+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

The field of psychology includes five major perspectives. These broad perspectives emphasize different aspects of behavior and mental processes.

DIRECTIONS:

List and discuss each of the five psychological perspectives used today.

Include which perspective you feel is most closely aligned with your views on behavior. Explain your answer.

Include which perspective you feel is most contrasting to your views on behavior. Explain your answer.

Robert S. Feldman | Thirteen Edition
Essentials of
Understanding
Psychology
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 1
Introduction to Psychology
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
MODULE 1 – Psychologists at Work
What is the science of psychology?
What are the major specialties in the field of
psychology?
Where do psychologists work?
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-3
Introduction
Psychology: Scientific study of behavior and mental
processes
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-4
Subfields of Psychology (1)
Behavioral
Genetics
Behavioral
Neuroscience
Clinical
Psychology
Clinical
Neuropsychology
Cognitive
Psychology
Counseling
Psychology
Cross-cultural
Psychology
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-5
Subfields of Psychology (2)
Developmental
Psychology
Educational
Psychology
Environmental
Psychology
Evolutionary
Psychology
Experimental
Psychology
Forensic
Psychology
Health
Psychology
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-6
Subfields of Psychology (3)
Industrial/
organizational
Psychology
Personality
Psychology
Program
Evaluation
Psychology of
Women
School
Psychology
Social Psychology
Sport Psychology
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-7
Biological Foundations of Behavior
People are biological organisms
Behavioral neuroscience
• Subfield of psychology
• Focuses on how the brain, nervous system, and other biological
aspects of the body, determine behavior
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-8
How do People Sense, Perceive, Learn, and
Think About the World?
Experimental psychology
• Studies the processes of sensing, perceiving,
learning, and thinking about the world
• Subspecialty
• Cognitive psychology – Focuses on higher mental
processes, such as thinking, memory, and problemsolving
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-9
What are the Sources of Change and Stability in
Behavior Across the Life Span?
Developmental psychology
• Studies how people grow and change from the moment of
conception through death
Personality psychology
• Focuses on consistency in people’s behavior over time and
traits that differentiate one person from another
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-10
How do Psychological Factors Affect
Physical and Mental Health?
Health psychology
• Explores the relationship between psychological factors and
physical ailments or disease
Clinical psychology
• Deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of
psychological disorders
Counseling psychology
• Focuses primarily on educational, social, and career
adjustment problems
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-11
How do our Social Networks Affect
Behavior?
Social psychology
• Study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and
actions are affected by others
Cross-cultural psychology
• Investigates the similarities and differences in
psychological functioning in and across various
cultures and ethnic groups
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-12
Expanding Psychology’s Frontiers (1)
Evolutionary psychology
• Considers how behavior is influenced by our
genetic inheritance from our ancestors
• Stems from Darwin’s On the Origin of Species
Behavioral genetics
• Seeks to understand:
• How we might inherit certain behavioral traits
• How the environment influences whether we
actually display such traits
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-13
Expanding Psychology’s Frontiers (2)
Clinical neuropsychology
• Unites the areas of neuroscience and clinical
psychology
• Focuses on the origin of psychological disorders in
biological factors
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-14
Figure 3: The Breakdown of Where U.S. Psychologists Work
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-15
Psychologists: A Portrait
Historically, women actively discouraged from
becoming psychologists
• Women now outnumber men in the field
Consequences of racial and ethnic minority
underrepresentation among psychologists:
• Field is diminished by lack of diverse perspectives
and talents
• Deters new members from entering the field
• Minorities possibly underserved: people tend to
prefer to receive therapy from their own ethnic
group
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-16
The Education and Careers for a
Psychologist
Education
• PhD – Doctor of philosophy
• PsyD – Doctor of psychology
• Master’s degree
• Bachelor’s degree
Careers
• Administrator
• Serving as a counselor
• Providing direct care
• Education
• Business
• Government
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-17
MODULE 2 – A Science Evolves: The Past,
the Present, and the Future
What are the origins of psychology?
What are the major approaches in contemporary
psychology?
What are psychology’s key issues and
controversies?
What is the future of psychology likely to hold?
