+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

Description

Background

Student: Theresa

Age: 10

Grade: 4th

Scenario

Theresa rarely finishes her classwork. How could she? She’s up, she’s down, she’s wandering all around. Her

teacher, Ms. Lowe, seems always to be asking her to return to her desk and begin working. Theresa almost never

has her book or her pencil out, and during class transitions, she is the last to be ready. Ms. Lowe believes that

Theresa’s out-of-seat behavior and procrastination are contributing to her poor grades. She needs to assess the

situation and determine which of these behaviors is the most problematic.

Possible Strategies

Duration recording

Interval recording

Latency recording

Assignment:

1. Read the attached below Star Sheet Overview and the Star Sheets for the three strategies listed above.

2. Define each strategy. (6 points)

3. Describe why each strategy

IS or IS NOT

appropriate to measure Theresa’s out of seat behavior. (12 points)

4. Describe why each strategy

IS or IS NOT

appropriate to measure Theresa’s procrastinating behavior. (12 points)

Introduction
l
Measuring Behavior
Data collection is an objective method of measurement that can be used to shape and guide professional judgment.
It enables teachers to verify that their behavior management plans or instructional methods are producing the
desired outcomes and can also be used to identify and end the use of ineffective teaching practices based on
current fads or ideologies rather than on evidence. Teachers who do not use frequent measurement are vulnerable
to two types of preventable errors:
1. Continuing an ineffective behavioral or academic intervention when no real improvement in performance
has occurred
2. Discontinuing an effective behavioral or academic intervention based on a subjective evaluation
Operational Definitions of Behavior
Prior to data collection, educators should define the problem behavior (also known as the target behavior) and the
desired behavior (also known as the replacement behavior).
When a problem behavior is to be decreased, it is a good idea to select an incompatible replacement behavior.
For example, consider a case where a student’s problem behavior involves cursing when the teacher asks him a
question during class. The replacement behavior could be that the student will use appropriate language when
responding to a question during class.
Educators must operationally define the target and the replacement behaviors—this is, they must state them precisely
in observable and measurable terms. When a behavior is described in observable terms, it can be easily seen and
documented. When it is stated in measurable terms, the behavior can be quantified in some way (e.g., counted,
timed). Examples of good and poor operational definitions can be found in the table below.
Behavior
Observable?
Measurable?
8
8
8
8
Target Behavior: Anna waits until after the bell rings to place her pencil and
notebook on her desk.
✓
✓
Replacement behavior: Anna will have her pencil and notebook on her desk
when the bell rings.
✓
✓
Target behavior: Anna is not prepared when class begins
Replacement behavior: Anna will be prepared when she comes to class.

Welcome to the IRIS Center

nii
STAR Sheet
H
Measuring Behavior
Overview
 What a STAR Sheet is…
A STAR (STrategies And Resources) Sheet provides you with a description of a well-researched strategy that can
help you solve the case studies in this unit.
Data collection can serve as a way to gather evidence to help improve student behavior. Teachers should choose a
data collection method that provides the most accurate picture of student performance in the classroom. When they
select a data collection method, teachers can refer to the flowchart below:
Adapted from Alberto & Troutman (2006).
Regardless of the data collection system implemented, students sometimes behave differently if they know they are
being observed or when a new person is in the classroom. Some ways to reduce this reactivity are to observe other
students as well so that the target student does not feel like he or she is being singled out, to practice observing a
few times so that the student gets used to the observer before official data collection begins, and to try to be
discrete to reduce the likelihood that the student will notice that he or she is being observed.
Resources
Alberto , P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2006). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (7th ed.). Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson.

