• Randomized Control Trial (RCT) – A full experimental test
of an intervention, involving random assignment of
participants to different groups
ASKING WELL-WORDED
CLINICAL QUESTIONS
FOR EBP
• Most guidance for EBP used the acronym PICOT:
• P: The population or patients (What are the key
characteristics of the patients or people?)
• I: The Intervention, influence, or exposure (What is
the intervention or therapy of interest? What is a
potentially beneficial or harmful influence?)
• C: An explicit comparison to the “I” component
(With what is the intervention or influence being
compared?)
• O: The outcome (What is the outcome in which we
are interested?)
• T: The time (How much time to reach outcome?)
ASSISTANCE FOR CONSUMERS OF NURSING
RESEARCH
EXAMPLE 1
• Study: Effect of inhalation aromatherapy on pain, anxiety, comfort, and cortisol levels during trigger point injection
• Study Purpose: The purpose of the study was to test whether lavender oil inhalation had a positive effect on pain, comfort, anxiety,
and cortisol levels of people who myofascial pain syndrome during trigger point injection
• Study Methods: A total of 66 patients who were admitted to a hospital clinic in Turkey for trigger point injections were included in the
study. The patients were assigned to one of three groups, with 22 patients per group: (1) those receiving lavender oil during the
injections, (2) those receiving inhalation of an odorless organic baby oil, and (3) those not receiving any inhalation application. All
patients were assessed for pain, comfort, and anxiety before and after the injections, and saliva samples were collected for cortisol
level measurements
• Key Findings: The researchers found that patients who received the lavender oil inhalation had lower pain and anxiety and higher
levels of comfort than patients who did not receive the aromatherapy. The intervention had no effect on saliva cortisol levels
• Conclusions: The researchers recommended the use of aromatherapy during trigger point injections because it reduced anxiety and
stress.
• Critical Thinking Exercises:
• 1: Answer questions 1-3 in the previous slide.
• 2: Why do you think the researchers used three groups rather than just two to assess the effects of the aromatherapy intervention?
• 3: Could this study have been undertaken as a qualitative study? Why or why not?
EXAMPLE 1 DISCUSSION
• Critical Thinking Exercises:
• 1: Answer questions 1-3 in the previous slide.
• 2: Why do you think the researchers used three groups rather than just
two to assess the effects of the aromatherapy intervention?
• 3: Could this study have been undertaken as a qualitative study? Why or
why not?
EXAMPLE 2
•
Study: Health and disability among young Black men
•
Study Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how young black men in the United States experienced the onset of chronic disabling conditions
while at the same time negotiating health-promoting activities. The central questions were, What is the essence of losing abilities among young Black men in
Western Societies? and What is the context of learning health promotion among Black men living with disabilities?
• Study Methods: Eleven self-identified Black men were screened for functional limitations and were subsequently interviewed twice. The goal of the interviews,
which were audio recorded and later transcribed, was to gain descriptions of how men remembered times of socially channeled incapacity. Interviews, which
were scheduled 2 to 4 weeks apart, lasted between 30 and 120 minutes. The interviewer maintained detailed field notes about the participants’ attire,
body language, facial expressions, and demeanor.
•
Key Findings: Four recurring themes described how masculinity couples with the male body to drive health promotion and health-related decisions: (1)
maintaining manhood, (2) economic constraints, (3) the “risk” of health care, and (4) health promotion. Here is an excerpt from an interview that illustrates the
third theme of perceived risks :”Most of us don’t wanna go to the doctor, man. We’re afraid of what they’re going to tell us. It’s almost like, man, we know,
we’re going to get diagnosed with something. So, oh, well, I might as well just live my life and just die not knowing there’s something.”
•
Conclusions: The researchers concluded that knowledge of the men’s experiences and perspectives contributes to the understanding of their personal
challenges and health needs.
•
Critical thinking exercise:
•
•
•
1) Answer questions 1-3 on slide 20.
2) Why do you think that the researchers audio recorded and transcribed their in-depth interviews with study participants?
3) Do you think it would have been appropriate for the researchers to conduct this study using quantitative research methods? Why or why not?
EXAMPLE 2 DISCUSSION
• Critical thinking exercise
• 1) Answer questions 1-3 on slide 20.
• 2) Why do you think that the researchers audio recorded and
:
transcribed their in-depth interviews with study participants?
• 3) Do you think it would have been appropriate for the researchers
to conduct this study using quantitative research methods? Why or
why not?
CONCLUSIONS AND QUESTIONS

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