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-18
The Roots of Psychology (1)
Structuralism
• Wilhelm Wundt
• Focused on uncovering the fundamental mental
components of consciousness, thinking, and other
kinds of mental states and activities
• Introspection: Procedure used to study the
structure of the mind in which subjects are asked
to describe in detail what they are experiencing
when they are exposed to a stimulus
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-19
The Roots of Psychology (2)
Criticisms of structuralism
• Introspection was not a scientific technique
• People had difficulty describing some kinds of
inner experiences
These drawbacks led to the development of
newer approaches
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-20
The Roots of Psychology (3)
Functionalism
• William James
• Concentrated on what the mind does and the role
of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their
environments
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-21
The Roots of Psychology (4)
Gestalt psychology
• Hermann Ebbinghaus, Max Wertheimer, and
others
• Focuses on the organization of perception and
thinking in a whole sense rather than on the
individual elements of perception
• “The whole is different from the sum of its parts”
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-22
Women in Psychology: Founding
Mothers (1)
Margaret Floy Washburn
• First woman to receive a doctorate in psychology
• Worked on animal behavior
Leta Stetter Hollingworth
• One of the first psychologists to focus on child
development and on women’s issues
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-23
Women in Psychology: Founding
Mothers (2)
Mary Calkins
• Studied memory
• First female president of the American
Psychological Association
Karen Horney
• Focused on the social and cultural factors behind
personality
• Founded the American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-24
Women in Psychology: Founding
Mothers (3)
June Etta Downey
• Spearheaded the study of personality traits
• First woman to head a psychology department at
a state university
Anna Freud
• Notable contributions to the treatment of
abnormal behavior
• Sigmund Freud’s daughter
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-25
Women in Psychology: Founding
Mothers (4)
Mamie Phipps Clark
• Pioneered work on how children of color grew to
recognize racial differences
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-26
(Neuroscience): ©Science Photo Library/Alamy Stock Photo; (Cognitive): ©David Sanger/The Image Bank/Getty Images; (Behavioral): ©Ariel Skelley/Blend Images;
(Humanistic):©White Packert/The Image Bank/Getty lmages;(Psychodynamic):©Athanasia Nomikou/Shutterstock
Figure 2: Major Perspectives of Psychology
Access the text alternative for these images
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-27
The Neuroscience Perspective: Blood,
Sweat, and Fears
Neuroscience perspective: Views behavior from the
perspective of the brain, the nervous system, and other
biological functions
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-28
The Psychodynamic Perspective:
Understanding the Inner Person
Psychodynamic perspective
• Sigmund Freud
• Behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces
and conflicts over which the individual has little
control
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-29
The Behavioral Perspective: Observing
the Outer Person
Behavioral perspective
• John B. Watson
• B. F. Skinner
• Suggests that observable, measurable behavior
should be the focus of study
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-30
The Cognitive Perspective: Identifying the
Roots of Understanding
Cognitive perspective
• Focuses on how people think, understand, and know
about the world
• Information processing
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-31
The Humanistic Perspective: The Unique
Qualities of the Human Species
Humanistic perspective
• Carl Rogers
• Abraham Maslow
• Suggests individuals naturally strive to grow,
develop, and be in control of their lives and
behavior
• Seek and reach fulfillment
• Emphasis is on free will
• Contrasts to determinism
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-32
Issue
Neuroscience
Cognitive
Behavioral
Humanistic
Psychodynamic
Nature (heredity) versus nurture
(environment)
Nature
(heredity)
Both
Nurture
(environment)
Nurture
(environment)
Nature (heredity)
Conscious versus unconscious
determinants of behavior
Unconscious
Both
Conscious
Conscious
Unconscious
Observable behavior versus
internal mental processes
Internal
emphasis
Internal
emphasis
Observable
emphasis
Internal
emphasis
Internal emphasis
Free will versus determinism
Determinism
Free will
Determinism
Free will
Determinism
Individual differences versus
universal principles
Universal
emphasis
Individual
emphasis
Both
Individual
emphasis
Universal emphasis
©Science Photo Library/Alamy Stock Photo; (Congnitive): ©David Sanger/The Image Bank/Getty Images; (Behavioral): ©Ariel Skelley/Blend
Images; (Humanistic): ©White Packert/The Image Bank/Getty Images; (Psychodynamic): ©Athanasia Nomikou/Shutterstock
Figure 3: Key Issues in Psychology
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-33
Psychology’s Key Issues and
Controversies (1)
Nature: genetically determined, inherited
Nurture: influences of the physical and social
environments in which a person is raised
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-34
Psychology’s Key Issues and
Controversies (2)
Conscious: forces of which we are fully aware
Unconscious: forces that are not accessible to
the conscious mind
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-35
Psychology’s Key Issues and
Controversies (3)
Observable behavior: objective behavior that
can be seen by outside observers
Internal mental processes: unseen processes
involved in thinking
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-36
Psychology’s Key Issues and
Controversies (4)
Free will: Idea that behavior is caused primarily
by choices that are made freely by the individual
Determinism: Idea that people’s behavior is
produced primarily by factors outside of their
willful control
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-37
Psychology’s Key Issues and
Controversies (5)
Individual differences: a person’s unique and
special qualities
Universal principles: factors that underlie the
behavior of all humans
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-38
Psychology’s Future
Psychology will become increasingly specialized
Neuroscientific approaches will likely influence
other branches of psychology
Influence on issues of public interest will grow
Psychologists will follow increasingly strict ethical
and moral guidelines
Public’s view of psychology will become more
informed
Issues of diversity will become more important
to psychologists
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-39
MODULE 3 – Research in
Psychology
What is the scientific method?