Welcome to the IRIS Center

H
11
STAR Sheet
H
Measuring Behavior
Interval Recording
 What a STAR Sheet is…
A STAR (STrategies And Resources) Sheet provides you with a description of a well-researched strategy that can
help you solve the case studies in this unit.
What It Is
Interval recording is a method of documenting whether a behavior occurred during a brief time periods (e.g., 10
seconds), refered to as intervals. At the end of each of these intervals, the observer records whether or not a
behavior has occurred. There are two types of interval recording:
• Whole-interval­ recording – yields data on the total duration of the behavior. When utilizing whole-interval
recording, an observer indicates whether the behavior occurred for the entire interval.
Example:
A student worked on an assignment for an entire thirty-second interval.
• Partial-interval recording – yields data on the proportion of the observation period that the behavior
occurred. When utilizing partial-interval recording, an observer indicates whether the behavior oc-curred at
any point during the time interval.
Example:
A student worked on an assignment for fifteen seconds of a thirty-second
interval.
What the Research and Resources Say
• Interval recording is used for continuous behaviors or for those behaviors whose onset and end are difficult
to distinguish because the behaviors occur at such high rates (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007; Special
Connections, n.d.).

Welcome to the IRIS Center

H
16
The table below highlights research using both whole- and partial-interval recording.
Behavior Studied
On task: Sitting at desk, working
on assignment quietly, asking for
help appropriately
Appropriate play with computers,
books, toys; passivity;
stereotypical behaviors
Off-task behavior
Type of Data
Measurement
Interval Length
Citation
Whole interval
30 second
Wood, Umbreit, Liaupsin, &
Gresham, 2007
Whole interval
5 second
Partial interval
5 second
Longano & Greer, 2006
Problem behaviors: Verbal refusal
statements, aggression, destruction
Partial interval
10 second
On task: Sitting in seat; eye
contact while talking to teacher
Partial interval
10 second
Teacher behaviors: Disciplinary
actions
Partial interval
10 second
Tincani, Ernsbarger, Harrison, & Heward, 2005
Peterson. Frieder, Smith,
Quigley, & Van Norman,
2009
Haydon, Mancil, & Van
Loan, 2009
Grskovic, Hall, Montgomery,
Vargas, Zentall, & Belfiore
2004
Tips for Implementation
• Consider using a prompt to signal the beginning and end of intervals, such as:
◦◦ Audio recording with beeps (headphones should be used!)
◦◦ Electronic device that vibrates
◦◦ Cellphone apps
• To use the interval recording method, use the steps outlined below:
1. Schedule the observation period at times during which the behavior is most likely to occur. Typically,
observations last between ten minutes and an hour, although it is more accu-rate and less
burdensome to use shorter periods.
2. Divide the observation period into equal intervals. These intervals are usually between five and fifteen
seconds long.
a. Whole interval: Record with an “x,” plus sign, or check-mark if the behavior occurred throughout
the duration of the interval (e.g., if using ten-second intervals, the behavior must last the entire ten
seconds). If the behavior did not occur for the entire interval, then record the nonoccurrence of
the behavior with a minus sign or 0.
b. Partial interval: Record with an “x,” plus sign, or check-mark if the behavior occurred at any
point during the interval (e.g., if using ten-second intervals, the behavior must occur at least once
during that particular interval). If the behavior did not occur during the interval, record the
nonoccurrence of the behavior with a minus sign or 0.
3. Count the number of intervals during which the behavior occurred. Divide this number by the total
number of intervals and multiply by 100 to determine the percentage of intervals during which the
behavior occurred.

Welcome to the IRIS Center

H
17
Interval Recording Form
Student: Merrit
Date: 9/26/XX
Class/ Teacher: Ms. Knowles
Observer: Mr. Fisk
Time/ Length of Observation: 10 mins.
Length of Interval: 10 secs.
Target Behavior: Merrit engages in off-task behavior (e.g., daydreaming, walks around
classroom during independent seatwork)
Codes: Example: √ or + for occurence of behavior; 0 or —
Interval
Behavior
3
3
1
2
O
3
O
4
Interval
16
17
18
19
Behavior
3
3
O
O
Interval
31
32
33
34
5
3
20
3
35
6
O
21
O
36
7
3
22
8
O
23
3
3
9
10
O
11
O
12
24
25
26
27
13
3
28
14
O
29
O
15
60
5
30