What role do theories and hypotheses play in
psychological research?
What research methods do psychologists use?
How do psychologists establish cause-and-effect
relationships in research studies?
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-40
The Scientific Method
Approach through which psychologists
systematically acquire knowledge and
understanding about behavior and other
phenomena of interest
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-41
Figure 1: The Scientific Method
Access the text alternative for these images
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-42
Theories
Broad explanations and predictions concerning
phenomena of interest
• Provide a framework for understanding the
relationships among a set of unorganized facts or
principles
• Example: diffusion of responsibility
• With more bystanders in an emergency situation, the
smaller the share of the responsibility each person feels
• Developed by Bibb Latané and John Darley
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-43
Hypotheses: Crafting Testable
Predictions (1)
Hypothesis: A prediction, stemming from a theory, stated
in a way that allows it to be tested
Operational definition: Translation of a hypothesis
into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and
observed
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-44
Hypotheses: Crafting Testable
Predictions (2)
Psychologists rely on formal theories and
hypotheses for many reasons
• Permits them to place bits of observations within
a coherent framework
• Help psychologists to make deductions about
unexplained phenomena
• Develop ideas for future investigation
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-45
Psychological Research
Research
• Systematic inquiry aimed at the discovery of new
knowledge
• Key to understanding the accuracy of hypotheses
and theories
Descriptive research
• Systematic investigation of a person, group, or
pattern of behavior
• Several types of descriptive research
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-46
Archival Research
Existing data are examined to test a hypothesis
• Census documents
• College records
• Online databases
• Newspaper clippings
Advantage – Inexpensive
Disadvantage – Problems with using existing data
• Data may not be in a form that allows the
researcher to test a hypothesis fully
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-47
Naturalistic Observation
Investigator observes some naturally occurring
behavior
• Does not make a change in the situation
Advantage – Sample of what people do in their
natural habitat
Disadvantage – Inability to control any factors of
interest
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-48
Survey Research
People are asked a series of questions about
their behavior, thoughts, or attitudes
Advantage – can infer how a larger group would
respond, if a representative sample is surveyed
Disadvantage – results will be inconsequential if the
sample is not representative
• Survey respondents may not want to admit to
holding socially undesirable attitudes
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-49
The Case Study
In-depth, intensive investigation of an individual
or a small group of people
• Often include psychological testing
Advantage – can use insights to improve our
understanding of people in general
Disadvantage – unique individuals make it
impossible for generalizations
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-50
Correlational Research (1)
Research in which the relationship between two
sets of variables is examined to determine:
• Whether they are associated, or correlated
• Variables: Behaviors, events, or other
characteristics that can change, or vary, in some
way
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-51
Correlational Research (2)
Correlation coefficient – Represents the strength and
direction of the relationship between two variables
• Value can range from +1.00 to −1.00
• Positive – As the value of one variable increases, so will
the value of the other variable
• Negative – As the value of one variable increases, value
of the other variable will decrease
• Lack of relationship – Value near 0 indicates no
relationship
Disadvantage – Inability to demonstrate cause-andeffect relationships
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-52

Figure 2: Aggression and TV Viewing
Access the text alternative for these images
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-53
Experimental Research (1)
Experiment: Investigation of the relationship
between two (or more) variables by:
• Producing a change in one variable in a situation
and observing the effects on the second variable
Experimental manipulation: Change that an
experimenter deliberately produces in a
situation
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-54
Experimental Research (2)
Experimental groups and control groups
• Treatment
• Manipulation implemented by the experimenter
• Experimental group
• Any group participating in an experiment that
receives a treatment
• Control group
• Group participating in an experiment that receives
no treatment
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-55
Experimental Research (3)
Independent variable: The variable that is manipulated
by an experimenter
Dependent variable: The variable that is measured
• Expected to change as a result of changes in the
independent variable
• Dependent on the actions of the research participants
that are taking part in the experiment
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-56
Experimental Research (4)
Random assignment to condition: Participants are
assigned to different experimental groups or conditions on the
basis of chance
Significant outcome: Statistically meaningful results
• Makes it possible for researchers to feel confident that they have
confirmed their hypotheses
Replicated research: Research that is repeated, in other
settings and with other groups of participants, to increase
confidence in prior findings
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-57
Source: Based on a study by Kaplan & Manuck, 1989.
Figure 3: True Experiments
Access the text alternative for these images
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-58
MODULE 4 – Critical Research
Issues
What major issues confront psychologists
conducting research?
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-59
The Ethics of Research (1)
Guidelines that protect participants
• Protection of participants from physical and mental harm
• Right of participants to privacy regarding their behavior
• Assurance that participation in research is completely voluntary
• Necessity of informing participants about the nature of
procedures before their participation in the experiment
• All experiments must be reviewed by an independent panel
before being conducted
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-60
The Ethics of Research (2)
Informed consent: A document signed by participants
• Affirms that they have been told about the basic outlines of the
study and are aware of what their participation will involve
Debriefing: Participants receive an explanation of the study
and the procedures that were involved
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-61
Should Animals Be Used in Research?
Researchers must make every effort to minimize
discomfort, illness, and pain
Procedures that subject animals to distress are
permitted:

• When an alternative procedure is unavailable
• When the research is justified by its prospective value
Provides greater experimental control over nonhumans
Procedures that might not be possible with people can
be carried out
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-62
Threats to Experimental Validity:
Diversity in Research Subjects
Most research uses Intro Psych students
• WEIRD (Western, Educated, Rich, Democratic culture)
Findings may not generalize to other types of people
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-63
Threats to Experimental Validity:
Avoiding Experimental Bias (1)
Experimental bias: Factors that distort the way
the independent variable affects the dependent
variable
• Experimenter expectations
• Participant expectations
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-64
Threats to Experimental Validity:
Avoiding Experimental Bias (2)
Placebo: A false treatment without any
significant chemical properties
Double-blind procedure: Keeping experimenter
and participant blind to the nature of the drug
administered
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1-65
Robert S. Feldman | Thirteenth Edition
Essentials of
Understanding
Psychology
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 9
Development
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
MODULE 27: Nature and Nurture: The
Enduring Developmental Issue
How do psychologists study the degree to which development
is an interaction of hereditary and environmental factors?
What is the nature of development before birth?
What factors affect a child during the mother’s pregnancy?