Welcome to the IRIS Center

30
.5
x 100
50
3
3
3
O
O
3
3
3
O
37
38
39
for non-occurence of behavior
Behavior
O
O
3
3
O
3
3
O
O
Interval
46
3
47
O
49
50
54
O
56
44
45
3
3
3
3
53
41
O
O
52
55
43
O
51
3
O
3
3
3
48
40
42
Behavior
O
O
O
57
O
58
59
3
60
O
TOTAL
%
30
50
H
18
• Only one behavior at a time should be observed when using whole-interval recording, due to the necessity
of observing during the entire interval. Multiple behaviors can be observed during partial-interval recording
because an observer only has to document whether a behavior occurred at all during an interval.
• If an observer is not sure whether the behavior occurred (e.g., a student walks behind a bookshelf or room
divider where he or she cannot be seen), the inability to observe should be documented on the observation
form, rather than attempting to guess what is occurring.
• Because whole-interval recording requires the observer’s constant attention, it can be difficult to observe and
record simultaneously. When using whole-interval recording, you might need to alternate intervals during
which you observe and record (e.g., observe for ten seconds, record for five second, observe for ten
seconds, record for five seconds). This gives you time to record your observation before the next
observation interval. (Note: Whole-interval recording is not practical if the teacher is the observer.
Keep In Mind
• Interval recording provides an estimate of behavior.
◦◦ Whole-interval recording typically underestimates the overall duration of the behavior because if a
behavior occurs—but not for the entire interval—it is not recorded or documented as occurring.
◦◦ Partial-interval recording typically overestimates the overall duration and underestimates the rate of
the behavior because if a behavior occurs multiple times during an interval, it is still documented as
occurring only once.
The graphic below illustrates this tendency.
0 1 0 0 0 0
WholeInterval
Recording
Duration
of the
Behavior 3 min.
8 min.
3 min.
3 min.
Time
0
5
10
behavior non-occurrence
15
10 min.
20
47%
3 min.
1 1 1 1 0 1
PartialInterval
Recording
17%
25
83%
min.
30
behavior occurrence
• If you need an accurate measure of the rate of behavior, event recording should be used. Interval recording
does not provide this type of data.
• The shorter the intervals, the more accurate the recording.

Welcome to the IRIS Center

H
19
Resources
Alberto , P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2006). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (7th ed.). Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson.
Baer, D. M., Harrison, R., Fradenburg, L., Petersen, D., & Milla, S. (2005). Some pragmatics in the valid and
reliable recording of directly observed behavior. Research on Social Work Practice, 15(6), 440-451.
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall:
Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Grskovic, J., Hall, A. M., Montgomery, D. J., Vargas, A. U., Zentall, S. S., & Belfiore, P. J. (2004). Reducing
time-out assignments for students with emotional/behavioral disorders in a self-contained classroom.
Journal of Behavioral Education, 13(1), 25–36.
Haydon, T., Mancil, G. R., & Van Loan, C. (2009). Using opportunities to respond in a general education
classroom: A case study. Education and Treatment of Children, 32(2), 267–278.
Longano, J. M., & Greer, R. D. (2006). The effects of stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure on acquisition of
conditioned reinforcement on observing and manipulating stimuli by young children with autism. Journal
of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 3(1), 62–80.
Peterson, S. M., Frieder, J. E., Smith, S. L., Quigley, S. P., & Van Norman, R. K. (2009). The effects of
varying quality and duration of reinforcement on mands to work, mands for break, and problem behavior. Education and Treatment of Children, 32(4), 605–630.
Special Connections. (n.d.). Partial interval recording. Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.
specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=assessment&section=main&
subsection=ddm/partial.
Special Connections. (n.d.). Whole interval recording. Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.
specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=assessment&section=main&
subsection=ddm/whole
Tincani, M., Ernsbarger, S. C., Harrison, T. J., & Heward, W. L. (2005). The effects of fast and slow-paced
teaching on participation, accuracy, and off-task behavior of children in the Language for Learning
program. Journal of Direct Instruction, 5, 97–109.
Wood, B. K., Umbreit, J., Liaupsin, C. J., & Gresham, F. M. (2007). A treatment integrity analysis of
function-based intervention. Education and Treatment of Children, 30(4), 105–120.