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-3
Developmental Psychology
Study of the patterns of growth and change that occur
throughout life
• Nature-nurture issue: Degree to which environment and heredity
influence behavior
• Behavioral geneticists – Study the effects of heredity on behavior
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-4
Physical
Characteristics
Intellectual
Characteristics
Height
Weight
Obesity
Tone of voice
Blood pressure
Tooth decay
Athletic ability
Firmness of handshake
Age of death
Activity level
Memory
Intelligence
Age of language acquisition
Reading disability
Mental retardation
Emotional
Characteristics
and Disorders
Shyness
Extraversion
Emotionality
Neuroticism
Schizophrenia
Anxiety
Alcoholism
Figure 1: Characteristics Influenced Significantly by Genetic Factors
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-5
Determining the Relative Influence
of Nature and Nurture
Genetically control laboratory animals and place in varied
environments
• Findings from animal research provide important information
that cannot be obtained for ethical reasons by using human
participants
Identical twins: Twins who are genetically identical
• Source of information about the relative effects of genetic and
environmental factors
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-6
Developmental Research
Techniques
Cross-sectional research: Compares people of different ages
at the same point in time
• Assess differences among groups of people
Longitudinal research: Investigates behavior as participants
age
• Assess change in behavior over time
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-7
Prenatal Development:
Conception to Birth (1)
Chromosomes: Rod-shaped structures that contain all basic
hereditary information
• Genes: Parts of the chromosomes through which genetic
information is transmitted
• Composed of sequences of DNA
• Control the development of systems of the human species – Heart,
circulatory system, brain, lungs, and so forth
• Shape the characteristics that make each human unique
• Determines child’s sex by a particular combination
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-8
Prenatal Development:
Conception to Birth (2)
Human genome project
• Scientists mapped the specific location and sequence of every
human gene
Revolutionized health care because:
• Scientists identified the particular genes responsible for
genetically caused disorders
Led to the:
• Identification of risk factors in children
• Development of new treatments for physical and psychological
disorders
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-9
The Earliest Development (1)
Zygote: New cell formed by the union of an egg and sperm
• First 2 weeks are known as the germinal period
Embryo: Developed zygote that has a heart, a brain, and other
organs
• Embryonic period – Entered by the developing individual, two
weeks after conception
• Organs are clearly recognizable, despite being at a primitive stage
of development
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-10
The Earliest Development (2)
Fetus: Developing individual from 8 weeks after conception
until birth
• Fetal period
• Movements become strong enough for the mother to sense them
• Age of viability: Point at which a fetus can survive if born
prematurely
• Prenatal development involves passing through several sensitive
periods
• Time when organisms are susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-11
The Earliest Development (3)
Preterm infants – Born before week 38
• Unable to develop fully in utero, infants are at higher risk for
illness, future problems, and death
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-12
Genetic Influences on the Fetus
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Sickle-cell anemia
Tay-Sachs disease
Down syndrome
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-13
Prenatal Environmental Influences
Teratogens: Environmental agents such as a drug, chemical,
virus, or other factor that produce a birth defect
• Mother’s nutrition
• Mother’s illness
• Mother’s emotional state
• Mother’s alcohol and/or drug use, including nicotine
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-14
Environmental Factor
Possible Effect on Prenatal Development
Rubella (German measles) Blindness, deafness, heart abnormalities, stillbirth
Syphilis
Intellectual disability, physical deformities, maternal miscarriage
Addictive drugs
Low birth weight, addiction of infant to drug, with possible death after birth
from withdrawal
Nicotine
Premature birth, low birth weight and length
Alcohol
Intellectual disability, lower-than-average birth weight, small head, limb
deformities
Radiation from X-rays
Physical deformities, intellectual disability
Inadequate diet
Reduction in growth of brain, smaller-than-average weight and length at
birth
Mother’s age—younger
than 18 at birth of child
Premature birth, increased incidence of Down syndrome
Mother’s age—older than Increased incidence of Down syndrome
35 at birth of child
DES (diethylstilbestrol)
Reproductive difficulties and increased incidence of genital cancer in children
of mothers who were given DES during pregnancy to prevent miscarriage
AIDS
Possible spread of AIDS virus to infant; facial deformities; growth failure
Accutane
Intellectual disability and physical deformities
Figure 3: Environmental Factors and Development
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-15
Alternative Paths to Conception
In Virto Fertilization (IVF)
Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT)
Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT)
Surrogacy
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-16
MODULE 28: Infancy and
Childhood
What are the major competencies of newborns?
What are the milestones of physical and social development
during childhood?
How does cognitive development proceed during childhood?
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-17
The Extraordinary Newborn (1)
Neonate: Newborn child
Factors causing neonate’s strange appearance
• Squeezing of the incompletely formed bones during trip through
the mother’s birth canal
• Vernix – White greasy covering, for protection before birth
• Lanugo – Soft fuzz, over the entire body
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-18
The Extraordinary Newborn (2)
Reflexes: Unlearned, involuntary responses that occur
automatically in the presence of certain stimuli
• Rooting reflex
• Sucking reflex
• Gag reflex
• Startle reflex
• Babinski reflex
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-19
Source: Adapted from Frankenburg et al., 1992.
Figure 1: Voluntary Movement Milestones
Access the text alternative for these images
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-20
Development of the Senses: Taking
in the World
Habituation: Decrease in the response to a stimulus that
occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus
Visual abilities grow rapidly after birth
Distinguishing different sounds
• Recognizes mother’s voice at the age of 3 days
Distinguishing taste and smell
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-21
Infancy Through Childhood
Physical development
• Children gain triple their birth weight during first year of life
• Increase in height by half during first year of life
• From age 3 to adolescence, average growth of 5 pounds and 3
inches per year
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-22
Development of Social Behavior:
Taking on the World (1)
Attachment: Positive emotional bond that develops between
a child and a particular individual
Konrad Lorenz
• Focused on newborn goslings
• Labeled a process called imprinting
• Imprinting – Behavior that takes place during a critical period and
involves attachment to the first moving object observed
Harry Harlow’s study on attachment
• Wire monkey versus cloth monkey
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-23
Development of Social Behavior:
Taking on the World (2)
Assessing attachment
• Ainsworth strange situation: involving a child and caregiver
(typically mother)
• Securely attached children
• Avoidant children
• Ambivalent children
• Disorganized-disoriented children
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-24
Development of Social Behavior:
Taking on the World (3)
Father’s role
• Number of fathers who are primary caregivers for their children
has grown significantly
• Engage in more physical, rough-and-tumble activities
• Nature of attachment to children can be similar to that of
mother’s
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-25
Development of Social Behavior:
Taking on the World (4)
Social relationships with peers
• Helps children interpret the meaning of others’ behavior and
develop the capacity to respond appropriately
• Helps children learn physical and emotional self-control
• Provides children with opportunities for social interaction,
enhancing their social development
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-26
Development of Social Behavior:
Taking on the World (5)
Consequences of child care outside the home
• High-quality care centers can positively impact the child
• Children in child care are more considerate and sociable than
other children
• Children in child care interact more positively with teachers
• Intellectually more stimulating
• Low-quality child care provides little or no gain and may even
hinder development
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-27
Development of Social Behavior:
Taking on the World (6)
Parenting styles and social development
• Authoritarian parents: Parents who are rigid and punitive and
value unquestioning obedience from their children
• Permissive parents: Parents who give their children relaxed or
inconsistent direction and, although they are warm, require little
of them
• Authoritative parents: Parents who are firm, set clear limits,
reason with their children, and explain things to them
• Uninvolved parents: Parents who show little interest in their
children and are emotionally detached
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-28
Type of Behavior Produced in
Child
Parenting Style
Parent Behavior
Authoritarian
Rigid, punitive, strict standards (example:
“If you don’t clean your room, I’m going to
take away your iPod for good and ground
you.”)
Unsociable, unfriendly,
withdrawn
Permissive
Lax, inconsistent, undemanding (example:
“It might be good to clean your room, but
I guess it can wait.”)
Immature, moody, dependent,
low self-control
Authoritative
Firm, sets limits and goals, uses reasoning,
encourages independence (example:
“You’ll need to clean your room before we
can go out to the restaurant. As soon as
you finish, we’ll leave.”)
Good social skills, likable, selfreliant, independent
Uninvolved
Detached emotionally, sees role only as
providing food, clothing, and shelter
(example: “I couldn’t care less if your
room is a pigsty.”)