Welcome to the IRIS Center

H
20
STAR Sheet
H
Measuring Behavior
Duration Recording
 What a STAR Sheet is…
A STAR (STrategies And Resources) Sheet provides you with a description of a well-researched strategy that can
help you solve the case studies in this unit.
What it is…
Duration recording is a method of documenting how long a student engages in a specified behavior.
What the Research and Resources Say…
• Duration recording is appropriate for behaviors that have a distinct beginning and end or for those that
occur at such high rates that it would be difficult to get an accurate frequency count (e.g., number of taps
during pencil-, finger- or toe-tapping) (Alberto & Troutman, 2006; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007).
• The table below highlights research using duration recording.
Behavior Studied
Citation
On-task: Looking at the assignment, writing and asking questions
related to the topic, using assigned materials, and following teacher
directions
Ramsey, Jolivette, Patterson, &
Kennedy, 2010
Compliance to task demands
Wehby & Hollahan, 2000
Academic writing tasks
Athens, Vollmer, & St. Peter
Pipkin, 2007
Tips for Implementation
• Consider using a digital stopwatch to increase the accuracy of duration recording. A wall clock or
wristwatch can be used but may not be as accurate.
• To use the duration-recording method, follow the steps below:
1. When the behavior begins, start the stopwatch.
2. When the behavior ends, stop the stopwatch.
3. Record the length of time that the behavior occurred.
4. Repeat the above steps until the end of the observation period.
5. Calculate the total duration by adding the duration of each episode during the observation period.
(Note: Some digital stopwatches will automatically calculate the total time.)

Welcome to the IRIS Center

H
21
STAR Strategy
Duration Recording Form
Student: ___________________________ Date: ______________________________
Class/ Teacher:______________________ Observer:___________________________
Time/ Length of Observation: ______________________________________________
Behavior: ______________________________________________________________
Time Start
Time End
Duration
Example
(digital stopwatch) 00:00
04:27
4 minutes, 27 seconds
Example
(wall clock) 8:30
08:57
7 minutes
TOTAL/ AVERAGE
Additional comments:

Welcome to the IRIS Center

H
22
• Video or audio recordings may be used to collect duration data—and viewed or listened to later—if it is
impractical to collect duration data during class.
• Consider collecting frequency data for the target behavior in combination with duration data to provide a
more accurate picture of the student’s behavior. It is quite different for a student to engage in five episodes
of screaming that last ten minutes each than to engage in one episode that lasts fifty-five minutes.
Keep In Mind
• You might also want to report duration data in terms of the average duration per observation period (total
duration / number of occurrences) if the observation period is consistent. For example, the stu-dent has five
minutes at the end of a class each day to work on his homework. The student works on his homework for a
total of fifteen minutes across five days. To calculate the average duration the student worked on his
homework, divide fifteen minutes by five days. The average is three minutes.
• If the observation periods vary in length (e.g., the class has twenty minutes in the library the first week of the
month and fifteen minutes the second week of the month), the percentage of time the student engaged in the
behavior can be calculated by dividing the total minutes of the behavior’s duration (e.g., 20 minutes) by the
number of minutes in the observation period (e.g., 60 minutes) and multiply-ing by 100.
r
havio
e
b
n
ed i
ngag
e
s
ute
rved
l min
a
t
obse
o
T
s
e
ut
l min
a
t
o
T
20
33
= .3
X
%
= 33
0
10
t
targe
n
i
ed
ngag
e
e
f tim
o
%
33
vior
beha
60