Indifferent, rejecting behavior
Source: © Gary John Norman/Getty Images RF
Figure 7: Parenting Styles
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
12-29
Development of Social Behavior:
Taking on the World (8)
Temperament: Basic, innate characteristic way of responding
and behavioral style
Resilience – Ability to overcome circumstances that place
children at high risk for psychological or even physical harm
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-30
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial
Development (1)
Psychosocial development: Development of individuals’
interactions and understanding of each other and of their
knowledge and understanding of themselves as members of
society
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-31
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial
Development (2)
Trust-versus-mistrust stage
• Occurring from birth to age 1½ years
• Develop feelings of trust or lack of trust
Autonomy-versus-shame-and-doubt stage
• Occurring during 1½ to 3 years of age
• Develop independence or self-doubt
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-32
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial
Development (3)
Initiative-versus-guilt stage
• Occurring between 3 to 6 years of age
• Experiences conflict between independence of
action and negative results of that action
Industry-versus-inferiority stage
• Occurring between 6 to 12 years of age
• Develop positive social interactions
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-33
Cognitive Development: Children’s
Thinking About the World (1)
The process by which a child’s understanding of the world
changes as a function of age and experience
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
• Sensorimotor stage: Stage from birth to 2 years, during which a
child has little competence in representing the environment by
using images, language, or other symbols
• Object permanence: Awareness that objects continue to exist even if
they are out of sight
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-34
Cognitive Development: Children’s
Thinking About the World (2)
Preoperational stage: Period from 2 to 7 years of age that is
characterized by language development
• Egocentric thought: Way of thinking in which a child views the world
entirely from his or her own perspective
• Principle of conservation: Knowledge that quantity is unrelated to
the arrangement and physical appearance of objects
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-35
Cognitive Development: Children’s
Thinking About the World (3)
Concrete operational stage: Period from 7 to 12 years of age that
is characterized by logical thought and a loss of egocentrism
Formal operational stage: Period from age 12 to adulthood that
is characterized by abstract thought
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-36
Cognitive Stage
Approximate Age Range
Major Characteristics
Sensorimotor
Birth—2 years
Development of object permanence,
development of motor skills, little or no
capacity for symbolic representation
Preoperational
2 to 7 years
Development of language and symbolic
thinking, egocentric thinking
Concrete operational
7 to 12 years
Development of conservation, mastery of
concept of reversibility
Formal operational
12 years-adulthood
Development of logical and abstract
thinking
Source: © Farrell Grehan/Corbis
Figure 8: Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
12-37
Information-Processing
Approaches (1)
The way in which people take in, use, and store information
Metacognition: An awareness and understanding of one’s
own cognitive processes
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-38
Information-Processing
Approaches (2)
Vygotsky’s view of cognitive development – considering
culture
• Cognitive development occurs as a consequence of social
interactions in which children work with others to jointly solve
problems
• Zone of proximal development (ZPD): Gap between what children
already are able to accomplish on their own and what they are not
quite ready to do by themselves
• Scaffolding – Provides support for learning
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-39
MODULE 29: Adolescence:
Becoming an Adult
What major physical, social, and cognitive transitions
characterize adolescence?
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-40
Adolescence: Becoming an Adult
Developmental stage between childhood and adulthood
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-41
Physical Development: The
Changing Adolescent
Puberty: Period at which maturation of the sexual organs
occurs beginning at about age:
• 11 or 12 years for girls
• Menstruation
• 13 or 14 years for boys
• Spermarche
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-42
Source: Adapted from Tanner, 1978.
Figure 1: The Range of Ages During Which
Major Sexual Changes Occur
Access the text alternative for these images
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-43
Moral and Cognitive Development:
Distinguishing Right from Wrong
Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
• Suggests that the changes in moral reasoning can be understood
as a three-level sequence
• Preconventional morality
• Conventional morality
• Postconventional morality
• Difficulty with the theory – Pertains to judgments, not moral
behavior
• Moral development in women
• Difference exists in the way each gender views moral behavior
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-44
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial
Development: The Search for Identity (1)
Identity-versus-role-confusion stage
• Occurring in adolescence
• Major testing to determine one’s unique qualities
Intimacy-versus-isolation stage
• Occurring in early adulthood
• Focused on developing close relationships
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-45
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial
Development: The Search for Identity (2)
Identity: Distinguishing character of the individual:
• Who each of us is, what our roles are, and what we are capable of
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-46
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial
Development: The Search for Identity (3)
Generativity-versus-stagnation stage
• Occurring in middle adulthood
• Take stock of our contributions to family and
society
Ego-integrity-versus-despair stage
• Occurring in late adulthood
• Focused on review of life’s accomplishments and
failures
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-47
Stage
Approximate Age
Positive Outcomes
Negative Outcomes
1. Trust-versus-mistrust
Birth-1½ years
Feelings of trust from
environmental support
Fear and concern regarding
others
2. Autonomy-versus-shameand-doubt
1½ to 3 years
Self-sufficiency if exploration
is encouraged
Doubts about self, lack of
independence
3. Initiative-versus-guilt
3 to 6 years
Discovery of ways to initiate
actions
Guilt from actions and
thoughts
4. Industry-versus-inferiority
6 to 12 years
Development of sense of
competence
Feelings of inferiority, no
sense of mastery
5. Identity-versus-roleConfusion
Adolescence
Awareness of uniqueness of
self, knowledge of role to be
followed
Inability to identify
appropriate roles in life
6. Intimacy-versus-isolation
Early adulthood
Development of loving,
sexual relationships and close
friendships
Fear of relationships with
others
7. Generativity-versusstagnation
Middle adulthood
Sense of contribution to
continuity of life
Trivialization of one’s
activities
8. Ego-integrity-versus-despair
Late adulthood
Sense of unity in life’s
accomplishments
Regret over lost
opportunities of life
Source: © Jon Erikson/Science Source
Figure 3: Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development:
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
12-48
Stormy Adolescence: Myth or
Reality?
Adolescent egocentrism – State of self-absorption in which a
teenager views the world from his own point of view
Personal fables – Belief that one’s experience is unique,
exceptional, and shared by no one else
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-49
Social Development: Finding
Oneself in a Social World
Adolescent suicide: Third leading cause of death for
adolescents
• Warning signs
• School problems
• Frequent incidents of self-destructive behavior
• Loss of appetite or excessive eating
• Withdrawal from friends and peers
• Sleeping problems
• Signs of depression, tearfulness, or overt indications of psychological
difficulties
• Preoccupation with death
• Putting affairs in order
• Explicit announcement of suicidal thoughts
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-50
Module 30: Adulthood
What are the principal kinds of physical, social, and
intellectual changes that occur in early and middle adulthood,
and what are their causes?
How does the reality of late adulthood differ from the
stereotypes about that period?
How can we adjust to death?
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-51
Adulthood
Emerging adulthood: Period beginning in the late teenage
years and extending into the mid-twenties
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-52
Physical Development: The Peak of
Health
For most people, early adulthood marks the peak of physical
health
• Around age 25, the body becomes slightly less efficient and more
susceptible to disease
Menopause: Women stop menstruating and are no longer
fertile
• Treated through hormone therapy (HT) with hormones estrogen
and progesterone
• Risks associated with HT
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-53
Social Development: Working at
Life
People typically launch themselves into careers, marriage, and
families during this period
Midlife transition – Period when people may begin to question
their lives
• Midlife crisis
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-54
Marriage, Children, and Divorce:
Family Ties
Changes in marriage and divorce trends have doubled the
number of single-parent households in the United States over
the last two decades
Probability of divorce
Economic and emotional consequences for the single-parent
households
• Often economically less well off
• Children: parents’ divorce may result in obstacles establishing
close relationships later in life
• Children: may blame themselves, or feel pressure to take sides
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-55
Changing Roles of Men and
Women: The Time of Their Lives
More women act simultaneously as wives, mothers, and wage
earners
Women’s “second shift”
• Additional work performed by women with a career and home
responsibilities
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-56
Physical Changes in Late Adulthood:
The Aging Body
Genetic preprogramming theories of aging
• Suggest that human cells have a built-in time limit to their
reproduction and that they are no longer able to divide after a
certain time
Wear-and-tear theories of aging
• Suggest that the mechanical functions of the body simply stop
working efficiently
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-57
Cognitive Changes: Thinking About – and
During – Late Adulthood
Fluid intelligence – Information-processing skills such as
memory, calculations, and analogy
• Shows decline in late adulthood
Crystallized intelligence – Based on the accumulation of
information, skills, and strategies learned through experience
• Remains steady and in some cases improves
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-58
Source: Adapted from Schaie, 2005a.
Figure 2: Age-Related Changes in
Intellectual Skills Vary
Access the text alternative for these images
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-59
Cognitive Changes: Thinking About – and
During – Late Adulthood (1)
Memory changes in late adulthood: Are older adults forgetful?
• Senility – Severe cases of memory decline accompanied by other
cognitive difficulties
• Alzheimer’s disease: Progressive brain disorder that leads to a
gradual and irreversible decline in cognitive abilities
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-60
Cognitive Changes: Thinking About – and
During – Late Adulthood (2)
Social world of late adulthood: Old but not alone
• Disengagement theory of aging: Suggests that aging produces a
gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and
social levels
• Activity theory of aging: Suggests that successful aging is
characterized by maintaining the interests and activities of earlier
stages of life
• Life review: Process by which people examine and evaluate their
lives
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-61
Adjusting to Death
Five stages of facing impending death suggested by Elisabeth
Kübler-Ross
• Denial
• Anger
• Bargaining
• Depression
• Acceptance
Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
9-62

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

  
error: Content is protected !!