Welcome to the IRIS Center

H
23
Resources
Alberto , P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2006). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (7th ed.). Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson.
Athens, E. S., Vollmer, T. R., & St. Peter Pipkin, C. C. (2007). Shaping academic task engagement with
percentile schedules. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 475–488.
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall:
Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Special Connections. (n.d.). Duration recording. Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.
specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=assessment&section=main&
subsection=ddm/duration
Ramsey, M. L., Jolivette, K., Patterson, D. P., & Kennedy, C. (2010). Using choice to increase time on task,
task completion, and accuracy for students with emotional/ behavior disorders in a residential facility.
Education and Treatment of Children, 33(1), 1–21.
Watson, T. S., & Steege, M. W. (2003). Conducting school-based functional behavior assessments: A
practitioner’s guide. Guilford Press: NY.
Wehby, J. H., & Hollahan, M. S. (2000). Effects of high-probability requests on the latency to initiate
academic tasks. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 259–262.

Welcome to the IRIS Center

H
24
STAR Sheet
H
Measuring Behavior
Latency Recording
 What a STAR Sheet is…
A STAR (STrategies And Resources) Sheet provides you with a description of a well-researched strategy that can
help you solve the case studies in this unit.
What It Is
Latency recording is a method of documenting the time between when a direction is given and when the student
complies.
What the Research and Resources Say
• Latency recording is appropriate when the teacher wants to measure how much time passes between when
an instruction, cue, or prompt is provided and the behavior begins or ends (Cooper, Heron, & Heward,
2007; Special Connections, n.d.).
• The table below highlights research using latency recording.
Behavior studied
Citation
Time delay between a statement/question and the student’s
attempt to communicate
Mancil, Conroy, Nakao, & Alter, 2006
Lapse between instructions and compliance with task
Lee et al., 2006
Time delay between being shown a word and pronouncing it
Bosman, Gompel, Vervloed, & Van Bon,
2006
Tips for Implementation
• Consider using a digital stopwatch to increase the accuracy of latency recording. A wall clock or wrist
watch can be used if a digital stopwatch is unavailable.
• To use the latency recording method, follow the steps below:
1. Start the stopwatch when the prompt, directive, or instruction is provided.
2. Stop the stopwatch when student complies.
3. Record the number of seconds or minutes that elapsed between the end of the direction and the onset
of the compliance.
4. Repeat the above steps until the end of the observation period.
5. Calculate the average latency of the behavior by dividing the total latency (e.g., 60 seconds) by the
number of occurences (e.g., 3 directions).

Welcome to the IRIS Center

H
25
Latency Recording Form
Student: ____________________________ Date: _______________________________
Class/ Teacher:_______________________ Observer:____________________________
Time/ Length of Observation: _______________________________________________
Behavior: _______________________________________________________________
Time of request or cue
Time behavior was
initiated
Latency
Examples
(regular clock) 11: 30 am
(digital stopwatch) 00:00
11:35 am
05:49
5 minutes
5 minutes, 49 seconds
ncy
TOTAL/AVERAGE
e
l Lat
Tota
of
ber
Num ences
Additional comments:
ur
Occ
60
0
= 2
3
.
secs
is 20
y
c
ten
a
age l
Aver

Welcome to the IRIS Center

H
26
Keep In Mind
• When calculating average latency, it is easier to convert minutes to seconds. After you’ve performed your
calculations, you can convert the data back into minutes if you prefer.
Resources
Bosman, A., Gompel, M., Vervloed, M., & Van Bon, W. (2006). Low vision affects the reading process
quantitatively but not qualitatively. Journal of Special Education, 39(4), 208–219.
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall:
Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Lee, D. L., Belfiore, P. J., Ferko, D., Hua, Y., Carranza, M., & Hildebrand, K. (2006). Using pre and post
low-p latency to assess behavioral momentum: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Behavioral
Education, 15, 203–214.
Mancil, G. R., Conroy, M. A., Nakao, T., & Alter, P. J. (2006). Functional communication training in the
natural environment: A pilot investigation with a young child with autism spectrum disorder. Education
and Treatmentof Children, 29(4), 615–633.
Special Connections. (n.d.). Latency recording. Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=assessment&section=main&subsection=ddm/
latency

Welcome to the IRIS Center

H
27

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

  
error: Content is protected !!